Tyrannosaurus rex couldn't run, says new research

July 18, 2017
Restoration of a walking T. rex. Credit: Wikipedia/CC BY-SA 3.0

It is a classic chase scene in modern cinematic history. The image of a rampant Tyrannosaurus rex (T. rex) chasing Jeff Goldblum as he sits injured in the back of a 4x4 vehicle in Stephen Spielberg's original film adaptation of Jurassic Park.

But could a T. rex actually move that fast, or even run at all?

New research from the University of Manchester says the sheer size and weight of T. rex means it couldn't move at high speed, as its leg-bones would have buckled under its own weight load.

The research, published by journal PeerJ, looks extensively into the gait and biomechanics of the world's most famous Dinosaur and, using the latest high performance computing technology from N8 High Performance Computing (HPC), has created a new simulation model to test its findings.

Led by Professor William Sellers from the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, the researchers have combined two separate biomechanical techniques, known as multibody dynamic analysis (MBDA) and skeletal stress analysis (SSA), into one simulation model, creating a new more accurate one.

Prof Sellers says the results demonstrate any running gaits for T. rex would probably lead to 'unacceptably high skeletal loads'. Meaning, in layman's terms, any running would simply break the dinosaur's legs. This contradicts the running speeds predicted by previous biomechanical models which can suggest anything up to 45mph.

Credit: University of Manchester

He explains: 'the running ability of T. rex and other similarly giant dinosaurs has been intensely debated amongst palaeontologist for decades. However, different studies using differing methodologies have produced a very wide range of top speed estimates and we say there is a need to develop techniques that can improve these predictions.

'Here we present a new approach that combines two separate biomechanical techniques to demonstrate that true running gaits would probably lead to unacceptably high skeletal loads in T. rex.'

The results also mean that the T. rex couldn't pursue its prey in a high-speed chase as previously thought. He added: 'Being limited to walking speeds contradicts arguments of high-speed pursuit predation for the largest bipedal dinosaurs like T. rex and demonstrates the power of Multiphysics approaches for locomotor reconstructions of extinct animals.'

Although the research focuses on the T. rex, the findings also means running at high speeds were probably highly unlikely for other large two-legged dinosaurs such as, Giganotosaurus, Mapusaurus, and Acrocanthosaurus.

Dr Sellers adds: 'Tyrannosaurus rex is one of the largest bipedal animals to have ever evolved and walked the earth. So it represents a useful model for understanding the biomechanics of other similar animals. Therefore, these finding may well translate to other long-limbed giants so but this idea should be tested alongside experimental validation work on other bipedal species.'

This isn't the first time MBDA and SSA have been used to measure the walking and running ability of dinosaurs. However, it is the first time they have been used together to literally create a more accurate picture.

r Sellers explains: 'Our previous simulations of theropod bipedal running did not directly consider the skeletal loading but these new simulations do calculate all the forces in the limb bones and these can be used directly to estimate the bone loading on impact.'

The fact that T. rex was restricted to walking also supports arguments of a less athletic lifestyle. This means the results could change the way we view the effects of how the size and shape of T. rex and other large bipedal dinosaurs alters as they grow. Previous studies have suggested the torso became longer and heavier whereas the limbs became proportionately shorter and lighter as T. rex grew. These changes would mean that the running abilities of T. rex would also change as the animal grew with adults likely to be less agile than younger individuals.

But Dr Sellers says these new findings show this probably wasn't the case and we should apply this new model even wider: 'It would be very valuable not only to investigate the gait of other species, but also apply our multiphysics approach to different growth stages within that species.'

Explore further: Six-tonne T. rex quicker than Becks, say scientists

More information: William I. Sellers et al. Investigating the running abilities of Tyrannosaurus rex using stress-constrained multibody dynamic analysis, PeerJ (2017). DOI: 10.7717/peerj.3420

Related Stories

Six-tonne T. rex quicker than Becks, say scientists

August 22, 2007

T. rex may have struggled to chase down speeding vehicles as the movie Jurassic Park would have us believe but the world’s most fearsome carnivore was certainly no slouch, research out today suggests.

