Physicists break distance record for quantum teleportation

September 22, 2015
This graphic shows how to teleport quantum information over 100 km of fiber. Credit: Content By Martin Stevens/NIST, Design By Kelly Irvine/NIST

Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have "teleported" or transferred quantum information carried in light particles over 100 kilometers (km) of optical fiber, four times farther than the previous record.

The experiment confirmed that quantum communication is feasible over long distances in fiber. Other research groups have teleported over longer distances in free space, but the ability to do so over conventional fiber-optic lines offers more flexibility for network design.

Not to be confused with Star Trek's fictional "beaming up" of people, quantum teleportation involves the transfer, or remote reconstruction, of information encoded in quantum states of matter or light. Teleportation is useful in both quantum communications and quantum computing, which offer prospects for novel capabilities such as unbreakable encryption and advanced code-breaking, respectively. The basic method for was first proposed more than 20 years ago and has been performed by a number of research groups, including one at NIST using atoms in 2004.

The new record, described in Optica, involved the transfer of quantum information contained in one photon—its specific time slot in a sequence— to another photon transmitted over 102 km of spooled fiber in a NIST laboratory in Colorado.

The lead author, Hiroki Takesue, was a NIST guest researcher from NTT Corp. in Japan. The achievement was made possible by advanced single-photon detectors designed and made at NIST.

"Only about 1 percent of photons make it all the way through 100 km of fiber," NIST's Marty Stevens says. "We never could have done this experiment without these new detectors, which can measure this incredibly weak signal."

Until now, so much quantum data was lost in fiber that transmission rates and distances were low. The new NTT/NIST teleportation technique could be used to make devices called quantum repeaters that could resend data periodically in order to extend network reach, perhaps enough to eventually build a "quantum internet." Previously, researchers thought quantum repeaters might need to rely on atoms or other matter, instead of light, a difficult engineering challenge that would also slow down transmission.

Various quantum states can be used to carry information; the NTT/NIST experiment used quantum states that indicate when in a sequence of time slots a single photon arrives. The teleportation method is novel in that four of NIST's photon detectors were positioned to filter out specific quantum states. (See graphic for an overview of how the teleportation process works.) The detectors rely on superconducting nanowires made of molybdenum silicide. They can record more than 80 percent of arriving photons, revealing whether they are in the same or different time slots each just 1 nanosecond long. The experiments were performed at wavelengths commonly used in telecommunications.

Because the experiment filtered out and focused on a limited combination of quantum states, teleportation could be successful in only 25 percent of the transmissions at best. Thanks to the efficient detectors, researchers successfully teleported the desired in 83 percent of the maximum possible successful transmissions, on average. All experimental runs with different starting properties exceeded the mathematically significant 66.7 percent threshold for proving the nature of the teleportation process.

Explore further: Longer distance quantum teleportation achieved

More information: H. Takesue, S.D. Dyer, M.J. Stevens, V. Verma, R.P. Mirin, and S.W. Nam. 2015. Quantum teleportation over 100 km of fiber using highly efficient superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors. Optica. Forthcoming. To be published online Sept. 22.

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ogg_ogg
3.7 / 5 (3) Sep 22, 2015
Good article. I had no idea that 100km optical fiber was even produced, nor that you could get a detectable signal after that distance. This highlights one of the problems with quantum mechanics. As taught, the textbooks almost invariably ignore detection inefficiencies (when discussing experimental evidence). When you actually look at the data, the quantum nature of matter/light isn't quite as obvious, or should I say, the detection introduces a statistical dimension to what is already (theoretically) a statistical outcome. Its like flipping a coin and having 15%, 20%, 30% of the coins lost. When that happens, it becomes a whole lot harder to conclude whether the measured outcomes conform to the theory that the flips are "fair" 50:50. You have to assume that the lost coins are randomly lost, and do not have statistics correlating in some way to the measured outcomes. You have to impose a layer of statistics on top of the statistics of quantum mechanics.
antialias_physorg
4 / 5 (4) Sep 22, 2015
quantum teleportation involves the transfer, or remote reconstruction, of information encoded in quantum states of matter or light.
...
Various quantum states can be used to carry information...

