Seeing double: NASA missions measure solar flare from two spots in space

Seeing double: NASA missions measure solar flare from 2 spots in space
During a December 2013 solar flare, three NASA missions observed a current sheet form -- a strong clue for explaining what initiates the flares. This animation shows four views of the flare from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory, NASA's Solar and Terrestrial Relations Observatory, and JAXA/NASA's Hinode, allowing scientists to make unprecedented measurements of its characteristics. The current sheet is a long, thin structure, especially visible in the views on the left. Those two animations depict light emitted by material with higher temperatures, so they better show the extremely hot current sheet. Credit: NASA/JAXA/SDO/STEREO/Hinode (courtesy Zhu, et al.)

Solar flares are intense bursts of light from the sun. They are created when complicated magnetic fields suddenly and explosively rearrange themselves, converting magnetic energy into light through a process called magnetic reconnection - at least, that's the theory, because the signatures of this process are hard to detect. But during a December 2013 solar flare, three solar observatories captured the most comprehensive observations of an electromagnetic phenomenon called a current sheet, strengthening the evidence that this understanding of solar flares is correct.

These eruptions on the sun eject radiation in all directions. The strongest can impact the ionized part of Earth's atmosphere - the ionosphere - and interfere with our communications systems, like radio and GPS, and also disrupt onboard satellite electronics. Additionally, high-energy particles - including electrons, protons and heavier ions - are accelerated by solar flares.

Unlike other , solar flares travel at the speed of light, meaning we get no warning that they're coming. So scientists want to pin down the processes that create solar flares - and even some day predict them before our communications can be interrupted.

"The existence of a current sheet is crucial in all our models of solar flares," said James McAteer, an astrophysicist at New Mexico State University in Las Cruces and an author of a study on the December 2013 event, published on April 19, 2016, in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "So these observations make us much more comfortable that our models are good."

And better models lead to better forecasting, said Michael Kirk, a space scientist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, who was not involved in the study. "These complementary observations allowed unprecedented measurements of in three dimensions," Kirk said. "This will help refine how we model and predict the evolution of solar flares."

Seeing double: NASA missions measure solar flare from two spots in space
Current sheets are formed in the space between two oppositely-aligned magnetic fields that are in close contact. This illustration shows how such oppositely-aligned fields can explosively realign to a new configuration, in a process called magnetic reconnection. Because current sheets are so closely tied to magnetic reconnection, observations of a current sheet during a December 2013 solar flare bolster the idea that solar flares are the result of magnetic reconnection on the sun. Credits: ESA

Looking at Current Sheets

A current sheet is a very fast, very flat flow of electrically-charged material, defined in part by its extreme thinness compared to its length and width. Current sheets form when two oppositely-aligned magnetic fields come in close contact, creating very high magnetic pressure. Electric current flowing through this high-pressure area is squeezed, compressing it down to a very fast and thin sheet. It's a bit like putting your thumb over the opening of a water hose - the water, or, in this case, the electrical current, is forced out of a tiny opening much, much faster. This configuration of magnetic fields is unstable, meaning that the same conditions that create current sheets are also ripe for magnetic reconnection.

"Magnetic reconnection happens at the interface of oppositely-aligned magnetic fields," said Chunming Zhu, a space scientist at New Mexico State University and lead author on the study. "The magnetic fields break and reconnect, leading to a transformation of the into heat and light, producing a solar flare."

Because current sheets are so closely associated with magnetic reconnection, observing a current sheet in such detail backs up the idea that magnetic reconnection is the force behind solar flares.

"You have to be watching at the right time, at the right angle, with the right instruments to see a current sheet," said McAteer. "It's hard to get all those ducks in a row."

This isn't the first time scientists have observed a current sheet during a solar flare, but this study is unique in that several measurements of the current sheet - such as speed, temperature, density and size - were observed from more than one angle or derived from more than method.