What quails can teach us about the gait of dinosaurs

December 9, 2014

Motion scientists and zoologists of Jena University (Germany) study out the gait of birds. In the Proceedings of the Royal Society B the team published the first detailed analysis of the bipedal gait of quails. The scientists ...

Recommended for you

Plague likely a Stone Age arrival to central Europe

November 22, 2017

A team of researchers led by scientists at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History has sequenced the first six European genomes of the plague-causing bacterium Yersinia pestis dating from the Late Neolithic ...

How to cut your lawn for grasshoppers

November 22, 2017

Picture a grasshopper landing randomly on a lawn of fixed area. If it then jumps a certain distance in a random direction, what shape should the lawn be to maximise the chance that the grasshopper stays on the lawn after ...

Ancient barley took high road to China

November 21, 2017

First domesticated 10,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East, wheat and barley took vastly different routes to China, with barley switching from a winter to both a winter and summer crop during a thousand-year ...

53 comments

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

Shakescene21
3.7 / 5 (3) Jul 18, 2017
If this research holds up, it will support the view that T. Rex was a less of a hunter and more of a kill-stealer from other predators. The T.Rex dimensions would make it clumsy at chasing down and killing dinosaurs, but perfect at stealing and defending a dead dinosaur. (Such as: Imposing height, massive head and teeth, powerful tail to cover its rear.)

The massive teeth of T. Rex were especially valuable for a scavenger, as they could crush large leg bones to get at the marrow inside. And they could tear through the the tough skin and armor of dead dinosaurs to get at the flesh underneath.
Thylacine
3.7 / 5 (3) Jul 18, 2017
This research will not hold up. This is just the old T-Rex was a carrion eater and could not have hunted because........

There are very few dedicated scavengers for a reason. There is not enough free meat laying around.

Hyena's, the closest thing to what the author is trying to describe are very active hunters who run very fast.

T -Rex ran fast enough to catch it's prey. Hadrosaurs and ceratopsians.
Nik_2213
5 / 5 (4) Jul 18, 2017
Elephants cannot run, but they can walk faster than most people can run...
baudrunner
2.6 / 5 (5) Jul 18, 2017
Elephants can walk hurriedly. That's a kind of running.

I don't think the research is adequate. T-Rex evolved those big strong legs for a reason, and I think that they ran with great strides and literally leapt on their prey. Judging from the artist's depiction, there is the assumption that the beast had feathers, but it appears that the jury is out on just how certain this was, so the same must go for their mobility. Many dinosaurs evolved into birds, and leaping from a running start is the precursor behavior to ultimately developing flight capabilities.
TachyonGod
not rated yet Jul 18, 2017
Where is the hip flexion? The simulation show completely rigid hips during motion. I don't think this is right!
Shakescene21
3 / 5 (2) Jul 18, 2017
@baudrunner: T.Rex evolved those two big strong legs because it became bipedal instead of four-legged. I doubt that it became bi-pedal because that was faster. It's more likely that it became bipedal so that it could appear taller and bigger and terrify other predators away from their kills.

Also, if T Rex chased its prey and then leaped on them, then it should have had long and strong arms instead of short and weak arms. A more plausible explanation for those puny T.Rex arms is that they were used mostly to pick edible parts out of dead dinosaurs after T Rex tore the animals apart with their teeth.
omegatalon
5 / 5 (3) Jul 18, 2017
We simply don't really know.. as theories have changed about T-Rex as it was once said that T-Rex was a solitary animal then came the theory that T-Rex hunted in a pack which would mean you don't really need to be running at a human especially if you had the brain power to herd your prey for an ambush as a faster animal would have difficulty getting away from 4-5 T-Rex.
brodix
1 / 5 (6) Jul 18, 2017
How much debris has fallen to earth over the last 65 million years and how much has the earth's spin slowed? Probably not much, but even a bit would have changed the force level of gravity.
Kalopin
1 / 5 (6) Jul 19, 2017
Why did the elder dryas grow so much larger than the younger dryas? ,and there is only a layer of iridium, platinum, vitrification,...between?

