Young star V1331 Cygni unveils its violent past

April 27, 2016 by Tomasz Nowakowski, Phys.org report

Second-epoch full-field color HST WFPC2 image of V1331 Cygni, showing the arc structure. Details of the scattering nebula and the adjacent dark cloud are obvious. The straight division is seen between the lit (south) and dark (north) areas west of the star. Credit: Choudhary et al., 2016
(Phys.org)—V1331 Cygni is a young variable star that lies in the constellation Cygnus, approximately 1,800 light years away from our planet. The star is known to have a circumstellar disk surrounded by a flattened gaseous envelope that could reveal crucial information on V1331 Cygni's violent past. A recent study of the motion of these circumstellar structures shows that this star must have undergone an outburst a few thousand years ago. The results appeared in a paper published online on Apr. 15 in the arXiv journal.

V1331 Cygni has recently drawn attention of a team of researchers led by Arpita Choudhary of the Institute of Mathematical Sciences in Chennai, India. Intrigued by the presence of ring-shaped features around this young star, the scientists decided to investigate the images of V1331 Cygni obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), which could reveal possible changes in motion of these circumstellar rings. They compared the HST images taken in 2009 to archival data delivered by this telescope in order to determine the time evolution and to perform a proper motion analysis of the features.

However, as the researchers emphasized, peeking into the real nature of V1331 Cygni and its surroundings wasn't an easy task.

"The resolution obtained from Hubble played a key role to get a better insight in to the dust arc structures. However, the long exposures also caused the star to saturate, making it difficult to study the inner arc especially, because it was too close to the star and the background noise from starlight affected the inner arc profiles very badly," Choudhary told Phys.org.

The team noted that studying the complicated 3D circumstellar structures of V1331 Cygni in a 2-D plane was really challenging. This is because they did not have the access to the third dimensional information and thus had to consider only a planar case.

By investigating two different epochs of Hubble observations, separated by a time of about 10 years, the scientists were able to calculate the expansion of outer and inner dust arc structures around the star. Their analysis provided an explanation of the missing arc part, which was earlier believed to be caused by a dark cloud in the foreground, in front of the arc. According to the research, that dark cloud does not play a role in the missing arc and the gap between the outer arc and the star is real, devoid of any dense matter sitting in between.

In general, the scientists confirmed that V1331 Cygni is a post-outburst FUOR object (named after star FU Orionis)—a pre-main-sequence star that displays an extreme change in magnitude and spectral type. They determined that this star experienced an outburst a few thousand years ago.

"We found measurable expansion velocities for both outer and inner dust arcs. Our results, plus the expanding carbon monoxide torus results, suggest that the star had undergone an outburst in the past," Choudhary concluded.

The circumstellar structures around V1331 Cygni could be compared to expanding smoke rings. The smoke rings expand as they grow away from a point of origin.

Choudhary and her colleagues plan further observations of this curious young stellar object. Their aim is to conduct polarimetric imaging of this star for which an observing proposal will be submitted to Calar Alto 2 meter telescope, located in Spain.

Explore further: We are all stardust—carbon star LX Cygni provides insights on the chemical evolution of the universe

More information: Hubble imaging of V1331 Cygni: Proper motion study of its circumstellar structures, arXiv:1604.03667 [astro-ph.SR] arxiv.org/abs/1604.03667

Abstract
The young star V1331 Cyg received previous attention because it is surrounded by an optical, arc-like reflection nebula. V1331 Cyg is commonly considered to be a candidate for an object that has undergone an FU-Ori (FUOR) the outbreak in the past. This in turn could lead to a time-varying appearance of the dusty arcs that may be revealed by multi-epoch imaging. In particular, a radial colour analysis of the dust arcs can then be attempted to check whether radial grain size distribution was modified by a previous FUOR wind. Second-epoch imaging of V1331 Cyg was obtained by us in 2009 using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). By comparing this to archival HST data from 2000, we studied the time evolution of the circumstellar nebulae. After a point spread function subtraction using model point spread functions, we used customised routines to perform a proper motion analysis. The nebula expansion was first derived by deconvolving and correlating the two-epoch radial brightness profiles. Additional data from other facilities TLS, UKIDSS, SPITZER, and HERSCHEL were also incorporated to improve our understanding of the star in terms of environment, viewing angle, bipolar outflow length, and the FUOR phenomenon. The derived radial colour profiles do not indicate a spatial separation of the dust grain sizes. The HERSCHEL 160 micron images show for the time thermal emission from dust probably residing in the outer arc. By viewing V1331 Cyg almost pole-on, the length of the bipolar outflow exceeds previous estimates by far. The outer arc expansion timescale is consistent with the implantation time of the CO torus, which supports the hypothesis of an outburst that occurred a few thousand years ago. The azimuthal colour variation of the outer arc is probably due to changes of the scattering angle, imposed by a tilt or helical geometry of the dust configuration.

