Expanding theory of evolution

August 5, 2015

An Indiana University professor is part of an international team of biologists working to expand Darwin's theory of evolution to encompass factors that influence a species' growth and development beyond genetics—as well as to consider the impact of species on the environment.

The concepts originally laid out in Charles Darwin's "On the Origin of Species" in 1859 continue to serve as a major foundation for the modern theory of .

In recent decades, however, biologists in previously overlooked fields such as developmental biology and ecology have made discoveries that extend the basic principles upon which Darwin's theory was founded.

Yet many scientists—and science textbooks—regard these modifications merely as "proximate considerations," not as core aspects of evolution. Indiana University biologist Armin Moczek and a team of international collaborators want to change these assumptions.

Their new approach, dubbed the "extended evolutionary synthesis," appears in the Aug. 5 issue of the Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.

"Our long-term goal is to lay out an extended for evolutionary biology that delivers answers to questions that traditional methods have been unable to provide," said Moczek, a professor in the IU Bloomington College of Arts and Sciences' Department of Biology, who is an author on the paper.

Other collaborators include distinguished scientists from the the United Kingdom, Israel, Australia, Austria, Sweden and the United States. The work is the journal's 2015 "Darwin Review," an honorary name given each year to a single paper judged highly significantly by the journal's editors.

"It's important that conceptual frameworks themselves evolve in response to new data, theories and methodologies," said Moczek, an internationally known expert on the evolution and development of insects. "This isn't always straightforward since habits of thought and practice can grow deeply entrenched."

In the paper, Moczek and others focus on several processes that, they argue, play critical roles in evolution but typically are not regarded as part of current .

The authors discuss the way an organism's growth from egg to adult influences species' evolution. The field of evolutionary developmental biology, or "evo-devo," has found that highly different organisms—from sea urchins to insects and mammals—use the same "building blocks" to grow their bodies during development. This shared "toolbox" enables unrelated organisms to evolve strikingly similar structures over time—the independent evolution of eyes in insects and vertebrates, for example.

These same building blocks may also be re-used in different ways. Moczek's research, for example, shows that genes and developmental pathways that originally gave rise to legs and other appendages were later re-used to create beetles' extravagant horn-like structures.

Moczek and colleagues also argue that the role of "plasticity"—or the ability of many organisms to adjust their growth and development in response to environmental changes over their lifetime—has been overlooked in evolutionary theory. They cite growing evidence that novel traits prompted by the environment may be genetically fixed in subsequent generations.

Lastly, the scientists say evolutionary theory should expand to consider how organisms systematically modify their own environment, such as building nests or burrows; change the atmosphere or soil; or create cultures. And they show that factors beyond genetic inheritance influence species across generations, including prenatal hormones, care after birth and learning.

Traditional evolutionary biology emphasizes a single direction: Genes give rise to observable traits, such as its physical characteristics, biological processes or behaviors. The environment may favor certain traits but in the process remains external from the organism.

"We're arguing for a reciprocal model, one in which genes not only contribute to an organism's observable traits, but also where an organisms' own traits, behaviors and actions significantly impact the rate and direction of evolutionary change," Moczek said.

This shift in approach could also have an impact on fields related to biology, such as medicine, Moczek added.

The new conceptual framework could help advance research on how diseases—and their cures—may have roots in factors beyond genes, he said. A growing number of studies suggest autoimmune diseases may stem in part from a lack of "natural challenges" caused by widespread use of antibiotics, lack of parasites and even flush toilets, for example. Others show that controlled inoculation with helminths, a parasitic worm, can alleviate symptoms from asthma, inflammatory bowel disease and multiple sclerosis; or that non-obese diabetic mice prone to type 1 diabetes will not develop the disease upon infection with pig whipworms.

"Collectively, these studies provide growing support that co-development with microbial or infectious agents may be key to healthy development," Moczek said. "We may find the conditions that favor or discourage diseases actually arise from the environments we create through our actions."