Why did they recently find dino bones with skin and feathers intact in China? ,and the recent finds in Canada? , and why were red blood cells found in many bones, over twenty-five years ago?

Why is there an entire city buried beneath limestone, melt rock on the Yucatan, above what is known to be Chicxulub "crater"? ...is this the same limestone to form the Ozarks? ...and was it ejected from beneath the Mediterranean?, along with the ejecta blanket, which reached temps upward of 2200*C?

Would any form of life be able to exist beneath the YDB strewn field, which covered a good portion of over four continents?

Why does every single mountainous anomaly have the same westerly projection, all emanating out from the Mediterranean?

Why do all the megalithic structures end abruptly and much smaller stones become the norm?
Chris_Reeve
1 / 5 (2) Jul 19, 2017
The dinosaur weight problem is not just a problem with the T-Rex. Dino theorists have been busy explaining away these weight problems in a piecemeal fashion, but it seems that nobody is even keeping track of all of these dino weight issues ...

The Problematic Weight of the Dinosaurs
https://plus.goog...eE4pV2AP
Kalopin
1.5 / 5 (8) Jul 19, 2017
Why are dino bones more porous? ...was there less gravity during the Pleistocene?
Why are dino bones radiated? ...could it be from the heat of the YDB ejecta blanket?
Why was the north American continent so devoid of life [horses?, pigs?,...]?
Why was it considered to be "the new world"?
Why does every single tectonic interaction reverberate out from the Mediterranean?
What forced the Indian plate into Eurasia?
Why do so many mountains line up between the Americas &Africa, Europe?
Why is the scraping and scarring across the Atlantic still so clearly visible if it drifted over millions of years?
Why did all the megafauna and megaflora disappear at this same moment, at the YDB?
Why are there so many historical accounts of people living much longer and growing much bigger?
Why is there so much obvious misunderstood technology, in everyone's face?
Kalopin
1 / 5 (5) Jul 19, 2017
Did the Moon impact this planet 13kya at the YDB?
mrbeardy13
4 / 5 (4) Jul 19, 2017
@Kalopin

I think you have a lot more of your own research to do before asking so many random questions.
Kalopin
1 / 5 (6) Jul 19, 2017
...why? do you have the answers?
[...pyramids?]
...could it be that, when the Moon impacted 13kya, it slowed the lithosphere, outer plates and mantle further, in relation to the faster spinning, crystalized inner core?, would this have increased electromagnetism, gravity and the length of the day?, also increasing ground-level radiation?
...would this have made it impossible for the megafauna to exist? ...having developed genetic coding in lesser gravity?

...is the Moon the crystalized iron, inner core of a once habitable planet?
...has it impacted this planet on a somewhat regular basis?
would a planetary imbalance produce excessive wobble on axis, allowing such an event?
[I don't know? ...am I about researched out?]
I guess my biggest "random question" would be- how would one go about presenting such disruptive information in a positive enough manner? ...if you know the answers, can you all help correct some misunderstood science and lost history?
antialias_physorg
4.4 / 5 (7) Jul 19, 2017
Wow...Kalopin has set a new bar for the level of crazy on this site. I thought it wasn't possible, but...woha...you seriously need to take some meds before posting, dude.
mrbeardy13
5 / 5 (2) Jul 19, 2017

I guess my biggest "random question" would be- how would one go about presenting such disruptive information in a positive enough manner?