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cantdrive85
1.9 / 5 (9) Apr 27, 2016
the length of the bipolar outflow exceeds previous estimates by far.

Measurement falsifying guesses again, probably due to the fact the previous estimates were based on using the typical failed models astrophysicists usually use.
imposed by a tilt or helical geometry of the dust configuration

Helical geometry in plasmas indicate the presence of Birkeland currents flowing through the dust.
cantdrive85
2.1 / 5 (11) Apr 27, 2016
You are ridiculous.

Got anything relevant? Keep in mind the discussion is about a plasma environment so in my opinion the correct physics should be considered, you obviously don't think that's an important consideration.
Captain Stumpy
3.5 / 5 (11) Apr 27, 2016
Keep in mind the discussion is about a plasma environment so in my opinion the correct physics should be considered
@cd
the correct physics *is* being considered... the problem is not the scientists doing the consideration, but rather your interpretations of the science based upon your eu cult beliefs

if you would have even considered reading the following links...
http://ocw.mit.ed...ophysics

http://www.pppl.gov/

you would know that your argument if "astrophysicists don't know plasma physics" is not only false, but blatantly stupid

this points to an intentional bias in your arguments regarding any cosmology, as you can't actually address the science, therefore your argument is to intentionally promote a false claim

not to mention the fact that one author specialises in Chemical Physics & Material Physics
obama_socks
2.6 / 5 (8) Apr 27, 2016
Keep in mind the discussion is about a plasma environment so in my opinion the correct physics should be considered
@cd
the correct physics *is* being considered... the problem is not the scientists doing the consideration, but rather your interpretations of the science based upon your eu cult beliefs

(...)even considered reading the following links...
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses...

you would know that your argument if "astrophysicists don't know plasma physics" is not only false...

this points to an intentional bias in your arguments regarding any cosmology, as you can't actually address the science, therefore your argument is to intentionally promote a false claim

not to mention the fact that one author specialises in Chemical Physics & Material Physics

- Stump
It seems that it is YOU who can't address the science except by pushing wiki & other links that don't explain the topic & only serve to assist your pompous pretenses of KNOWING. You HYPOCRITE
jonesdave
3.9 / 5 (11) Apr 28, 2016
You are ridiculous.

Got anything relevant? Keep in mind the discussion is about a plasma environment so in my opinion the correct physics should be considered, you obviously don't think that's an important consideration.


So in what part of the EM spectrum would these Birkeland currents show up? Radio? Microwave? Have these sorts of surveys ever been done of Galaxies and stellar environments? Were they seen?
If not, why not? If they were, then please provide a link or two.
antialias_physorg
5 / 5 (7) Apr 28, 2016
They wouldn't.


Please answer his second question:

If not - why not?
corncobbob
not rated yet Apr 28, 2016
- Stump
It seems that it is YOU who can't address the science except by pushing wiki & other links that don't explain the topic & only serve to assist your pompous pretenses of KNOWING. You HYPOCRITE
that dont make no sense mr obama_socks. aint neither one of them links wiki and aint normally seen a wiki link from the Mr captain stumpy unless he needs to use small words for folk who don't understand from what I see
Not even close. I repeatedly quote your exact words because you are stupid.
mr bschott you like to say this stuff a lot but what I see is things that aint in textbooks or on good sites. all that stuff above seems to be just being mean and nasty becuase you cant link proofs in my opinion so maybe what you should be doing is linking good sites to show you have some proof of something? i dont see one link from you but google says that mr phys1 is more in with modern science than your comments or that cant felle
antigoracle
1 / 5 (1) Apr 28, 2016
Stupidity is never an answer.