Explore further: In evolution, 'house of cards' model wins

More information: The Extended Evolutionary Synthesis: Its Structure, Assumptions, And Predictions, rspb.royalsocietypublishing.or … .1098/rspb.2015.1019

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Returners
2 / 5 (4) Aug 05, 2015
A growing number of studies suggest autoimmune diseases may stem in part from a lack of "natural challenges" caused by widespread use of antibiotics, lack of parasites and even flush toilets, for example.


I think I'll keep my vaccinations, antibiotics, and toilets.

We've doubled life expectancy of humans in the past two centuries via these advancements, and now you're implying we should do away with them. Great.

Let's just go back to chamber pots and dump all our shit in the streets.
FredJose
1 / 5 (9) Aug 05, 2015
No matter how one changes a theory that's based on a faulty premise, that theory will still remain as invalid as it has always been.

Just so by the way - all the proposed new changes are simply proposed new ways to observe how diseases spread. It's got very little to do with Darwinian evolution per se. As one can verify by looking at the history of biological disease control, it's easy to see that evolution has very little if any influence on how science works. Adaptations are things observed in real-life and are repeatable, verifiable and well-documented.
Changing from a one-cellular organism to all the multi-celled organisms we see today is simply pure speculation and un-scientific since there is no documented and or repeatable observations that shows how it happened. Fossils do not show it, all it shows are the remains of dead animals quickly buried in the [mostly] sedimentary rocks. There is no traceable progression from one organism to the next; that only exists as ghosts.
viko_mx
1 / 5 (4) Aug 05, 2015
For the syntesis of proteins from amino acids are needed enzimes which are complex proteins with composite structure including several sub units. Like RNA polymerase which is involved in the process of transcription of DNA into RNA fragments. In all living organizms do not exist simplified mechanism for the processing of genetic information recorded in DNA and for the synthesis of proteins although in nature all things are organized maximum rational. So how come to existеnсе the complex information and mechanisms for it procesing simultaneously by ranodm chance? I doubt that such kind of philosophers ever ask such questions.
Torbjorn_Larsson_OM
5 / 5 (6) Aug 05, 2015
If i got a penny... Another yearly exudate on the same level as the similarly unobserved 'Dryas impact' claim. Here is what speciation expert jerry Coyne said on this claim in Nature back in -08, nearly 10 years of wasted effort ago:

""These notions haven't forced us to change the neo-darwinian paradigm," says Jerry Coyne, an evolutionary geneticist at the University of Chicago. Coyne has little time for "evo-devotees"7 who think that the discipline will cause a revolution in biology. Researchers coming at evolution from population genetics are particularly resistant to any attempt to displace natural selection from the place at the heart of evolutionary theory that the modern synthesis provided it with. "The whole thing about natural selection being an insufficient paradigm seems grossly overblown," says Coyne. "There are a lot of interesting new things coming out that will change our view of evolution. But to say the modern synthesis is incomplete or fatally flawed is fatuous.""
Torbjorn_Larsson_OM
5 / 5 (7) Aug 05, 2015
[ctd]

[ http://www.nature...ml#close ]

And yes, seeing the drive by creationist trolls - that nowadays don't even have the energy to seem to grapple with the articles - the unnecessary giving of ammunition, when there is nothing problematic in the current theory and it amply explains what the trolls claim it doesn't - came up there too.

Because creationists were predictable even before they learned how to troll.

How antibiotics have been the best medicine tool ever: https://en.wikipe...ibiotics

How evolution, and no other observable fact, incorporates and explain speciation: https://en.wikipe...volution

How we know the genetic machinery evolved from before DNA and proteins, and how a Nobel Prize was give to the observation: https://en.wikipe...NA_world
Osiris1
1 / 5 (2) Aug 05, 2015
We may want to consider alien influences in our evolutionary studies. Many have said that panspermia has influenced life on our world. Good chance there is alien DNA, RNA, etc, even in our mitochondria. Most of it is probably in a concentration about 12-13,000 years ago. Although more may be in other time/location locii as original infusion points due to other visitations. Point is our species has been interfered with. Man did nothing but chuck spears for millions of years; maybe build some fires and make some simple stone tools. All of a sudden some 12,500-12,800 years ago he is building cities of stone and using metals. Some sites under the sea off the Indian coast NE are about 13,000 years old and under hundreds of feet of water....late ice age construction. Pyramid builders all over the world...same shapes. Yep we got played a LOT. Even in Bosnia, and China
RobertKarlStonjek
not rated yet Aug 05, 2015
Actually, the principles were laid out in Thomas Robert Malthus' essay 'An Essay on the Principle of Population' in which he pointed out that more people are born than can be supported by societies and therefore only the fittest survive.