How about presenting some evidence?
krundoloss
5 / 5 (3) Jul 19, 2017
Some, um, interesting comments here, LOL. I do think that logically, the advantages of the T-Rex being large and Bipedal would be well suited to stealing and scavenging other predatory kills. It could probably run, at some decent speed, but it would be kind of like an elephant, I would imagine.
Kalopin
1 / 5 (4) Jul 19, 2017
...would the "level of crazy" be- what is currently being taught?
...do you believe bones can last sixty-five million years?
...where are the 60myo, 50, 40, 30, 20, 10, 9,....4, 3,2,1,...?[is the human race this gullible?]
Do you know about all the pyramids and temples buried worldwide?
Have you ever seen a man-made volcano?
Do you all understand how electricity is generated?
Are the pyramids full of dissimilar rock?

Do you yet understand that many highly advanced civilizations were wiped out 13kya?
Do you yet understand that dinosaurs existed in the Pleistocene?
How much did you all pay to learn the nonsense you all were taught?
Would you like the curriculum to be accurate?
Do you really care about getting science and history right?

Can you all take a moment, go through these findings, determine its accuracy, and have your professors meet me here for a little debate? ;-]

Kalopin
1 / 5 (3) Jul 19, 2017
https://www.linke...lished=t

https://www.linke...ony-hood

Will you go over every detail, discussion, link,...? will you review these findings? How much do you enjoy learning? Would you like to find the truths behind the myths?
...is this what had actually occurred?
Captain Stumpy
4.4 / 5 (7) Jul 19, 2017
@kalopin pseudoscience delusions
have your professors meet me here for a little debate?
professors do not have the ability to debate with insanity - for that you require psychiatrists and medication

before you can "debate" an issue you must first establish the rules of the debate
this means you will have to be at least semi-literate in the scientific method and at the very least be able to apply this in a rudimentary explainable method to your mythos research

there is no hope for debating, sharing or learning facts when you can't recognize reality and how it applies to you, so why would anyone "debate" with the crazies?
Kalopin
1 / 5 (3) Jul 19, 2017
...ha!, you believe that what you have learned is accurate? ...maybe it is me that is trying to "debate with insanity?

...is this presented totally in the form of a question?

...have you even attempted to answer one?, can you?

...are the dino bones being found 65myo, or are they 13kyo?

[Hey Cap Stump!...howya'been? ...did ya; figure this out yet?
didya' show anyone else the truth?
Why don't you go out and help promote the facts? ...expand the audience? cainotophobia much? ;-]]]]]]]
Dingbone
Jul 19, 2017
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
Kalopin
1 / 5 (4) Jul 19, 2017
[...wouldn't this "chicken" be more closely related to the crocodile?]
...if dinos existed during the Pleistocene, and there was less gravity during this era, wouldn't T-Rex be able to run just fine?

...are any of you here able to add this all up?
...are you able to determine the percentage of possibility?
...have you compared the evidence?
...do you believe uranium decays at the same rate in every environment?
...could they have dated the minerals collected on the bones coming from the Maria on the Moon?

So, What is the evidence for the dinos being 65myo? ...and why did they make the [stupid] attempt to claim some bones are 260myo?
...is it because the "evolutionists" will do anything, even cheat, to disprove the "creationists"? ...who happen to both be very wrong?
Which is worse, a religion teaching a belief?, or some wannabe scientist, who has a belief based on conjecture and is teaching it as if it is fact?
Why would one force innocent minds to be subjected to lies?
Kalopin
1 / 5 (4) Jul 19, 2017
...could it be?- that this planet, and the life on it, is currently recovering from an extreme period of devolution?...
:-]
mrbeardy13
5 / 5 (3) Jul 19, 2017

...have you even attempted to answer one?, can you?

Whats the point? Would you honestly accept any contradictory evidence to what you currently believe?
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.2 / 5 (5) Jul 19, 2017
Elephants do indeed run.
https://www.youtu...zlUQDGmc

"Despite their cumbersome appearance, elephants can run. And, researchers have found, they break into that run at surprisingly slow speeds.

"In the past, scientists doubted whether elephants could be said to run at all — after all, they always keep at least one foot on the ground. However, the modern definition of running doesn't require an 'aerial phase', says Bill Sellers, a biomechanics expert at the University of Manchester, UK. "More and more scientists think that being airborne isn't necessary, and looking at locomotion in terms of energy transfer provides a more useful definition of running.""

