Copper is key in burning fat: Scientist says results could provide new target for obesity research

June 6, 2016, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Chris Chang and graduate student Sumin Lee carry out experiments to find proteins that bind to copper and potentially influence the storage and burning of fat. Credit: Peg Skorpinski/UC Berkeley

A new study is further burnishing copper's reputation as an essential nutrient for human physiology. A research team led by a scientist at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and at the University of California, Berkeley, has found that copper plays a key role in metabolizing fat.

Long prized as a malleable, conductive metal used in cookware, electronics, jewelry and plumbing, has been gaining increasing attention over the past decade for its role in certain biological functions. It has been known that copper is needed to form red blood cells, absorb iron, develop connective tissue and support the immune system.

The new findings, to appear in the July print issue of Nature Chemical Biology but published online today, establishes for the first time copper's role in .

The team of researchers was led by Chris Chang, a faculty scientist at Berkeley Lab's Chemical Sciences Division, a UC Berkeley professor of chemistry and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. Co-lead authors of the study are Lakshmi Krishnamoorthy and Joseph Cotruvo Jr, both UC Berkeley postdoctoral researchers in chemistry with affiliations at Berkeley Lab.

"We find that copper is essential for breaking down fat cells so that they can be used for energy," said Chang. "It acts as a regulator. The more copper there is, the more the fat is broken down. We think it would be worthwhile to study whether a deficiency in this nutrient could be linked to obesity and obesity-related diseases."

Dietary copper

Chang said that copper could potentially play a role in restoring a natural way to burn fat. The nutrient is plentiful in foods such as oysters and other shellfish, leafy greens, mushrooms, seeds, nuts and beans.

According to the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, an adult's estimated average dietary requirement for copper is about 700 micrograms per day. The Food and Nutrition Board also found that only 25 percent of the U.S. population gets enough copper daily.

"Copper is not something the body can make, so we need to get it through our diet," said Chang. "The typical American diet, however, doesn't include many green leafy vegetables. Asian diets, for example, have more foods rich in copper."

But Chang cautions against ingesting copper supplements as a result of these study results. Too much copper can lead to imbalances with other essential minerals, including zinc.

Copper as a 'brake on a brake'

The researchers made the copper-fat link using mice with a genetic mutation that causes the accumulation of copper in the liver. Notably, these mice have larger than average deposits of fat compared with normal mice.

A fluorescent probe creates a heat map of copper in white fat cells. Higher levels of copper are shown in yellow and red. The left panel shows normal levels of copper from fat cells of control mice, and the right panel shows cells deficient in copper. Credit: Lakshmi Krishnamoorthy and Joseph Cotruvo Jr./UC Berkeley

The inherited condition, known as Wilson's disease, also occurs in humans and is potentially fatal if left untreated.

Analysis of the mice with Wilson's disease revealed that the abnormal buildup of copper was accompanied by lower than normal lipid levels in the liver compared with control groups of mice. The researchers also found that the white adipose tissue, or white fat, of the mice with Wilson's disease had lower levels of copper compared with the control mice and correspondingly higher levels of fat deposits.

They then treated the Wilson's disease mice with isoproterenol, a beta agonist known to induce lipolysis, the breakdown of fat into fatty acids, through the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway. They noted that the mice with Wilson's disease exhibited less fat-breakdown activity compared with control mice.

The results prompted the researchers to conduct cell culture analyses to clarify the mechanism by which copper influences lipolysis. The researchers used inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) equipment at Berkeley Lab to measure levels of copper in fat tissue.

They found that copper binds to phosphodiesterase 3, or PDE3, an enzyme that binds to cAMP, halting cAMP's ability to facilitate the breakdown of fat.

"When copper binds phosphodiesterase, it's like a brake on a brake," said Chang. "That's why copper has a positive correlation with lipolysis."

Hints from cows

The connection between copper and fat metabolism is not altogether surprising. The researchers actually found hints of the link in the field of animal husbandry.

