# Alaska aquarium replaces fossil fuel with seawater system

##### April 23, 2016 by By Dan Joling

Thousands of people visit the Alaska SeaLife Center in Seward for a look at Steller sea lions or harlequin ducks.

What's in the basement is almost as interesting.

The SeaLife Center, which combines aquariums with research and wildlife rescue, announced Friday that 98 percent of its heating and cooling requirements are no longer filled by fossil fuel. The center is using alternative energy: heat extracted from ocean in Resurrection Bay.

The heat exchange is saving money, cutting and fulfilling the center's mission of sharing scientific knowledge to promote stewardship of Alaska's marine resources, said Darryl Schaefermeyer, special projects coordinator. It demonstrates that seawater is a potential heating source for Alaska, which has more coastline than the rest of the nation put together.

"Simple payback is estimated to be 13 years at the estimated annual savings on electricity of $48,000," he said. "Since starting the system, we have averaged just over$4,000 savings on electrical energy cost per month."

It's used with a seawater system the SeaLife Center installed in 2012.

The new system was designed by Andy Baker of YourCleanEnergy, an Anchorage consulting firm. It uses equipment manufactured by a Japanese firm, Mayekawa, and relies on a complex system of pipes to heat some parts of the building and cool others.

"The trick is to getting all those loops to transfer heat at the correct rate," Baker said.

Resurrection Bay, at more than 900 feet deep, absorbs solar heat over summer months. The water warms through late October, and below the surface, retains enormous amounts of heat throughout winter.

Heat exchangers are devices that transfer heat from one loop of liquid to another without mixing the liquids.

The center's new system draws seawater at 42 degrees or higher from 300 feet deep and pumps it into a heat exchanger with non-corrosive titanium plates, where it heats a loop of water and 10 percent glycol, an antifreeze.

The warmed water and glycol loop is passed alongside a loop of liquid carbon dioxide, causing the liquid CO2 to boil into a vapor.

A compressor squeezes the vapor, increasing its pressure up to 2,000 psi, which raises the vapor temperature dramatically from 100 to 194 degrees.

The heated CO2 vapor is exposed to yet another loop: the water that circulates through the SeaLife Center's building. It can heat 100-degree water to 194 degrees. The system blends 194-degree water with cooler water to send 160-degree water circulating through conventional baseboard heaters in office and lab space.

The system has been operating since Jan. 21. On Seward's coldest nights, about 2 percent of the time, the center had to turn on an electrical boiler for more heat.

The first seawater system, which cost about $1 million, came on line in December 2012. Instead of , it uses a synthetic refrigerant that can be heated to about 130 degrees, Baker said. It's used to heat the center's air-handling units and outdoor pavement and to preheat hot water. Grants helped pay for the new system, including a$537,640 emerging energy technology grant from the Alaska Energy Authority. The Rasmusson Foundation kicked in $50,000, and the center spent$68,000 on in-house labor.

Besides cutting its heating bill by more than half, the center estimates it has reduced its annual carbon emissions by 1.24 million pounds.

Baker anticipates the technology will expand to other large energy users. The cost likely will come down as competitors emerge.

"They're not ready to stick into a home or small business," Baker said of the seawater exchange system. "They're going to be a little too expensive and too complex. Eventually it will get there."

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##### conwayscience
3.4 / 5 (5) Apr 24, 2016
This article seems to make this sound like a "new" or "Emerging" technology. As far as I can tell it's just 30-40 year old Geothermal technology. And yes you can install these in your house contrary to what the article said. Most houses just need 100 feet of pipe in a water source or 300 feet of pipe in the regular ground to work. I'm not sure why they're using CO2 as a refridgerant. Would be interesting if there's an advantage or if they're just using sub-optimal hippy technology.
##### Eikka
5 / 5 (1) Apr 24, 2016
I'm not sure why they're using CO2 as a refridgerant.

It's non-toxic and non-flammable and extremely cheap, and doesn't require special disposal or handling.

CO2 works at higher pressures than CF/Cs which makes the plumbing a bit more difficult, but because of the higher pressure it also transfers more heat per pumped volume, leading to lower pumping losses and higher efficiency.

##### Eikka
not rated yet Apr 24, 2016
http://www.achrne...al-cycle
The volumetric refrigeration capacity of CO2 is much higher than that of traditional refrigerants, allowing system designs with smaller volumes. This also holds true for other components. Smaller cylinder displacement still provides adequate system capacity.

Compression ratio is a major factor contributing to CO2 compressor performance. Current HFC compressors for MBP-operation with R-134a are designed for compression ratios of approximately 8 to 1, and become inefficient at higher ratios.

CO2 systems operate at higher pressures, but the compression ratio is only 3 or 4 to 1. The lower compression ratio will give the compressor the capability to operate with less of a refrigerant re-expansion effect in the cylinder during operation.
##### gkam
1 / 5 (6) Apr 25, 2016
And no toxic waste.
##### gkam
1 / 5 (6) Apr 25, 2016
Decades ago, an aquarium built by Humboldt State used PV cells, a fuel cell power source and an electrolyzer for 24-hour power. The PV system ran the pumps and balance-of-plant while electrolyzing water into H2 and O2, storing the Hydrogen.

At night, the stored hydrogen was used in the fuel cell, producing the water to electrolyze the next day. It was just a working fluid, completely recycled.
##### Estevan57
3 / 5 (4) Apr 27, 2016
conwayscience - You are correct about the principles of this system. The execution uses more expensive and sophisticated materials and controls, but the concept is similar.

Don't mind gkams' 1 vote for your comment, he isn't polite enough to let anyone else have an actual opinion. Avoid him if possible. Have a good day.