Speedy evolution affects more than one species

October 22, 2015
Speedy evolution affects more than one species
A parasitic wasp (Diachasma alloeum) that preys upon a fruit fly species known as an apple maggot. Researchers found that the wasp evolved after the fruit fly evolved when it changed its mating and egg-laying habits. Photo courtesy of James Smith, Lyman Briggs College.

The concept that biodiversity feeds upon itself is not uncommon in the world of evolution. The problem is a lack of hard data that shows this process to be naturally occurring.

However, recent research by a team of scientists, including a Michigan State University entomologist, finds that recent evolutionary changes - in this case in a of fruit fly - have an almost domino effect on a number of species.

The research, published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, follows up work done by the team several years ago that found changes in mating habits resulted not only in a new species of fruit fly, but also led to a new species of the parasitic wasps that prey on them.

"The new study extends the earlier work by showing that new fruit fly species provide suitable habitat not just for one new parasitoid species, but for multiple new species," said James Smith, an MSU entomologist and professor in Lyman Briggs College.

The in question evolved into new species when they began laying their eggs and mating on apple trees, as opposed to their native hawthorn tree hosts. Three different kinds of were collected from a number of different fly environments in the wild.

Analyses in the lab showed that all three of the different kinds of wasps had diverged from others of the same kind, both genetically and with respect to host-associated physiology and behavior.

"In a sense," Smith said, "they have caught an entire community of parasitoids actively ecologically diverging in response to a historically documented host plant shift of their fly host."

These evolutionary changes, known as "sequential" or "cascading" events, may provide additional information helping explain why some groups of organisms, such as plants, the insects that feed on them and the parasites that attack the insects, are more diverse and species-rich than other groups.

"Why are there so many insect species?" Smith asked. "Speciation cascades provide one explanation for how a lot of might be generated in a relatively short period of time."

Explore further: Parasitoid wasps can count hidden competitors through taste sensors

More information: Sequential divergence and the multiplicative origin of community diversity, www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1424717112

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JVK
1.9 / 5 (9) Oct 22, 2015
Excerpt: "they have caught an entire community of parasitoids actively ecologically diverging in response to a historically documented host plant shift of their fly host."

My comment: This suggests that evolutionary theorists have again been caught in the act of reporting links from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the context of neo-Darwinian theory instead of accurate representations of how ecological variation is linked to ecological adaptations via nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry and the physiology of reproduction.

See: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model http://www.ncbi.n...24693353

How many more warnings to stop touting pseudoscientific nonsense are required before evolutionary theorists stop?

See also: Scientists discover protein factories hidden in human jumping genes
http://phys.org/n...man.html
Vietvet
5 / 5 (5) Oct 22, 2015

"See: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model http://www.ncbi.n...24693353"

Criticisms of the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled evolutionary model
http://www.ncbi.n...4049134/
Protoplasmix
5 / 5 (1) Oct 22, 2015
The fruit flies in question evolved into new species when they began laying their eggs and mating on apple trees, as opposed to their native hawthorn tree hosts.
So the evolutionary change in physiology that prompted the move to apples in the first place was an adaptation to what stimuli?
SuperThunder
3 / 5 (6) Oct 22, 2015
So the evolutionary change in physiology that prompted the move to apples in the first place was an adaptation to what stimuli?


They probably just used their wings, dude.
Protoplasmix
5 / 5 (2) Oct 22, 2015
They probably just used their wings, dude.
Good one, I hadn't thought of that. But they had wings for generations while flying past the apple trees in search of the perfect hawthorn. And then what happened?
JVK
2 / 5 (9) Oct 22, 2015
The change in physiology occurred via the experience-dependent de novo creation of an olfactory receptor gene. Food odors prompt the change, not evolution.

All changes in physiology and behavior are receptor-mediated. The creation of the gene links the hormone-organized and hormone-activated behavior of invertebrates and vertebrates via RNA-mediated events linked to cell type differentiation in all living genera.

Elekonich and Robinson 2000 Organizational and activational effects of hormones on insect behavior
http://www.ncbi.n...10980296 linked our model to invertebrates.

From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior http://www.hawaii...ion.html
SuperThunder
3 / 5 (6) Oct 22, 2015
Good one, I hadn't thought of that.

It's cool, there are a lot of variables to consider, that's why knowledge is a group effort.