"It had been noted in cattle that levels of copper in the feed would affect how fatty the meat was," said Chang. "This effect on fat deposits in animals was in the agricultural literature, but it hadn't been clear what the biochemical mechanisms were linking copper and fat."

The new work builds upon prior research from Chang's lab on the roles of copper and other metals in neuroscience. In support of President Barack Obama's BRAIN Initiative, Berkeley Lab provided Chang seed funding in 2013 through the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program. Chang's work continued through the BRAIN Tri-Institutional Partnership, an alliance with Berkeley Lab, UC Berkeley and UC San Francisco.

Of the copper in human bodies, there are particularly high concentrations found in the brain. Recent studies, including those led by Chang, have found that copper helps brain cells communicate with each other by acting as a brake when it is time for neural signals to stop.

While Chang's initial focus was on the role of copper in neural communications, he branched out to investigations of metals in metabolism and other biological pathways. This latest work was primarily funded by the National Institutes of Health.

Explore further: Copper on the brain at rest: proper copper levels essential to spontaneous neural activity

More information: Lakshmi Krishnamoorthy et al, Copper regulates cyclic-AMP-dependent lipolysis, Nature Chemical Biology (2016). DOI: 10.1038/nchembio.2098

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Mike_Massen
3 / 5 (19) Jun 06, 2016
Although interesting & great step forward, much of this known circa 2010 when I conducted a literature review for the School of Public Health & Curtin University as part of my post grad in Food Science, especially Food Chemistry unit under Prof Vijay Jayasena

Few essential links re intent/procedures for literature reviews
https://www.googl...eUuJzQCA

My "Scope of Work" was "Copper & Zinc in Food" as a Paper & power-point presentation, I can probably link to secure subfolder on my private web area if anyone asks but, technical as directed at post doc/grad audience & Prof Vijay, ie with base understanding of mettaloid enzymes helpful in relation to biochem equilibria...

Anyway, my Paper is another matter, turned out to be rather controversial as I concluded for general populace:-

"Copper is the only metal we need in our diet in far higher amounts then ever found in food"
Mike_Massen
3 / 5 (17) Jun 07, 2016
Earlier reference to Copper re brain function on phys.org here
http://phys.org/n...ing.html

The article/paper was source document 2010 re my design of supplement grade "GRAS" nootropic formulations
https://en.wikipe...ootropic

Several discovered since mid to late 1970's & some still used today by uni students to help cram for exams etc but, their origin can be generally un-natural although can be derived from natural plant based sources etc.

For last few years I've been devising a formulation that doesn't need any of the conventional organics to augment activity, has nil negative side-effects & even has application to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer/Dementia patients as well as addressing loss of IQ in diabetes patients.

Private trials continuing but, suffice to say, not seeking commercialization !

Merely alerting the audience there are a host of 300+ scientific papers relevant but, beyond articles here
kochevnik
1 / 5 (9) Jun 07, 2016
Copper plumbing is common yet obesity increases. White women with brown aroras may have copper toxicity
AlbertPierrepointOBE
2.3 / 5 (16) Jun 07, 2016
Anything to keep from telling the white powder addicts that they have a life threatening addiction.

I can't believe I saw a site talking about the normal obesity and creaking joints and falls of old age. My god, people, do you talk about the skin and lines on their face and bags around the eyes of crack addicts as being the normally shagged out look of 20-somethings???

I've seen a lot of people in my practice that eat a lot of fat and are not obese. Every obese person eats a lot of refined sugar. Add to that all the physiological effects it has in numerous processes that cause morbidity and mortality and you have the single most destructive substance that humans use, bar none.

"Tea time" in England is a good example. Tea trolleys with biscuits and no tea. It is the patriotic duty of anyone encountering that travesty to make a big fuss about it. Really loud and physical. Enough is enough.
AlbertPierrepointOBE
2.5 / 5 (16) Jun 07, 2016
kochevnik 1 /5 (1) 3 hours ago
Copper plumbing is common yet obesity increases. White women with brown aroras


I think you mean "areola". Not a prob., big is sexy. Check it out if you ever meet a woman.
Mike_Massen
3.1 / 5 (17) Jun 07, 2016
kochevnik says
Copper plumbing is common yet obesity increases
So what ?