Quantum information. Not information. Big difference (the latter can be used to transmit messages. The former cannot. Quantum information can only be used for information-free applications like encryption)

In the rest of the article they get the distinction right, but those two sentences may be confusing to the layman.
indio007
5 / 5 (4) Sep 22, 2015
Why is this called teleportation? Quantum tunnelling is actual teleportation.... This here ia something else.
baudrunner
1 / 5 (5) Sep 22, 2015
Quantum teleportation proves something very important, to my mind. It confirms what I have always thought, that the clue to the teleportation of physical bodies was to understand the dynamic of the underlying "matrix", if you will, superimposed upon the photon background underlying the three spatial dimensions of our space, so that we can literally "trade places" with points in space in order to effect instantaneous relocation to another place. I think that we are just an assembly of modulated photon waves whose collective constitutes a matter wave with a unique signature. In this sense, we can modulate that photon background with this unique signature. But then, would we be sending a copy of ourselves?
shavera
5 / 5 (2) Sep 22, 2015
It's called "teleportation" because it allows a particle of one type to carry quantum information about a particle of another type, and then, presumably, cause a particle of the previous type to gain the quantum state of that previous particle.

Eg, you have an electron that's in a spin up/down superposition. You manipulate a photon to carry that superposition of states. That photon travels to some other electron, which now gains the same correlation of states as the original photon. The caveat being that the information cannot be inspected or copied in the process.

ie, if you look at "which" superposed state, you destroy the process. And the act of transferring the superposition from the first electron to the photon destroys the superposition of the first electron. Thus you cannot "clone" the electron's state, only transfer it.
HealingMindN
3 / 5 (2) Sep 22, 2015
It's called "teleportation" because it allows a particle of one type to carry quantum information about a particle of another type, and then, presumably, cause a particle of the previous type to gain the quantum state of that previous particle.

Eg, you have an electron that's in a spin up/down superposition. You manipulate a photon to carry that superposition of states. That photon travels to some other electron, which now gains the same correlation of states as the original photon. The caveat being that the information cannot be inspected or copied in the process.

ie, if you look at "which" superposed state, you destroy the process. And the act of transferring the superposition from the first electron to the photon destroys the superposition of the first electron. Thus you cannot "clone" the electron's state, only transfer it.


Sounds more like quantum networking.
inkosana
1 / 5 (3) Sep 23, 2015
Why is this called teleportation? Quantum tunnelling is actual teleportation.... This here is something else.
The model for tunnelling found in text books is wrong, since an electron does NOT and CANNOT "tunnel" THROUGH a potential barrier. What happens is that the electron borrows energy (delta)E for the allowed time interval (delta)t, and if this energy is enough, the electron JUMPS over the barrier. After the jump the energy is not there anymore since it is a quantum fluctuation. This is the mechanism for super-conduction. It is also possible that many electrons can form a SINGLE continuous macro-wave in free-space so that an electron injected into this macro-wave disappears as an entity, which results in an electron appearing at the other side of the wave, where it ejects. The charge-transport is non-local and can be faster than the speed of light. This effect, which is akin to teleportation, has been experimentally demonstrated more than 15 years ago.
antialias_physorg
4.2 / 5 (5) Sep 23, 2015
Why is this called teleportation?

Just another word for what used to be called "spooky action at a distance".
swordsman
3.4 / 5 (5) Sep 23, 2015
"The charge-transport is non-local and can be faster than the speed of light." (above)

Utter and complete nonsense!
Noumenon
4 / 5 (4) Sep 23, 2015
inkosana is johanfprins, ...or suffers the same affliction.
inkosana
1 / 5 (4) Sep 23, 2015
"The charge-transport is non-local and can be faster than the speed of light." (above)

Utter and complete nonsense!
Well you are entitled to your opinion but initial TOF experiments indicate otherwise. I hope to get funding for better equipment to generate longer macro-waves so that the time duration across a larger distance can be more accurately measured.