@cuckold
You certainly confirm that with your non-answers.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (3) Apr 29, 2016
So in what part of the EM spectrum would these Birkeland currents show up? Radio? Microwave? Have these sorts of surveys ever been done of Galaxies and stellar environments? Were they seen?

There is another current article discussing Herschel and it's findings, then there is the CMB. Willful ignorance is no defense.
cantdrive85
2.3 / 5 (3) Apr 29, 2016
Google - Primerfields....watch all 3

It has still never been explained how these magical bowls get magnetized without the use of electricity. Oh well, magic is good enough of an explanation I guess...
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (3) Apr 29, 2016
Smoke screen tactics. You chicken out.
Was this stuff you have been posting 50.000 times ever observed?
Question hardly come more clear and simple. A yes/no will suffice.
If "no" is the answer, no surprise. If "yes" please back up.

Don't you mean "dust screen tactics"? Or were all just smoke in the wind? Oh so cool the interchangeablility of words.
And your answer is yes.

http://phys.org/n...ies.html
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (2) Apr 29, 2016
Yes is not an interchangeable word....
Protoplasmix
5 / 5 (4) Apr 29, 2016
Or were all just smoke in the wind?

Astronomy Picture of the Day 2013 November 1:
" NGC 7841: The Smoke Nebula in Frustriaus "
Note that all the lightning bolts and arc discharges you see are clear evidence of Birkeland currents.

[Spoiler alert: there are zero lightning bolts and arc discharges to see, but it's pretty obvious gravity had some help painting that pic]
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (2) Apr 30, 2016
Or were all just smoke in the wind?

Astronomy Picture of the Day 2013 November 1:
http://apod.nasa....101.html
Note that all the lightning bolts and arc discharges you see are clear evidence of Birkeland currents.

[Spoiler alert: there are zero lightning bolts and arc discharges to see, but it's pretty obvious gravity had some help painting that pic]


More like water droplets and, well, actual smoke from, you know, fire. Sometimes it's good to read stuff, you find out more and it's much less Frustriaus....
http://blogg.astr...ire.html
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (3) Apr 30, 2016
Spoiler alert: proto is blotto, it's pretty obvious he sees through "gravity lenses" as his view is obviously skewed.
Protoplasmix
5 / 5 (4) Apr 30, 2016
Spoiler alert: proto is blotto, it's pretty obvious he sees through "gravity lenses" as his view is obviously skewed.
I'm me, and your ability to judge human character is totally on par with your skills as an astrophysicist. Thanks for saying that though. But I kinda doubt Ghost would appreciate it – he knows waaay more about things like "philosophy" and "consciousness" than I.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (2) Apr 30, 2016
"Smoke Nebula" ?
bschott, cd45, that should read "dust".

Does anybody read anymore? None of you smart guys notice this picture was made in some guys house with a plant mister and smoke. From the guys blog;
"We had some really bad weather here in Sweden lately and the restlessness kicked in yesterday so I thought I would try something new to create some space photos and this is what came out of it.

I started of by doing some smoke photography and then took it one step further and added water. I used a plant mister to get small water drops act like stars along with the smoke. The idea was to create something that look like nebula's. So these fake nebula's where made from two of our four elements on Earth, water and fire."
Do any of you people feel stupid yet or is this still over your heads?
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (2) Apr 30, 2016

I'm me, and your ability to judge human character is totally on par with your skills as an astrophysicist. Thanks for saying that though. But I kinda doubt Ghost would appreciate it – he knows waaay more about things like "philosophy" and "consciousness" than I.

I was suggesting you are drunk on gravity, blind to reality due to your mental intoxication.