-Youll notice in the vid I posted that their gait is a whole-body thing, with head rising to counter each stride and relieve stress on limbs. The t-rex vid doesnt show this but I suspect that it was also the case.
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.3 / 5 (6) Jul 19, 2017
I don't know? ...am I about researched out?
Stoner troll posts stream-of-ignorance faster than his little fingers can type. Sounds cool - Im sure they are impressed typetypetype fapfap typetype fapfapfap sploosh snack and a nap
Zzzzzzzz
5 / 5 (3) Jul 19, 2017
Why doesn't Kalopin shut his/her puke hole?
Kalopin
1 / 5 (2) Jul 19, 2017
...do you all wish me to leave you within your delusion?
ok. ...before I go, could you tell your moderators to stop spamming my comments on facebook? ...and, I don't know, go through and study all the facts and the truth about our science and history? ...so maybe the common-class, as yourselves will have a better understanding of reality? ...but, if there happens to be someone that wants to be an actual scientist, maybe you can also go through these findings and come to your own conclusion?

...because, maybe the evidence will all speak for itself? ...maybe this is all written in the geography of this planet? ...maybe it is within the historical accounts? ...maybe all the perfectly round boulders found globally, in the exact places expected, that follow the YDB strewn field? ...did you believe they were concretions? ...or man-made? [volcanic?] really? ...perfectly round boulders, filled with quartz? ...wouldn't it take an impact to produce perfect spherules?...
Kalopin
1 / 5 (2) Jul 19, 2017
...maybe take a closer look?
"individuals are entitled to beliefs, scientists are obligated to determine the percentage of possibility"
bobbysius
5 / 5 (3) Jul 19, 2017
are we typing on a keyboard?..Is it a keyboard?... Do we really know what makes it a keyboard? Are you willing to read all the relevant literature on keyboard design? and what does it mean to type? or to post? or to comment? volcanic magnetism affects spatial dimensions, time is an oblate spheroid, profound nothingness
gculpex
not rated yet Jul 19, 2017
Is everything you sense real? Or just thinking you do?
Captain Stumpy
4 / 5 (4) Jul 19, 2017
Why doesn't Kalopin shut his/her puke hole?
@Zzzzzzzz
a delusional Dissociative Identity Disorder who is also a pathological liar is under a compulsion to continue, almost like an OCD patient

in their eyes, they're the only ones who can see the truth, so they feel compulsion to share this information simply because they incorrectly ASSume they're providing relevant and or provable data that others want to hear

(no, it doesn't matter if you say you don't want to hear it, nor does it matter if you prove it wrong - this is demonstrated by rc and a few others on PO as well)

lets just be happy that this nut-job is not able to visit anyone in person

violence is probable when you demonstrate their worldview is wrong, especially if this is in person
RealityCheck
1 / 5 (3) Jul 20, 2017
@Captain Stumpy.
(no, it doesn't matter if you say you don't want to hear it, nor does it matter if you prove it wrong - this is demonstrated by rc and a few others on PO as well)
Trying to sneak in your lies about me again, CS? Mate, why drag in my name (RC) as lower case (rc)? Could it be you KNOW 'deep down' that you are being sneaky and dishonest about me and try to 'hide' the evidence of that in a clutter-post? Please get real, CS; and realize that I am being increasingly confirmed correct all along on many fronts by recent/new mainstream discovery/reviews. Your old animosities/feuds etc against me are based on your own misunderstandings. That's not my problem, but yours. Try to catch up and get real, mate. Please stop doing this sort of thing, CS. Thanks. :)
Captain Stumpy
3 / 5 (2) Jul 20, 2017
@idiot chronic lying pseudoscience troll sam
lies about me
1- it aint lies if it's proven
because
2- you yourself validated that fact here: https://phys.org/...ure.html