Are you under the impression negative correlation is some sort of "proof", what hypothesis ?

What makes you think copper plumbing automatically guarantees copper is dissolved in water to an appreciable level ?

Not heard of mineralised scale then which coats the copper so it cannot dissolve in water ?

Not heard of the chemistry of Copper that all copper salts in water are blue, therefore if the water is not blue then its copper content is negligible ?

kochevnik asks
White women with brown aroras may have copper toxicity
Beg pardon you into aura's or areola, spell checker not up ?

Why *should* white women have copper toxicity, that would mean many mg each day, where does it come from ?

Opposite is the case & a serious issue for children so copper is added to baby food & an old study in US due for review showed 79% of those tested had copper below the Recommended Daily Intake !
Mike_Massen
2.7 / 5 (14) Jun 07, 2016
AlbertPierrepointOBE offers
Every obese person eats a lot of refined sugar
Indeed & its worse too in that as Fructose, the cheaper sugar with agricultural subsidy re corn & syrup extraction, tickles same brain receptor as cocaine !

Re Captain Stumpy
Fructose depletes the brain of Copper & Zinc reducing IQ, accelerating cognitive decline as people age - they misread directed inferences, can't follow lines of simple logic, can't separate emotional motivation from intellectual rigor. One neural region, interface between the amygdala & frontal lobes causes NMDA receptors to die from low copper moderator levels :/

AlbertPierrepointOBE added
Add to that all the physiological effects it has in numerous processes that cause morbidity and mortality and you have the single most destructive substance that humans use, bar none
Well said & especially so as humans never adapted to sugar rushes, we adapted to cleaving the polymer of sugars ie from Starches...

Sad :/
kochevnik
1 / 5 (10) Jun 07, 2016
Why *should* white women have copper toxicity, that would mean many mg each day, where does it come from ?
From the plumbing, I would infer. It is yet another symptom of Western disease not prevalent in Russia. Only with introduction of Western garbage food began acne and need for eyeglasses
antigoracle
1.7 / 5 (9) Jun 07, 2016
Not heard of the chemistry of Copper that all copper salts in water are blue, therefore if the water is not blue then its copper content is negligible ?

Mutterin' Mike, Wikipedia (2 links) scholar, blabbers. MM, we are told to drink at least 1 litre of water a day, so tell us, would 700 micrograms of copper turn that water blue?
Nik_2213
4 / 5 (4) Jun 07, 2016
Well, at one extreme you have the infamous case of a befuddled UK delivery driver putting water-treatment stuff into wrong tank, the drastic pH change stripping the village's water pipes' protective layer and dosing the residents with a surfeit of copper. Many became very, very ill, their dire intake estimated by measuring deposition in hair...

At the other extreme, domestic 'plumbing' is now migrating from toxic lead, via the much safer copper, to food-grade, leach-resistant plastic with push-on, solder-free fittings.

FWIW, long, long ago, I remember reading a 'Scientific American' article with a page of 'unhappy' corn leaves and their specific mineral deficiency...
Mike_Massen
2.8 / 5 (13) Jun 08, 2016
kochevnik claims
From the plumbing, I would infer
Which region, what type of water, what sort of mineralisation etc

Just because there is copper plumbing doesn't automatically mean there is enough copper in the water for humans to ingest enough for there to be any toxicity.

What measurement method has been used to assess whether the women were at any particular toxic level, over what period of time, di any of them have recessive or dominant gene for Wilson's disease etc ?

kochevnik says
It is yet another symptom of Western disease not prevalent in Russia
You mean sugar or are you implying there's no copper plumbing in Russia or that if there is there's no dissolved copper salts etc ie Need to cover a whole host of variables.

kochevnik claims
.. introduction of Western garbage food began acne and need for eyeglasses
Evidence ?