"Blotto definition, very drunk; so drunk as to be unconscious or not know what one is doing."
Protoplasmix
5 / 5 (3) Apr 30, 2016
Does anybody read anymore? None of you smart guys notice this picture was made in some guys house with a plant mister and smoke... Do any of you people feel stupid yet or is this still over your heads?
Did you read the part where I said gravity had some help? okayeiii
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (2) Apr 30, 2016
To be frank, it's obvious that the arc discharge (recall arc mode plasma is fire) that occurs on stars creates smoke (i.e. dust), I was just amused by the back peddling, the use of interchangeable words, and the ridiculous links to save face for arguments sake. As far as you guys are concerned, you are never wrong.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (2) Apr 30, 2016
Did you read the part where I said gravity had some help? okayeiii

As I said, to save face and you are never wrong.... If it was only gravity the smoke should be "in a free fall" and not rising.
Protoplasmix
5 / 5 (3) Apr 30, 2016
Blotto definition, very drunk.
Ahh. You've never referred to GhostofOtto as blotto? There are a few who do. I thought you were calling me a sockpuppet. But you're saying I'm stupid drunk on gravity. Okayeiii, that's better than being blinded by the light, err electricity.

The link to the smoke nebula apod is broken now (as of this post). Uh oh, way to go, CD58.
Protoplasmix
5 / 5 (3) Apr 30, 2016
As I said, to save face and you are never wrong...
Nonsense, I've been wrong several times, and on those occasions I'm usually the first to point it out with a late edit. Correct me if I'm wrong. Anytime.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (2) Apr 30, 2016
Okayeiii, that's better than being blinded by the light, err electricity.

I'm blinded by the same light (err electricity) which creates the magnetism that pervades the Universe. You on the other hand are blinded by maths and fairy dust. If you think that's better, so be it.
Protoplasmix
5 / 5 (3) Apr 30, 2016
Late edit, the apod link is working again, which is cool because with all CD85's reading he neglected to post a link to the real thing:
Wisps of the Veil Nebula (2012 Nov 26 apod)

Blinded by maths CD? That's one of the brightest lights of all, and you can even shine it on itself. (I say 'you' ... )
Captain Stumpy
4 / 5 (4) Apr 30, 2016
it's obvious that the arc discharge (recall arc mode plasma is fire)
1- not all fire is plasma ("Fire (flames) may contain plasma, albeit one that is a partially ionized plasma, and dominated by collisions" - http://www.plasma...om/Flame )
I used that site as a reference for a reason... i figure if you won't read actual physics you would read a site that you've linked before as a reference, even if it does include pseudoscience in it

2- Proto stated: "Did you read the part where I said gravity had some help?" and it is legit, it is you who don't understand that link. without the gravity it would spread equally in all directions, not just "up"

3- "to save face and you are never wrong" - this applies to you in all your pseudoscience glory

can you say: D/1993 F2?
Moon craters?
grand canyon formation?
Cassini probe?
(plus many many more epic fails on PO alone)
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (2) Apr 30, 2016
Why then Proto, would you have not just linked that one rather than the art project and tried to pass it off as the other? This be the back peddling to which I was referring.

Regardless, as my explanation above, the arc discharge (fire) of stars is surely going to create smoke. Just as one would expect from lightning striking a tree. As a matter of fact, the smoke itself should be expected to behave like a plasma(while it is still hot), being it too is an ionized gas (plasma). As such, the twisted filamentary appearance. Keep in mind, it is the particles spiraling about themselves which creates this action, in large scale space plasmas there is little to nothing to prevent this phenomenon from compounding as is the case on Earth. The Birkeland Current is merely the description of these collective effects in plasma.
Captain Stumpy
3.7 / 5 (3) Apr 30, 2016
Regardless, as my explanation above,
Aha... so...
As I said, to save face and you are never wrong....
hypocrisy much?
the arc discharge (fire) of stars is surely going to create smoke
you mean a CME?
https://en.wikipe...ejection

or do you mean something different?