This multi-faceted view of the December 2013 flare was made possible by the wealth of instruments aboard three solar-watching missions: NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory, or SDO, NASA's Solar and Terrestrial Relations Observatory, or STEREO - which has a unique viewing angle on the far side of the sun - and Hinode, which is a collaboration between the space agencies of Japan, the United States, the United Kingdom and Europe led by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

Even when scientists think they've spotted something that might be a current sheet in solar data, they can't be certain without ticking off a long list of attributes. Since this current sheet was so well-observed, the team was able to confirm that its temperature, density, and size over the course of the event were consistent with a current sheet.

As scientists work up a better picture of how current sheets and magnetic reconnection lead to solar eruptions, they'll be able to produce better models of the complex physics happening there - providing us with ever more insight on how our closest star affects space all around us.


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Image: NASA's SDO captures mid-level solar flare

Journal information: Astrophysical Journal Letters

Citation: Seeing double: NASA missions measure solar flare from two spots in space (2016, April 19) retrieved 16 September 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-04-nasa-missions-solar-flare-space.html
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Apr 19, 2016
"Magnetic reconnection is pseudoscience" Hannes Alfven

"Magnetic reconnection happens at the interface of oppositely-aligned magnetic fields," said Chunming Zhu,

In plasma, that interface would be a double layer. He would unlikely know this due to the fact the MHD models so heavily relied upon omit this phenomena completely. A resolution to this explosive phenomena will never be found until MHD models are cast aside and the more accurate particle/circuit models are used.
"The magnetic fields break and reconnect, leading to a transformation of the magnetic energy into heat and light, producing a solar flare."

A statement like this would only come from someone who is not explicitly accounting for the electric currents which create the magnetic fields in the first place.
The exploding double layer will continue to be a "mystery" for astrophysicists due to their "models we know from experiment to be wrong".

Apr 19, 2016
"Magnetic reconnection is pseudoscience" Hannes Alfven
repeating a lie doesn't make it more true
alfvie was wrong, as demonstrated here:
http://www.pppl.gov/about/learn-more/magnetic-reconnection" title="http://http://www.pppl.gov/about/learn-more/magnetic-reconnection" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">http://www.pppl.g...nnection

also note, it isn't just one type of scientist there
A Collaborative National Center for Fusion & Plasma Research
http://www.pppl.gov/

posting pseudoscience because you can't comprehend actual science doesn't make you more right than 99.99% of all scientists
evidence is the key

try this link:
http://ocw.mit.ed...ophysics

you will note that it includes plasma physics in it
... something you're poorly representing above with known fallacious claims

just because you want to believe in something doesn't mean it's true, real, nor factual


Apr 19, 2016
As usual, can'tthinkforhimself adds comments reflecting his poor understanding of the electric sciences, from plasma and MHD studies, to double layers and magnetic reconnection, and, well, essentially everything to do with the actual science being studied in laboratories, in space (both in situ and remotely) and in theory.

He continually spouts the same old tired "sciency" sounding rubbish in a mantra befitting an Acolyte of the EU cult. His material is 40 years out of date and his mantra has been shown as false.

Your prophets would be displeased with your lack of growth, disciple. You need to update your mantra to compete with the Flat Earth Society.

Apr 19, 2016
All I can see from those gifs is a current flow being forced into an area to small for it and it heating up just like a wire that has too much current flowing though it. I can't even begin to guess how many trillions of amps that would take in an area that large. I don't see where the reconnection comes in at though.

Apr 19, 2016
All I can see from those gifs is a current flow being forced into an area to small for it and it heating up just like a wire that has too much current flowing though it. I can't even begin to guess how many trillions of amps that would take in an area that large. I don't see where the reconnection comes in at though.

In your analogy, what do you see as "the wire"?

A reasonable layman's explanation is provided later in the article - assuming I have read your question right - why does that not give you the answer?