if you could prove anything was a lie, you would have linked it here
but the only thing you can do is complain, whine, cry, or make false claims (AKA- lies)

it doesn't matter how many times you appeal to the "forum"... if you can't substantiate your claim with evidence then its nothing more than your belief

feel free to continue your charade of appeal to the public without evidence
until you can provide the requisite evidence it's just crybaby whinging about pseudoscience bullsh*t due to your mental illness

up your meds and join reality
we have dark chocolate
RealityCheck
1 / 5 (3) Jul 20, 2017
@Captain Stumpy.
@idiot chronic lying pseudoscience troll sam
lies about me
1- it aint lies if it's proven
because
2- you yourself validated that fact here: https://phys.org/...ure.html
The operative flaw in your whole gambit can be seen in your conditional basis for your lies...
1- it aint lies if it's proven
...so, do tell the @Forum how you, who boasted (for years!) that you ignored, didn't read, flatly denied and/or posted half-truths according to your ill-informed 'version of reality' which betrayed all objective/fairness principles of scientific and humanity ethics, went about "proving" anything, Stumpy. :)

Just posting links and falsely claiming things which didn't happen therein (especially since you obviously didn't understand the subject matter), is not "proving" anything,

For years you've been hoist by your own petards, Stumpy. Get real. I've been correct all along, and you/gang not, CS. :)
Shakescene21
not rated yet Jul 21, 2017
This discussion thread has gone way off topic.
But, regarding T.Rex, I'm now inclined to think that this beast was both a direct predator and a kill-stealer. It was probably an opportunist that prowled for vulnerable prey or for the kills of smaller predators. It might have served a unique scavenger role if it could tear away the armor and thick skin of dead triceratops and anklyosaurs to expose the meat beneath.
The authors mention that their techniques should be applied to Tyranosaurs of different ages. This could be very interesting -- I wonder if smaller T.Rexes were faster and more predatory, but as they grew older and larger and heavier they tended toward prey-stealing.
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (1) Jul 21, 2017
But, regarding T.Rex, I'm now inclined to think that this beast was both a direct predator and a kill-stealer. It was probably an opportunist that prowled for vulnerable prey or for the kills of smaller predators
@shakescene21
that would be a similar niche as the bald eagle
The authors mention that their techniques should be applied to Tyranosaurs of different ages
considering the kleptoparasitism as well as predatory behaviour of the bald eagle, they should also consider location, time of year and availability of food sources

.

.

@Captain Stumpy.
@idiot chronic lying pseudoscience troll sam
as of July 21, 2017, @10:12 pm, that's 6,944 posts with no evidence

not a "conditional basis" - it's a proven fact that anyone can validate

LMFAO
RealityCheck
1 / 5 (2) Jul 21, 2017
@Captain Stumpy.
@idiot chronic lying pseudoscience troll sam
as of July 21, 2017, @10:12 pm, that's 6,944 posts with no evidence

not a "conditional basis" -
CS, your personal vendettas, lies and claims about what doesn't exist ring hollow. Save it for your bot-voter troll gang meetings, mate. :)

I already pointed out that mainstream is increasingly confirming me correct on many fronts, so your years long personal vendetta claiming all sorts of things about me and my posts is way lame now.

The most recent example of mainstream now confirming my past comments correct...

https://phys.org/...html#jCp

...which agrees with my longstanding observations made to Good Elf, others; the last time being back in September 2016:

https://phys.org/...rse.html

So, CS, if you are not-ignoring/denying again, go check it out; and realize I have been correct all along; you/gang not. :)
RealityCheck
1 / 5 (2) Jul 21, 2017
PS @Stumpy.

So, please drop your personal vendettas/bot-voting agendas; just concentrate on polite/fair/objective science discussion. Thanks. :)
SlartiBartfast
5 / 5 (1) Jul 22, 2017
@Kalopin,
I'm not saying it was aliens...