His book was read by both Wallace and Darwin and they both applied the Malthusian principle to species to come up with natural selection which they jointly announced at the Linnean society in 1858.

Malthus (1766-1834) was arguing against supporting the poor, an early form of what would later become known as eugenics.
NIPSZX
not rated yet Aug 06, 2015
This theory could be used to explain why kids can grab an iPhone and use it when they are very young. The evolution of humans adapts every year.
JVK
1 / 5 (4) Aug 06, 2015
Re: "...highly different organisms—from sea urchins to insects and mammals—use the same "building blocks" to grow their bodies during development."

The epigenetic effects of the sensory environment link the anti-entropic energy of the sun to plant life and animal life via the de novo creation of nucleic acids and RNA-mediated gene duplication.

Gene duplication links RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to cell type differentiation during the development of all cell types in all individuals of all organisms via the conserved molecular mechanisms of biophysically constrained protein folding.

Protein folding is nutrient-dependent and ecological speciation is controlled by the physiology of reproduction. Reproduction enables fixation of the amino acid substitutions that stabilize organized genomes.

Viruses perturb protein folding, which links them to all pathology in the absence of nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated DNA damage repair.

That is not a theory.
viko_mx
2 / 5 (4) Aug 06, 2015
@Torbjorn_Larsson_OM

The habit of calling every partisipant in this forum with different from your opinion troll, when questioned the official dogmas imposed by consensus and other devious methods, showed your nervousness and inability to defend your believes with scientific arguments. You lack of knowedge in microbiology and genetics is obvious and you do not have desire to enrich it. Probably because like every freeloader of the system you have no interest in looking for scientific truth but in defending the status quo. Everyone would have thought that after so vigorously defend your faith, you have serious reasons to do so. But they obviously are not scientific since you and other supoorters of ebvolutionary mithology can not explain how evolution actuali works on genetic level and when are asked for such explanation they apply banal tactic to send people for mushrooms by giving them useless sites to waste their time while flee from responsibility. Classics of the genre.
JVK
1 / 5 (4) Aug 06, 2015
Thanks viko_mx

I wonder why more people do not challenge the biologically uninformed science idiots who continue to denigrate my contributions to what is currently known to serious scientists about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.

It is not difficult to learn about by starting with a google search: Like this: https://www.googl...mediated

From there, others can begin to examine what is known about
https://www.googl...mediated+DNA+methylation

and the difference between the effects of viral microRNAs and nutrient-dependent microRNAs

https://www.googl...roRNA%22

Simply put, no one needs to spend hours in the library trying to put the facts together as I did in the early 90's. Now the facts are exposed for all to see, and the facts are only a few clicks away.
JVK
1.8 / 5 (5) Aug 06, 2015
RNA-mediated epigenetic regulation of gene expression
http://www.nature...863.html is an excellent up-to-date recap of some of what we reported in our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review article in the molecular epigenetics section.

From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior http://www.hawaii...ion.html

It shows what happens when others also continue to follow the developments based on experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect instead of following those who tout the pseudoscientific nonsense of evolutionary theories.
JVK
1.7 / 5 (6) Aug 06, 2015
Malthus (1766-1834) was arguing against supporting the poor, an early form of what would later become known as eugenics.


Wasn't that what led to the Scopes trial, which was actually based on a challenge to teaching creationism and a successful attempt to later replace it with teaching neo-Darwinism in the 60's -- long after it was invented by population geneticists who bastardized Darwin's theory by ignoring his "conditions of life" and placing natural selection first?