(oops sorry about the 1, I meant to hit 3)

Apr 19, 2016
Hi guys. :)

Let's get away from the "either/or" based arguments. Discuss what is actually acknowledged by the above observers:
Current sheets form when two oppositely-aligned magnetic fields come in close contact, creating very high magnetic pressure. Electric current flowing through this high-pressure area is squeezed, compressing it down to a very fast and thin sheet.
So, there are electric currents and their associated magnetic fields.

No biggie. The "reconnection" is between the magnetic fields which are associated with the current patterns. These currents and magnetic fields are in feedbackloop dynamical flux. Neither is "independent" of the other. So any changes in currents changes the fields; and vice versa when magnetic fluxes destabilize and create new "channels" for currents.

Just as these "current sheets" form and then force further destabilizing of the mag fields to create plasmoids and explosions; ergo, solar flares/mass ejections phenomena. No biggie. :)

Apr 19, 2016
Hi guys. :)


@ Really-Skippy. Hi too. How you are? I am good me, non problems at all. I have not seen you around for a couple of days and was hoping you have not been sick or unwell. Anyhoo, that's all I wanted, to say Hi back to you.

Apr 19, 2016
Hi Ira. :)
Hi guys. :)


@ Really-Skippy. Hi too. How you are? I am good me, non problems at all. I have not seen you around for a couple of days and was hoping you have not been sick or unwell. Anyhoo, that's all I wanted, to say Hi back to you.
I'm good, mate. Glad to hear you are as well.

PS: I know why you bot-vote my posts '1'. No biggie, if you want to look like an idiot who am I to complain, hey? But I see Vietvet also bot-voted that a '1'. It is passing strange, that a seriously ill (possibly terminally ill, if his recent comment re his prognosis is any guide) poster who professes to prefer/defend science/objectivity, is also following your MO of being a bot-voting idiot. Is this how Vietvet wants us at PO to remember him: following the MO of an idiot to his last breath; making a mockery of everything he claims to stand for? Sad.

PPS: There's a rumor your mate Truck Captain Stumpy at Sciforums also has sockpuppet there. Has CapS admitted/denied it?

Apr 19, 2016
PS: I know why you bot-vote my posts '1'. No biggie, if you want to look like an idiot who am I to complain, hey?
Yeah that makes me feel like the idiot, because I can not get him to turn off. The only way I can get him to vote another way is to beat my computer to the postum and vote it up. Do you know how I can turn that off?

It was your idea to start with you know. Back when you were calling me all those names and lies about me. You said I was a machine program and con artist and a theif out to steal from peoples here on the physorg. You told me about it and that was the first time I ever heard of a bot voting thing. Somewhere I found where to do it and I got him on there, and now I don't know how to turn him off.

But I see Vietvet also BLAH, BLAH and BLAH
Why you ask me about that? You should ask him why.

PPS: There's a rumor your mate Truck Captain Stumpy BLAH, BLAH and some more BLAH
Skippy, why you don't ask these peoples your self?

Apr 19, 2016
P.S. for you Really-Skippy. See there? He did him again while I was writing before I could do anything about it. Something little Ira-Skippy said about jabas and scribbles or something like that is where I got him, about three or two years ago, remember?

But at least the bot voter got that one right. For what you say about Viet-Skippy you deserve the one.

Apr 19, 2016
Hi Ira. :)
Yeah that makes me feel like the idiot, because I can not get him to turn off. The only way I can get him to vote another way is to beat my computer to the postum and vote it up. Do you know how I can turn that off?
See what happens when first you make a conscious decision to be a bot-idiot instead of a constructive PO member?

It was your idea to start with you know. You told me about it and that was the first time I ever heard of a bot voting thing. Somewhere I found where to do it and I got him on there, and now I don't know how to turn him off.
You blame me for your idiocy? Now that is pure idiocy right there. No wonder you got yourself in such a mess.

But I see Vietvet also....
Why you ask me about that? You should ask him why. You both use the same program. He is behaving like an Ira bot-voting idiot. Ask him why he is copying an idiot like you? He wouldn't tell me why. But he might tell you in confidence between bot-voting idiots.