Acne has been around for far longer than Western food & copper has been a treatment for it, Eye glass issue structural.
Mike_Massen
2.8 / 5 (13) Jun 08, 2016
Nik_2213 says
with a surfeit of copper. Many became very, very ill, their dire intake estimated by measuring deposition in hair
As copper tends to accumulate in fociles then its not reliable, mostly qualitative. You need blood tests & or biopsies. Step change high copper intake results in emesis, so yes its possible but what of chemicals other than copper as cause of illness.

Good thing about copper, except re Wilson's disease, humans have a very high tolerance & at wide range too. Take away the (high) source & body adept & flushing excess back towards homeostatic level within few days,

Nik_2213 says
..Scientific American' article with a page of 'unhappy' corn leaves and their specific mineral deficiency.
If deficiency then unlikely copper as most non-african & some non asian plants sensitive to copper phytotoxicity, if toxicity then possibly copper, lots of organic possibilities too such as fungi - most hate copper so light dusting useful.
kochevnik
1 / 5 (9) Jun 08, 2016
Acne has been around for far longer than Western food & copper has been a treatment for it, Eye glass issue structural.

Not in Russia. We never before have acne before MackDhanlds and eyeglasses were for professors. Then in one year acne and people develop structural eye problems form insulin rush from Western frankenfoods. The issue is not debatable as the import of Western food was clearly only allowed after legislation. Before our markets were purely domestic apart from some tourist shops. The causality is akin to nuclear bomb: not correlational

We do have copper plumbing although a surprising amount of galvanized steel runs up and down the corridors of apartment buildings. In surveying different breasts I would guess that the coloration is mostly natural. Darker nipples tend to be from White Russia or Caucasus
Mike_Massen
2.8 / 5 (13) Jun 08, 2016
kochevnik claims
Not in Russia
1. Sources of your survey data across the region is ?

kochevnik claims
..never before have acne before MackDhanlds and eyeglasses were for professors
Beg Pardon - many pictures of women & teenagers with eye glasses even in 1920's across region...

2. Do you have evidence for *any* of your wide claims ?

kochevnik claims
.. issue is not debatable as the import of Western food was clearly only allowed after legislation
No. It is subject to dialectic WITH evidence pre Western foods,

3. Besides how do you tell pre western 19th century vs pre MacDonalds before 1960's

kochevnik claims
.. causality is akin to nuclear bomb: not correlational
4. Depends on source of your evidence, how data collected, what logical steps to conclusions ?

kochevnik's interest laid bare with
..In surveying different breasts I would guess that the coloration is mostly natural
Whatever floats your boat, pfft

See 1, 2, 3 & 4 above
Mike_Massen
3 / 5 (14) Jun 08, 2016
**** *** ** *
Note of Caution for all re *any* supplements & especially if:-

a. Current health not at best level, Eg Surgery recovery, organ failure recovery etc..
b. Any hint of *any* genetic condition at all Eg Wilsons etc
c. Any kind of familial cancers !
d. You've had *any* chemotherapy or currently on cancer treatment !
e. Any other issue which may affect metabolism eg Allergies, Medicant contraindications etc

There are "Generally Recognised as Safe" (GRAS) supplements with ~ 2 to 3 mg per capsule, such as by Microgenics "Zinc formula" but, I understand Microgenics either reviewing their range or suspended their supplements re potential commercial merger in Australia - presently in limbo :/

If you were keenly interested in personally trialing any Copper/Zinc supplements then observe all cautions from suppliers

! AND !

Especially, my earnest advice is, if there is ANY sign of ANY sort of cancer AT ALL immediately consult a Doctor & list all of them