...but it was aliens.
IgnusGlobus
not rated yet Jul 23, 2017
It didn't have to run. Some of the herbivorous dinosaurs were even larger, so it could just waddle at its relative higher speed to get its lunch.
argzzz
not rated yet Jul 23, 2017
Research many years ago (maybe ten years ago? can't remember) showed that if T. Rex was running upright at even half of it's presumed speed tripped, then it will bash it's skull. The gravitational constant is 9.8 meters per second square, which means that it's head will hit the ground at such a high speed that it will be dead. And having such short arms unable to break a fall, it will surely be dead. This new research supports the previous thesis, that the feared T. Rex was actually not a hunter, but a scavenger.
Kalopin
1 / 5 (1) Jul 24, 2017
...is anyone not able to understand that their bodies were designed this way because they developed genetic coding in lesser gravity?
...The Annunaki came from Orion's belt... after the cataclysm, ending the Pleistocene, the ones that stayed received distortions in genetics, from the much greater gravity [descending foreheads, lowering jawbones, hunchbacks,...]...becoming the Neanderthal and Clovis cultures, then Vikings, then Mississippians, then Chickasaw, then they were almost all wiped out, leaving only sporadic examples of Pleistocene genetics...
...The Olmecs came from Sirius star system and are ancestors of the Dogon, Africans,...
...in fact each race originates from a different solar system, with a different type star [strength, hue,...] that will develop certain genetic coding to accommodate... and that every habitable world contains a variety of universal life... [mostly from microbes on comets...]
wheelerz
not rated yet Jul 24, 2017
There is a complete lack of flexion in that model. Not just in the hip, as previously mentioned, but throughout the body and spine from head and neck to tail. There is a reason animals have vertebrae and not just one long spinal bone. A T-Rex would break its back on its first misstep if it moved like that. Not having done the math, I'd bet common chickens would also break their legs if they ran like that.
If what is shown in the video is the model they used to evaluate the leg forces I don't know that they've contributed much to science.
BubbaNicholson
1 / 5 (1) Jul 24, 2017
The planet was smaller back then, gravity was less. That's why dinosaurs could get so big. Twits.
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (1) Jul 25, 2017
@idiot chronic lying pseudoscience troll rc sam fodera
go check it out; and realize I have been correct all along; you/gang not
so then why did you finally admit that you're a liar and you have no evidence to give supporting your claims here: https://phys.org/...ure.html

https://phys.org/...h_1.html

if you are correct, you would be able to link your own comments with evidence at the very least
or you could link to the specific information proving you correct

but instead, like bubba the fraud, you make claims that you think no one will research and hope no one learns the truth

but then again, you're already a fraud with a record - what's another crime to you?

FOAD

.

@bubba the lying fraud
The planet was smaller back then
where is your evidence?
or is this another "because you say so" claims like all your medicinal advice with psychotropics?
FOAD
RealityCheck
1 / 5 (2) Jul 25, 2017
@Forum.
@idiot chronic lying pseudoscience troll rc sam fodera
go check it out; and realize I have been correct all along; you/gang not
so then why did you finally admit that you're a liar and you have no evidence to give supporting your claims here: https://phys.org/...ure.html
if you are correct, you would be able to link your own comments with evidence at the very least
or you could link to the specific information proving you correct
but instead, like bubba the fraud, you make claims that you think no one will research and hope no one learns the truth
but then again, you're already a fraud with a record - what's another crime to you? FOAD
See that, folks? I post links for CS that show mainstream now confirms my longstanding observations re gravitational-anomaly related symmetry-breaking. And how does CS respond? Yep! More lies. twisting, insulting irrelevances, in denial of the fact I was correct! Pitiable.
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (1) Jul 26, 2017
I post links for CS that show mainstream now confirms my longstanding observations
@forum
see that?
this is called a distraction from the point as well as red herring and strawman

the point isn't about his "gravitational-anomaly related symmetry-breaking"[sic]
the point is that science, and discourse, requires evidence to validate a claim