But they had wings for generations while flying past the apple trees in search of the perfect hawthorn.

Sure, and some landed on the apple trees looking for the perfect hawthorn, and it seemed like a good idea at the time. You ever encounter fruit flies? They'll land on your eyeballs in search of whatever it is they're looking for. They never fly past anything unless you're actively trying to squash them.

And then what happened?

Some laid eggs and reproduced on the apple trees, which started the process of evolving a new species, hence the article.

Humans are the only creature that refuses to explore new things based on a principle of "perfection."
JVK
1.9 / 5 (9) Oct 22, 2015
See also: Structural basis of pre-mRNA splicing http://www.scienc...abstract and Structure of a yeast spliceosome at 3.6-angstrom resolution http://www.scienc...abstract

In this parody, the claim that "EVERY ANGSTROM IS DYNAMIC" is directed to anyone who ever accepted the claim that the structure of DNA was static. https://www.youtu...youtu.be

You can't link the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA via the biophysically constrained chemistry of nutrient-dependent protein folding if the DNA is static. That fact attests to how much ignorance theorists have taught biologically uninformed science idiots to believe in.

http://www.huffin...450.html
Excerpt: "...evolutionary science has now "moved on to such an extent" that [they] don't really care anymore about "trying to convince the neo-Darwinists."
JVK
1.9 / 5 (9) Oct 22, 2015
Some laid eggs and reproduced on the apple trees, which started the process of evolving a new species, hence the article.


That is one of the most ignorant claims I have ever encountered. Flies lay their eggs where they eat because they must eat to lay their eggs.

Attraction of Drosophila melanogaster males to food-related and fly odours http://www.scienc...11003131

Modulation of Feeding Behavior by Odorant-Binding Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster
http://chemse.oxf...abstract

A Bidirectional Circuit Switch Reroutes Pheromone Signals in Male and Female Brains
http://www.scienc...13014761

Feeding-induced rearrangement of green leaf volatiles reduces moth oviposition
http://elife.elif...2/e00421
SuperThunder
3.7 / 5 (9) Oct 22, 2015
That is one of the most ignorant claims I have ever encountered.


You are totally selling yourself short there.

Flies lay their eggs where they eat because they must eat to lay their eggs.


*sigh*

http://www2.ca.uk...f621.asp
http://time.com/3...t-flies/
http://www.thebug...e-cycle/

There is nothing preventing a fruit fly from eating on one piece of fermented something and then laying eggs on a different fermented something. It's not like they don't experiment by laying eggs everywhere, even on fresh fruit, drains, and eyeballs(eyeballs are my conjecture, may not be true). Do you even know why some animals have evolved wings? NO, WAIT, don't answer, we all know you don't. Natural selection for you is like the Eleusinian Mysteries.
JVK
1.9 / 5 (9) Oct 22, 2015
There is nothing preventing a fruit fly from eating on one piece of fermented something...


I linked to three different articles on flies and one on moths. The molecular mechanisms for behavior are the same in all vertebrates and invertebrates.

Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction http://www.ncbi.n...16290036

Natural selection for food is the only form of natural selection that leads to successful reproduction.

Do you even know why some animals have evolved wings?


All morphological and all behavioral traits are ecological adaptations. None evolve via natural selection. Darwin insisted that "conditions of life" be placed before "natural selection." Only biologically uninformed science idiots place natural selection before nutrient-dependent "conditions of life."
Protoplasmix
5 / 5 (1) Oct 22, 2015
Good answers, ST, I admit my experience with fruit flies is limited to those flying past avoiding swats. Also I had no idea the ones that did manage to land in my eyes (there have been several) wanted to lay eggs. I thought they were just really bad pilots.

Sooo, "native to the hawthorn" is a misnomer? What gave the fly that distinction, and why didn't "applephilic" flies evolve much sooner?
Protoplasmix
5 / 5 (1) Oct 23, 2015
— sooner than now, that is. In other words, if all it takes is for some of the flies to land on apples, then what took so long for that encounter to finally happen now?
Protoplasmix
5 / 5 (3) Oct 23, 2015
@JVK – yabusi* question:
What manner of nutrients and incense do I need to RNA-adapt me a giant pair of eagle wings?

*yet another biologically uninformed science idiot™. You have your own acronym now.

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