Cheers :-)
MR166
1 / 5 (5) Jun 08, 2016
High glycemic carbs AKA crappy carbs are at the root of the obesity and diabetes epidemic. Stop eating bread, pasta, potatoes, rice and corn products and watch your hunger cravings disappear. You see, given a choice your body would much rather obtain it's energy from carbs rather than fats. This leads to large changes in blood sugar levels and hunger pains. If you eat only low glycemic index carbs and fats for energy you body will soon learn to burn body fat for energy as needed and blood sugar levels will be lower and much more constant. Thus, diminished food cravings and hunger.
MR166
1 / 5 (4) Jun 08, 2016
Yup just continue to base your diet on the US governments recommended food pyramid and see how long you live! When you become grossly overweight and have had all your toes cut off due to diabetes they will blame it on your lack of will power and overeating. Whereas the real truth is that low grad carbs are hugely addictive and the government does everything in it's power to insure that you eat them. Eat animal fat and they claim that you will kill yourself all the while it is their recommended diet that is doing all of the real damage.
Ojorf
2.1 / 5 (11) Jun 09, 2016
Actually, at the root of the obesity and diabetes epidemic is too many calories and too little exercise, but mostly it's eating too much.
Mike_Massen
2.7 / 5 (12) Jun 09, 2016
@MR166 & Ojorf & those keen on Health !
In the broadest general terms I concur & trust most would view this adage "Details are important as the truth so very often hides in the details!" as pertinent

Although many details beyond article's scope, here are few keenly relevant:-

i. Meat eaters (predatory) re satiation cycles in biochem favour fasting as useful to enter ketosis occasionally as corrective metabolic aid

ii. Starches & Sugars (S&S) in nature but, like anything there doesn't automatically mean harmless, issues of dose & timing key, same paradigm as radiation of all bands & types !

iii. Food industry primarily commercial & wide of mark re long term conjunctive aspect of S&S & wide range of minerals biochemically exploited in metalloid enzyme sophistication

iv. Nutritionists traditionally view metals as mere "trace" with incomplete data re dose

v. Humans evolved in regions of volcanic mineral rich soils Eg Africa, not reflected by modern foods

Cheers
antialias_physorg
4.3 / 5 (6) Jun 09, 2016
Actually, at the root of the obesity and diabetes epidemic is too many calories and too little exercise, but mostly it's eating too much.

Well, if you take in more calories than you use then all the copper in the world isn't going to help you any.
However a copper deficiency may result in other body cells being metabolized for energy first - even if you do get enough excercise.

The purpose of fat cells is long term energy storage. So naturally they are the last to go when the body needs energy.
Mike_Massen
2.2 / 5 (10) Jun 09, 2016
antialias_physorg (AP) offers
.. take in more calories than you use then all the copper in the world isn't going to help..
Hmm, not quite re complexities due to causal interactions, an interesting additional detail re certain organic Copper (Cu) salt variants & influence on ingestion per satiation.

Cu, at minimal. levels, minus Wilson's disease, is a most effective appetite suppressant !

Therefore far less likelihood consuming excess when organ levels satisfied Eg Liver as it starts to approach (prehistoric) homeostasis.

ie. Average ingestion dose for median homeostasis ~100mcg/Kg body weight Each day => Massive by contemporary levels little as ~300mcg/day at best !

AP adds
.. Cu deficiency may result in other body cells being metabolized for energy first
Indeed, as Cu/Zinc enzymes assist fat metabolisation.

AP re fat cells
.. they are the last to go when the body needs energy
Hmm, some respects sure, detail offers helpful research imperatives ;-)
MR166
2 / 5 (4) Jun 09, 2016
Actually, at the root of the obesity and diabetes epidemic is too many calories and too little exercise, but mostly it's eating too much.


Yes that is true, but what triggers this over eating? It is mostly due to eating the wrong type of carbs. There used to be a joke in the US about eating Chinese food and an hour later you are hungry again.

On a low carb high fat diet you still get hungry but there is no urgency to eat. On a scale of 1-10 hunger pains become a 3 instead of an 8.
MR166
2 / 5 (4) Jun 09, 2016
The real problem with the US diet is processed junk foods. Sorry guys but this includes bread and pasta. Eat all the various dried legumes and vegetables you want and you will not become obese. Just exclude starchy vegetables such as potatoes, rice and corn and you will be just fine. In fact corn on the cob is most likely OK since most of us do not chew our foods enough to absorb this type of food.