please be specific because if you're talking about a CME (a known, studied, observed, verified, validated phenomenon) then you should just call it that... but i think you don't want to use terminology because that would mean accepting known validated observed evidence based science (like magnetic reconnection)
http://www.pppl.g...nnection

it too is an ionized gas (plasma)
so, an ionized gas is a plasma, therefore we can use MHD
https://en.wikipe...dynamics

but don't let actual observed studied validated physics get in the way of your cult like beliefs
Protoplasmix
5 / 5 (3) Apr 30, 2016
Why then Proto, would you have not just linked that one rather than the art project and tried to pass it off as the other?
It's a wonderful chance to see if/how well you read. I 'passed it off' as "painting." Your reading skills are so-so, on par with your cosmological critiques, thanks for playing.
Protoplasmix
5 / 5 (2) Apr 30, 2016
Tell the truth CD85, how many Birkeland currents did you count before reading the caption? And trying to slam others for their reading skills instead of seeing the science and posting some intelligent comments on the real deal was your call, coach. And why would I post a link to "wisps" when you were talking about "smoke"? It was just serendipity, CD85.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (2) May 01, 2016
Ummmm, I made a comment about a failed prediction of the polar jets and a comment about the helical structure found in the arc (plasma torus), which in plasmas is the tell tale signature of the Birkeland current. Your buddy phails1 decided soap bubbles and smoke must be Birkeland currents too, it was he that derailed the discussion so don't blame me for that.
From my follow on comment I "agreed" that star dust is essentially "smoke" from the arc discharge (fire) of the stars. There was no dumb luck of an "ah ha" moment in this thread, just dumb comments about soap bubbles and such.
Protoplasmix
5 / 5 (2) May 01, 2016
Ummmm, I made a comment about a failed prediction of the polar jets and a comment about the helical structure found in the arc (plasma torus), which in plasmas is the tell tale signature of the Birkeland current.
Ah ha. You sure did, and if you had read the paper instead of just quoting the abstract, you would have learned that, if the dust configuration is not a tilted misaligned torus, the other possibility is "a spiral structure that could be an accretion flow relic that tightens and winds down to the outer circumstellar disk." (See § 5. Conclusions, p. 12) No mention of Birkeland currents (we know, because according to you they don't know what they're doing).
There was no dumb luck of an "ah ha" moment in this thread,
Ah ha. Two ah ha's in one post, thanks again.
Enthusiastic Fool
5 / 5 (4) May 02, 2016
BS moves the goal post with regard to "in what part of the EM spectrum would these Birkeland currents show up?" and "if not why?":

Because every current of charged particles flowing through space isn't a Birkeland current.
Because particles in space need to interact with something to emit photons.


Ah ok, so Birkeland currents can't be detected because they aren't Birkeland currents. I can agree with you on that. Also, there's no light from currents because there's no interaction involved in the exchange of electrons. Cool "Science."
Bullschott the Psyience Bot!

If EU currents can't be seen because the emit no EM, despite being an electromagnetic phenomenon, how come the EU adherents keep seeing them with their eyes in all these pictures?
antialias_physorg
5 / 5 (4) May 02, 2016
Because particles in space need to interact with something to emit photons.

Heard of synchotron radiation?

Even if it weren't for that: Space isn't completely empty. There are particles there. These types of currents would show up like lighthouses (especially against the CMBR).
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (2) May 02, 2016
"a spiral structure that could be an accretion flow relic that tightens and winds down to the outer circumstellar disk." (See § 5. Conclusions, p. 12)
A relic? Right, because the fields are "frozen-in" to the plasma? I prefer real science to pseudoscience, it obviously doesn't bother you they rely on pseudoscience for their explanations.
No mention of Birkeland currents

You're right, there is proof of that ignorance of plasma physics.
"Students using astrophysical textbooks remain essentially ignorant of even the existence of plasma concepts, despite the fact that some of them have been known for half a century. The conclusion is that astrophysics is too important to be left in the hands of astrophysicists who have gotten their main knowledge from these textbooks. Earthbound and space telescope data must be treated by scientists who are familiar with laboratory and magnetospheric physics and circuit theory, and of course with modern plasma theory." Alfvén
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (2) May 02, 2016
BS moves the goal post with regard to "in what part of the EM spectrum would these Birkeland currents show up?"

Bschott is as ignorant of Birkeland currents as the rest of you are, as such his opinions regarding them is meaningless. He's got some enlightening stuff on magic bowls though.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (3) May 02, 2016

Even if it weren't for that: Space isn't completely empty. There are particles there. These types of currents would show up like lighthouses (especially against the CMBR).

Bingo, CMBR is the signature of these currents. It's not some pseudoscientific "remnants" of the BB, but in fact the real emissions from these pervasive currents.

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