BTW I have just uploaded a new Kindle title on AMAZON: ""How Doppler Confused Einstein""..
Noumenon
3 / 5 (2) Sep 23, 2015
It's called "teleportation" because it allows a particle of one type to carry quantum information about a particle of another type, and then, presumably, cause a particle of the previous type to gain the quantum state of that previous particle.


You have to first establish entangled pairs of particles at the source and destination (physically brought from one location to another because their state is to be unknown in superposition ). This becomes the quantum information conduit. You then entangle another quantum state (to be teleported) with one of the entangled conduit pairs, the source, and perform a measurement. This information is encoded and sent to the destination via traditional means, .... polarization of a photon or whatever,.... and is used at the destination to reconstruct the original quantum state that was to be teleported.

I think they should have called it a quantum entanglement relay, because 'teleportation' implies cloning which is not possible.

Hyperfuzzy
1 / 5 (1) Sep 23, 2015
well, dunno. but in my space-time, every ply is well defined, each instant, a state, ...
Hyperfuzzy
1 / 5 (1) Sep 23, 2015
completely definable, no guess work
indio007
1 / 5 (1) Sep 23, 2015
Charge conservation was the first law of electricity. It is faster than light and has been proven as such. What experiment proves the speed of a change in voltage in the space between charged objects.

I don't think this last has been done.
docile
Sep 23, 2015
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
inkosana
1 / 5 (3) Sep 24, 2015
Charge conservation was the first law of electricity. It is faster than light and has been proven as such. What experiment proves the speed of a change in voltage in the space between charged objects.

I don't think this last has been done.
It is not possible to do since you need a third charge. You can then not measure the electric-field or "voltage" between only two charges. This is also the case for a single charge: In fact there is no electric-field around a SINGLE SOLITARY electron. The mass of the electron is a stationary electromagnetic wave trapped within the body of the solitary stationary electron. In QED it is assumed that there is a static electric-field outside and around the mass-volume of the electron. That is why the integrals explode and have to be fudged by "renormalisation" to get the supposedly "accurate" answers which supposedly makes this theory the "jewel in the crown of physics". LOL!!!
Noumenon
3.4 / 5 (5) Sep 24, 2015
That is why the integrals explode and have to be fudged by "renormalisation" to get the supposedly "accurate" answers which supposedly makes this theory the "jewel in the crown of physics". LOL!!!


Theoretical calculation of anomalous magnetic dipole moment to loop order 3 (Q.E.D.) (in g-factor form),...

1.0011596522012(..)

Experimental measurement.....

1.0011596521884(...)

JohanFPrins theoretical calculation,....

[insert fart sound]

inkosana
1 / 5 (3) Sep 25, 2015
That is why the integrals explode and have to be fudged by "renormalisation" to get the supposedly "accurate" answers which supposedly makes this theory the "jewel in the crown of physics". LOL!!!


http://arxiv.org/.../9602417 of anomalous magnetic dipole moment to loop order 3 (Q.E.D.) (in g-factor form),...

1.0011596522012(..)

Experimental measurement.....

1.0011596521884(...)

JohanFPrins theoretical calculation,..
..

Can you give me a reference to Johan F Prins's fart sound`? I could not find anything on Google.