Whereas, factory processed food has been has been so over prepared that every milligram of starch and sugar are available for processing into blood stream glucose.
Mike_Massen
2.2 / 5 (10) Jun 09, 2016
MR166 claims answering own question
...but what triggers this over eating? It is mostly due to eating the wrong type of carbs
Didn't you read my post & tell me how we can delineate many types of carbs ?

No mention of proteins, their proportion & inherent (partial) appetite suppression when not overwhelmed by sugars ?

MR166 claims
On a low carb high fat diet you still get hungry but there is no urgency to eat
Not quite, I don't claim to be a Nutritionist but, understand relevant Food Chemistry & notice you ignore value of proteins. Doing so, your appetite isn't moderated by satiation re key proteins you need. Consequence is (extra) fat over & above protein mass balance isnt readily absorbed, bulk passes through gut with minimal metabolisation & fat's mineral stores lost :/

NB: Good copper levels allow liver to exude useful copper enzymes via bile lubricating intestines & moderating gut pathogens -> shifting gutflora equlibria to more productive species
BongThePuffin
Jun 09, 2016
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
slash
2 / 5 (2) Jun 09, 2016
@MR166: Your demonization of all carbs is over the top, and much too generalized. E. g. corn is good, but corn flakes and popcorn are not. Sweet potatos are good, but russet potatos are bad. Pumpernickel bread is good but white bread is bad. It's not so much the type of carbs, or that it has carbs to start with, but the specific kind of food and/or kind of processing that it's gone through. See e. g. http://www.diabet...tes.html

P.S.: I just saw you actually made that very distinction - I was responding to an earlier post.
slash
2 / 5 (2) Jun 09, 2016
what triggers this over eating? It is mostly due to eating the wrong type of carbs.

That, and the fact that the Fast Food Industry adds chemicals to their products that induce addiction. it's weak, and it takes a reasonably small amount of willpower to resist it, but as long as people aren't even aware of that, they don't even try to fight their urges!

A healthy human would normally only crave the kind of food that is good for him. But all the chems in processed food plays havoc with that natural system to the effect that we instead crave unhealthy things.
antialias_physorg
4.2 / 5 (5) Jun 09, 2016
Carbs aren't good or bad. Neither is sugar. Neither is fat. You can live a healthy lifestyle and stay in trim shape while eating almost nothing but fat (just look at eskimos). Your body breaks everything down into the same basic unit (a mono sugar, because the larger chains cannot pass through your intestine walls)

Heck, you can stay in shape eating nothing but cheeseburgers if you exercise enough.
For a lark we had a bet going between me and a coworker last year. She wanted to lose some weight so I said I'd race her to lose 4kg in 40 days (not that I need to lose any - but it was a welcome excuse to hit the gym more often)
She tried with going full-on vegetarian, while I went with full-on cheeseburgers/eat-anything-you-like and exercise. Guess who won.
slash
3 / 5 (3) Jun 09, 2016
On a low carb high fat diet you still get hungry but there is no urgency to eat.

Being hungry is just a symptom of an empty stomach. That's why diets always contain stuff with high volume and low energy, e. g. muesli, legumes, or salad. (or some processed mix of chemicals flavored with more chemicals and sold at unreasonable prices as a 'natural' healthy diet. IMHO a very effective diet - for your bank account!)
slash
2.7 / 5 (3) Jun 09, 2016
Heck, you can stay in shape eating nothing but cheeseburgers if you exercise enough.

True, but the most effective diet is a mix of healthy food and exercise. OTOH, any diet that doesn't also include exercise is bound to fail: Once the body registers a lower influx of food, it will react by building up reserves, but if there isn't enough to build reserves, it will instead lower your energy consumption, to the effect that you will feel tired and get exhausted easily. Burning the energy reserves of your body (i. e. fat) only starts if you force your body to consume more energy, i. e. do exercise.
antialias_physorg
3 / 5 (4) Jun 09, 2016
True, but the most effective diet is a mix of healthy food and exercise.

Agreed. But it's probably not the most fun diet. I'd opt for a diet that works and is fun (but takes a bit longer) than the other kind, any day.
Especially since a diet is only sensible if you can keep your weight off after you've done dieting.