this is easily misunderstood by the pseudoscience advocate, conspiracy theorist and delusional fanatical religious

you can see that the point is repeated in every post to said lying POS pseudoscience fanatic sam fodera (rc) above

it hasn't changed, and it's been validated by sam in the above links
this isn't debatable, nor is it falsifiable through misinterpretation
this is demonstrated and validated and there are 7,0003 posts that repeatedly validate the claim
and anyone can check that for themselves via his profile and archived data

that is how science works
Kalopin
1 / 5 (1) Jul 26, 2017
@capstump
...you and your constituents have no concept of reality or the proper way to investigate...
...you have no answer for why the plants and animals suddenly stopped growing so big and living so long...
...you believe bones can last millions of years, with no examples between...
...you can not explain the many cities buried, especially those beneath limestone...
So you say- "science, and discourse, requires evidence to validate a claim"? Though I cannot speak for RC, I can tell you I have presented plenty evidence, that you just ignore, and mainstream has nothing! No reason that the younger dryas, all of a sudden, on the other side of an iridium layer, grow much smaller than the elder dryas...
There must be some mechanism. surely you understand this? so, what was it?
...once you study the accounts enough, you will notice the story has been told...
...once you study the artifacts, buildings,... there's no doubt as to the sophistication...
...once open your mind...
RealityCheck
1 / 5 (2) Jul 26, 2017
@Captain Stumpy.
..this is called a distraction from the point as well as red herring and strawman
the point isn't about his "gravitational-anomaly related symmetry-breaking"
the point is that science, and discourse, requires evidence to validate a claim
...
you can see that the point is repeated in every post to said lying POS pseudoscience fanatic sam fodera (rc) above
it hasn't changed, and it's been validated by sam in the above links
this isn't debatable, nor is it falsifiable through misinterpretation
this is demonstrated and validated and there are 7,0003 posts that repeatedly validate the claim

and anyone can check that for themselves via his profile and archived data
that is how science works
*sigh*

You're evading again, CS. The point is the LINK REFUTES YOUR LIE that I'm "lying", when I am not. Hence my post pointing out to @Forum...
I post links for CS that show mainstream now confirms my longstanding observations
...and YOU evaded/lied again, CS.
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (1) Jul 27, 2017
@idiot chronic lying pseudoscience troll with a police record rc
The point is the LINK REFUTES YOUR LIE
1- your link refutes nothing

2- my links and references repeatedly prove you're a liar and fraud

3- i will type this slow because i know you're illiterate:
the most important thing i note in my link is the simple fact that when pressed for evidence, you evade the issue and simple make claims that it must be true because you state it is so

nowhere on PO at all have you ever produced evidence substantiating your 4 fatal flaws claim
otherwise you could at least link to it or provide a quote that would allow google to search for it to pinpoint it's thread

what you provided is: nada
Nothing
zero
zip
zilch

so i repeat: this is your own validation in your own words that you're a liar and fraud and cannot substantiate your claims when asked

it really is that simple

by all means, keep repeating your same lie because it just makes you look worse
RealityCheck
1 / 5 (2) Jul 27, 2017
@Captain Stumpy.

Please can you stop cluttering and lying, mate?

Meanwhile go read (link below) yet another (of the many recent) mainstream discovery/reviews which confirm what I've been observing (for years now your benefit) has been correct all along on the science:

https://phys.org/...html#jCp

See? I HAVE been posting correct known/novel/evolving science insights; and I HAVE been linking as you demanded. So NOW will you finally admit you've been ignoring/denying while I have been correct all along? Or are you just going to persist to your dying day with your CS-gang 'method' of ignoring, denying, insulting and otherwise being an INTERNET ASS.

Surely enough is enough, CS; I mean, even the poisonous 'paddoboy' troll recently gone from Sciforums saw the writing on the wall as his 'friends' deserted him one by one and told him his poisonous campaign of lies and insults was too much to bear on a supposed science discourse site.

Rethink. Get real, CS. :)

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.