Apr 19, 2016
You both use the same program.
Like I said, it was your idea. You brought up by telling a lie that I was machine voter. So I look it up because I did not know that you could get the computer to do it automatic. If you did not tell the lies about me being a machine and a criminal and a thief I would still never had heard of it.

He is behaving like an Ira bot-voting idiot.
Good for him, why you want to take it up with me for?

Ask him why he is copying an idiot like you? He wouldn't tell me why.
Well maybe you did not ask the right way. Maybe he wants it to be secret. That is not something I have any control over, I came in here alone and I will leave here alone too.

But he might tell you in confidence between bot-voting idiots.
Maybe he might, or maybe he might not either. It is not something I am interested enough about to worry him with it. Voting here in America is like that, you vote the way want to vote and don't have to tell anybody why.

Apr 19, 2016
Hi Ira. :)
P.S. for you Really-Skippy. See there? He did him again while I was writing before I could do anything about it. Something little Ira-Skippy said about jabas and scribbles or something like that is where I got him, about three or two years ago, remember?

But at least the bot voter got that one right. For what you say about Viet-Skippy you deserve the one.
Why don't you ask CapS and his 'friend' who owns sapos how to switch it off? I'm sure they know all about malware and how to use it for their stalking and other nefarious ends. They boasted about such things some time back. Shouldn't be difficult for them to tell you how to disconnect your bot from PO ratings function.

Vietvet and I are ATHEISTS who believe in taking personal responsibility. His call.
PPS: There's a rumor your mate Truck Captain Stumpy at Sciforums also has sockpuppet there. Has CapS admitted/denied it?
why you don't ask these peoples your self?
I did. No reply from CapS.

Apr 19, 2016
Vietvet and I are ATHEISTS
Well good for you. You want a prize for that or what?

who believe in taking personal responsibility. His call.
But you are asking me to take his responsibilities. I don't care why he votes the way he does. It's his vote, not mine and not yours either. Pull up you big boy panties and get over your self Cher.

why you don't ask these peoples your self?
I did. No reply from CapS.
What is with you Cher? You want me to speak for these peoples for them? That is not going to happen Skippy. I read their stuffs all the time, I know they are smart enough to answer you if they want to. If they don't want to, that is not something I care about. What part of the "I come here alone, and I leave here alone too" is you having the biggest trouble with?


Apr 19, 2016
Hi Ira. :)

So, let's get it straight. You behaved like a bot-voting scammer here. I called you out on it. So, to prove me correct "after the fact" you went out and found a bot-voting program and used it against me who called you out on bot-voting/scamming behavior?

Well, I suppose that makes some sort of "sense"....to the idiot who went out an proved me correct about his idiocy, both "before AND after the fact".

No-one is responsible for your actions except yourself, Ira. If you are an idiot, then an idiot's fate beckons you. You know, it's that "Karma Points" thing you keep idiotically pretending to give out to others via your bot-voting program. That Karma's a bi-itch, hey?

As for Vietvet following your bot-voting program idiocy MO: he has to live with that legacy/epitaph on his ATHEIST's grave. How sad is that for an atheist to go: chide religionists about personal responsibility, then betraying his own, unto death.

PS: There's still time to change that, Vietvet. Now.

Apr 19, 2016
Hi Ira. :)
Vietvet and I are ATHEISTS
Well good for you. You want a prize for that or what?
It is crucial context. Ignore it like an idiot would, and your idiocy compounds.
But you are asking me to take his responsibilities.
No. I asked you to ask him why; as between you two bot-voting idiots. He wouldn't tell me; or he would have already done so to explain himself and his behavior mimicking an idiot's behavior like yours.

What is with you Cher? You want me to speak for these peoples for them? That is not going to happen Skippy. I read their stuffs all the time, I know they are smart enough to answer you if they want to. If they don't want to, that is not something I care about. What part of the "I come here alone, and I leave here alone too" is you having the biggest trouble with?
Again, I only asked you if they have said anything to you; and asked you to ask them for me (and the rest of the forum who would be interested to know).