OTOH, any diet that doesn't also include exercise is bound to fail:

Precisely. While I was eating anything I wanted I wasn't eating *any amount* I wanted. However, to stop the body from going into 'starvation mode' I was splurging every sunday.

If you deny your body too much calories it will, otherwise, eventually increase the effectiveness with which it processes food (i.e. your reduced intake will no longer lead to a reduction in body weight)...coupled with the resulting tiredness this will lead to reduced exercise...i.e.: programmed diet failure.

*What* foods you eat is totally besides the point for a diet.
Mark Thomas
2 / 5 (6) Jun 09, 2016
Eat less, exercise more. We have heard it all before, and so did our ancestors in the 20th century. Considering the dramatic rise in obesity over the last ~75 years, the existence of some kind of recent, systemic aggravating cause does not seem unreasonable. One possibility is widespread use of antibiotics have changed our microbiomes and made us more susceptible to obesity. Bear in mind that if the bugs in our gut were simply parasites, our immune systems would be biased to wipe them out over time, so many of them were probably doing something useful. "With respect to genes, the number of microbe genes in our body outnumber our "own" genes by a factor of 100."

http://www.scient...biotics/
MR166
1 / 5 (2) Jun 09, 2016
I ask you, exactly what is so hard about avoiding high glycemic index carbs other than than the fact that they are highly addictive??????????????

They are the favorite ingredients of the big Agra and big snack business. That alone should make you suspicious!!!
MR166
1 / 5 (2) Jun 09, 2016
Just for giggles, ask the next grossly overweight person you encounter if they would be willing to give up bread, pasta and potatoes for a few weeks and see what their response is.
antialias_physorg
4 / 5 (4) Jun 09, 2016
the existence of some kind of recent, systemic aggravating cause does not seem unreasonable.

How about a LOT less bodily work and access to a LOT more food (also a lot more processed/snack food containing a lot more calories per serving)?
katesisco
1 / 5 (1) Jun 09, 2016
Copper plumbing is common yet obesity increases. White women with brown aroras may have copper toxicity

That is indeed interesting. White European, particularly Celtic, are prone to iron toxicity and when menopause arrives so does cancer.
Mark Thomas
1.6 / 5 (7) Jun 10, 2016
"How about a LOT less bodily work and access to a LOT more food (also a lot more processed/snack food containing a lot more calories per serving)?"

Those are certainly factors, but we shouldn't conclude that is the whole story. Pick a group of people that historically could have easily afforded to eat more, whose work is sedentary and who are not overly tuned into health matters, maybe lawyers or dentists or engineers. Now are these folks getting fatter on average decade after decade or not? Anecdotally, the answer is a clear yes, yes they are getting fatter. Junk food and overeating are not new inventions, so why are people today fatter than people in the same professions 10, 20, 30 and 40 years ago, who were doing basically the same things? We had junk food in the 70s and 80s, trust me on this. Heck, Cheetos were introduced in 1948, Doritos were introduced in 1964 and potato chips were invented in England in 1822.
epoxy
Jun 12, 2016
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
Mike_Massen
1 / 5 (5) Jun 26, 2016
epoxy referenced says
https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/news/story/3916/copper-identified-as-culprit-in-alzheimers-disease.aspx
I wouldn't recommend to begin with self-healing of obesity with copper (Cu)
To clarify, my earlier comment not intended as suggestion re Cu be used irrespective of side-effects - there are too many combinatorial factors, not least of which is best form for bio-availability.

Re above link 3rd para "copper pipes", generally these gain silicates/carbonates retarding Cu dissolving in water unless acidic or otherwise chemically active, in any case if there's sufficient to cause harm it would be noticeably blue as all aqueous Cu salts are blue & at above ~2mg/L depending on type, Eg Chlorophyllin is more green than blue, its molar Cu content small & useful as effective cancer prophylactic...

epoxy says
...can bring the risk of Alzheimer's..
Only in very selective A-Beta/APP transgenic mice, even then using most poisonous salt !

TBC

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