Sociologist identifies science-oriented religious group in US politics

September 13, 2016 by Sarah Vickery
UWM sociologist Timothy O’Brien has been studying the intersection of science and religion in U.S. politics. Credit: UWM Photo/Elora Hennessey

Science and religion have been butting heads since the days of Copernicus and Galileo, and it seems especially true in American politics. The conservative right tends to be more religious, while the liberal left tends to embrace science.

However, said University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee sociologist Timothy O'Brien, there's a third group out there – a portion of the American population that is both religious and scientifically literate. He explores the "post-seculars," as he has dubbed them, in his recent paper "A Nation Divided: Science, Religion, and Public Opinion in the United States," published in Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World.

"We were looking at the assumption that science and religion are conflicting sources of knowledge," O'Brien said. "There is this assumption in the popular imagination that if you're scientifically oriented you can't be religious, and if you're religious you can't be scientifically oriented. What was found was that it is true to some extent. We found three big groups of Americans based on their attitudes about science, their knowledge about science, and their attitudes about religion."

O'Brien and coauthor Shiri Noy of the University of Wyoming, Laramie, looked at publicly available survey data and sorted respondents into three categories: The "moderns," those most familiar with and favorable toward science; the "traditionals," the most religiously devout and the least familiar with science; and the post-seculars, whose worldviews blend elements of both science and religion.

The next step was examining how each group approached that weren't directly related to science or religion.

"If we look at the modern group and the traditional group and their political and social attitudes, they differ in virtually every domain of human society," O'Brien said. "When it comes to criminal justice, they are different. When it comes to families, they are different. When it comes to civil liberties, race relations, sexuality, we see a big schism between these traditionalists and the moderns. As you might expect, moderns tend to hold more liberal or progressive opinions and traditionalists tend to be more conservative or orthodox."

The wild card is the post-secular group. Embracing both science-oriented and religiously inclined views led them to have unique attitudes toward social issues. They are more conservative when it comes to gender and sexuality but lean progressive when it comes to social justice, and education.

"Basically what we have found is that scientific Americans aren't necessarily liberal. … We also find that religious Americans aren't necessarily conservative; they are progressive in some domains as well," O'Brien explained. "The overall finding is that people's attitudes about science and religion really map onto their socio-political in a more diverse set of ways than I think people usually acknowledge."

That's important because moderns and traditionals make up 70 to 80 percent of the American population, and they vote predictably. It's the post-seculars who have disproportionate sway in American political elections. They tend to vote Republican, but with this year's unorthodox election, it's anybody's guess.

"I think that both science and religion are inherently political," O'Brien said. "I think political scientists and sociologists recognize that you can't seal these institutions off from one another, so it's hard to talk about the scientific implications or the religious implications of this absent of the political implications."

That's true of American politics, but it might not be the case in different political systems, especially in predominately religious societies or governments with more than two major political parties. O'Brien's next steps will be to examine how and interplay in foreign societies.

Explore further: Many religious people view science favorably, but reject certain scientific theories

More information: A Nation Divided: Science, Religion, and Public Opinion in the United States: srd.sagepub.com/content/2/2378 … 651876.full.pdf+html

Related Stories

Recommended for you

The mathematics of golf

August 16, 2017

(Phys.org)—The official Rules of Golf, which are continually being revised and updated as new equipment emerges, have close ties to mathematics. In many cases, math is used to place limitations on golf equipment, such as ...

Study identifies dinosaur 'missing link'

August 15, 2017

A bizarre dinosaur which looked like a raptor but was in fact a vegetarian may be the 'missing link' between plant-eating dinosaurs and theropods, the group that includes carnivores such as Tyrannosaurus rex and Velociraptor.

Unique imaging of a dinosaur's skull tells evolutionary tale

August 15, 2017

Researchers using Los Alamos' unique neutron-imaging and high-energy X-ray capabilities have exposed the inner structures of the fossil skull of a 74-million-year-old tyrannosauroid dinosaur nicknamed the Bisti Beast in the ...

1 comment

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

StudentofSpiritualTeaching
not rated yet Sep 17, 2016
Here a different suggestion for his next research efforts: you are missing out on a different category of leading edge modern humans, that is those demanding realism, logic and rationality, the way scientists uphold it as core principle. With that specific group at the same time curious and constantly on the outlook for finding scientific answers to the still unchartered vast territory of our non-physical part of reality. This not in a silly religious fashion, that is based on you-must-believe-this-even-if-it-is-full-of-contradictions-with-basic-laws-of-nature. People not obeying to dogmas and letting other people on their behalf think through the puzzle pieces of our world. People that sense that there are higher values, that there is a deeper reason for ethics and the evolution unfolding around us in this universe. Call them post-religious ethical/philanthropic scientists, if you like.

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.