Duh, Ira.


Apr 19, 2016
No-one is responsible for your actions except yourself, Ira.
Well good for me, that's the way I like it.

If you are an idiot, then an idiot's fate beckons you.
Makes sense to me.

You know, it's that "Karma Points" thing you keep idiotically pretending to give out to others via your bot-voting program.
What's it to you Cher? They are MY points to do whatever I want with.

That Karma's a bi-itch, hey?
Seems to be more of the "bi-itch" thing for you. For me is just the votes they give me here at the physorg to use anyway I like.

As for Vietvet following your bot-voting program idiocy MO: he has to live with that legacy/epitaph on his ATHEIST's grave. How sad is that for an atheist to go: chide religionists about personal responsibility, then betraying his own, unto death.


Really-Skippy you are one sad broken person you. I got some work to do some diligence with so maybe somebody else will come around to fool around with you.

Apr 19, 2016
Hi Ira. :)
No-one is responsible for your actions except yourself, Ira.
Well good for me, that's the way I like it.
Then why did you try to blame others for your idiocy here?
If you are an idiot, then an idiot's fate beckons you.
Makes sense to me.
Pity it doesn't translate to your self-correction.
You know, it's that "Karma Points" thing you keep idiotically...
What's it to you Cher? They are MY points to do whatever I want with.
What an idiot "wants". Yeah.
That Karma's a bi-itch, hey?
For me is just the votes they give me here at the physorg to use anyway I like.
Science sites have standards/rules. Your bot-voting idiocy is not a "given"; it is a "taken"; by idiots like you.
As for Vietvet following your bot-voting...
Really-Skippy you are one sad broken person you. ..
You admit to bot-voting to skew ratings on PO science site; and now are unable to remove your bot-voting program.So, who's "broken" here? Duh, Ira.

yep
Apr 20, 2016
Hi guys. :)
Let's get away from the "either/or" based arguments. Discuss what is actually acknowledged by the above observers:
Current sheets form when two oppositely-aligned magnetic fields come in close contact, creating very high magnetic pressure. Electric current flowing through this high-pressure area is squeezed, compressing it down to a very fast and thin sheet.
So, there are electric currents and their associated magnetic fields.
No biggie. The "reconnection" is between the magnetic fields which are associated with the current patterns. These currents and magnetic fields are in feedbackloop dynamical flux. Neither is "independent" of the other. So any changes in currents changes the fields; and vice versa when magnetic fluxes destabilize and create new "channels" for currents.
Just as these "current sheets" form and then force further destabilizing of the mag fields to create plasmoids and explosions; ergo, solar flares/mass ejections phenomena. No biggie. :)


Apr 20, 2016
All I can see from those gifs is
@24volts
try these links below, then. it will help.
it's engineers and physicists (various kinds) and evidence based with links references. second link is the best. if it doesn't show a hyperlink, copy/paste or search http://www.pppl.gov for "reconnection":
http://www.pppl.gov/about/learn-more/magnetic-reconnection

http://www.pppl.gov/search/node/reconnection

.

.

.

Has CapS admitted/denied it?
No reply from CapS
@pain-in-the-ass-nincompoop-RepulsivityCheck the insipid retard
1- only have one log-in, answer mailed to your house with your credibility... only needed postage for a postcard

2- reported for OT flaming/baiting/spamming/crossposting/phishing/trolling

yep
Apr 20, 2016
Thanks Reality Check!
It's nice to have a voice of reason!!

Apr 23, 2016
"@pain-in-the-ass-nincompoop-RepulsivityCheck the insipid retard"
---------------------------------

Please stop your adolescent need to disparage others. It is a true sign of perceived insecurity and proven inadequacies.

What happened to you to make you too nasty and scared to reveal yourself and take responsibility for your attacks?

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