I have, however, read that various experts in the field of QED, for example, Chris Oakley, who is one of the smartest physicists who did his PhD on this subject, have pointed out that this correspondence is false since it is obtained by the fudging process called renormalisation. He showed that another number you desire can be obtained by the same process. Thus who is farting?
AGreatWhopper
3 / 5 (2) Sep 25, 2015
It's a wet fart, too, with all inkosana/JFP's verbal diarrhea.
indio007
not rated yet Sep 25, 2015


I don't think this last has been done.
It is not possible to do since you need a third charge. You can then not measure the electric-field or "voltage" between only two charges. This is also the case for a single charge: In fact there is no electric-field around a SINGLE SOLITARY electron. The mass of the electron is a stationary electromagnetic wave trapped within the body of the solitary stationary electron. In QED it is assumed that there is a static electric-field outside and around the mass-volume of the electron. That is why the integrals explode and have to be fudged by "renormalisation" to get the supposedly "accurate" answers which supposedly makes this theory the "jewel in the crown of physics". LOL!!!


The experiment could be done with a rather large wheatstone bridge or maybe using the Ahronov Bohm effect , or maybe using the hall effect.

I have little doubt it can be done.
inkosana
1 / 5 (2) Sep 25, 2015
It's a wet fart, too, with all inkosana/JFP's verbal diarrhea.
It seems that you like to wallow in a cesspool. It is your right: So enjoy it. But it classifies you!
inkosana
not rated yet Sep 25, 2015
[The experiment could be done with a rather large wheatstone bridge
Please be more specific and explain how.
or maybe using the Aharonov Bohm effect
Aharonov and Bohm's explanation of this effect is wrong , since it is based on the concept of probability waves that allow "particles" to diffract. This is only possible in Alice's Wonderland: But even so explain how this effect can be used to do these measurements
or maybe using the hall effect.
The Hall effect to measure the electric-field in free-space between two solitary charges?: What is going to carry the current. You must be kidding!

I have little doubt it can be done.
Then explain the set-up and how it can be done. Hand-waving in the air is of no use whatsoever!
big_hairy_jimbo
not rated yet Sep 27, 2015
I thought the reason it was referred to as teleportation was because you can transfer properties of one particle to another. For instance properties of an electron at the source can have it's quantum properties removed and placed on a carrier. The original electron now has properties given to it by the carrier when they exchanged. The carrier is then TRANSMITTED at light speed or less to a destination. The carrier interacts with another electron, imparting the quantum properties to it, and the receiving electron to the carrier. So when you look at what happened, the original electron seems to have "teleported" to the destination. Note there is no cloning going on. Not at any stage where there TWO electrons with identical quantum properties. This is one of the definitions of Teleportation. No cloning!!!!
inkosana
not rated yet Sep 28, 2015
@ big_hairy_jimbo: What is the "carrier" that you are talking about? Can you be more specific?
big_hairy_jimbo
not rated yet Sep 30, 2015
The carrier could be a photon.
So a quantum property of an electron is transferred to a photon, the photon is transmitted down a fibre, then interacts with a destination electron. Therefore the initial electron SEEMS to have been teleported from one end of the fibre to the other.
inkosana
not rated yet Sep 30, 2015
The carrier could be a photon.
So a quantum property of an electron is transferred to a photon, the photon is transmitted down a fibre, then interacts with a destination electron. Therefore the initial electron SEEMS to have been teleported from one end of the fibre to the other.
This is BS unless you can define what a "photon" is and how an electron can Xerox its characteristics onto a photon which has characteristics that you are not defining . Thus lets try and argue logically like scientists are supposed to be doing (but have stopped doing during the 20th century). Define for me what is a "photon". Is it a coherent light-wave or is it not a light-wave??
big_hairy_jimbo
not rated yet Oct 28, 2015
@inkosana, go do your own research mate. There is no "XEROXing" done. No COPIES are made, transference is what is happening. There is plenty on the web as to what we suspect a photon to be. Try looking at QED for info on Electrons and Photons.
No BS mate, just good science!!!
inkosana
not rated yet Nov 02, 2015
big_hairy_jimbo

Why does "transference" occur? If you cannot model this, you do not have any idea what "good science" is.

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