A generation of ignorance separated the 1925 trial from the time that neo-Darwinism gained its foot-hold among the ever-more-ignorant masses who accepted ridiculous theories that had not been supported by experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect.

Even now, the theorists claim that evolution is a proven fact when they make claims about neo-Darwinian theory, which was invented and never supported by serious scientists who have linked epigenetics and genetics.
JVK
1 / 5 (4) Aug 06, 2015
Re: "...co-development with microbial or infectious agents may be key to healthy development," Moczek said. "We may find the conditions that favor or discourage diseases actually arise from the environments we create through our actions."

Half of that perspective is included in this video, which links viruses that perturb protein folding to the evolution of love and human monogamy. https://www.youtu...04x6MvMY

The half of that perspective that links the environments we have created through our actions from viruses and perturbed protein folding to all pathology is missing.

That's the part that links nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated gene duplication and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to the organized genomes of all living genera via DNA repair in the context of the physiology of nutrient-dependent reproduction and healthy longevity in all genera that have not already become extinct via entropic elasticity linked to genomic entropy.
JVK
1 / 5 (4) Aug 06, 2015
http://www.scienc....summary
The next century of ecology

Excerpt: "From the microbes inhabiting the earth beneath our feet to environments of the universe unknown to us now, the next 100 years of ecological discoveries will influence our lives. We enter a time when society is armed with the scientific knowledge and ability to make responsible decisions."

Evolutionary theorists have refused to arm themselves. The next year of ecological discoveries will eliminate the "Modern Synthesis" and the extended evolutionary synthesis from any further consideration whatsoever.

Ridiculous theories cannot be made to fit what is known to serious scientists about the biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent chemistry of RNA-mediated protein folding and cell type differentiation in all living genera.
JVK
1 / 5 (4) Aug 07, 2015
From senior author Cassandra Extavour: "Specifically, we need to understand the emergence, dynamics and interaction of evolutionarily conserved modules, how these modules interact to produce emergent properties in developmental networks, and how these networks result in phenotypic
outcomes in specific environments through the process of evolution. This challenge will require both a systems-level integration of information and a unification of central concepts across the broadest swath of biological levels...http://dx.doi.org...de.12125

My comment: A unification of central concepts across the broadest swath of biological levels requires the acknowledgement by biologically uninformed theorists that nothing automagically emerges. Ecological variation leads to nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in all genera unless cell type differentiation is perturbed by viruses that link stress to mutations and failed DNA repair mechanisms to pathology.
Dr_ Rock
4 / 5 (4) Aug 18, 2015
Viruses perturb protein folding, which links them to all pathology in the absence of nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated DNA damage repair.

That is not a theory.


We can agree on that. A scientific theory is based on actual experimental evidence. This is complete nonsense masked as science for idiot trolls.
Dr_ Rock
4 / 5 (4) Aug 18, 2015
I wonder why more people do not challenge the biologically uninformed science idiots who continue to denigrate my contributions to what is currently known to serious scientists about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.

It is not difficult to learn about by starting with a google search: Like this: https://www.googl...mediated
Simply put, no one needs to spend hours in the library trying to put the facts together as I did in the early 90's. Now the facts are exposed for all to see, and the facts are only a few clicks away.


So, "facts" are nonsensical remarks spouted by yourself in forums and on your own stinky potion website? Fucking hilarious.
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Aug 18, 2015
See: Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever http://labmed.asc...abstract

Facts appear in the context of articles published in one of my trade journals -- for Medical Laboratory Scientists.

I am a member of the American Society for Clinical Pathology
https://en.wikipe...athology

Excerpt: In contrast to human infection, CCHFV infection is asymptomatic in all species.

Species specificity is nutrient-dependent and controlled by the physiology of reproduction, which suggests that something as simple as a change in diet could eliminate this human-specific virus-driven pathology via a single amino acid substitution.

Neo-Darwinian theory suggests that we are the only species on this planet that has not evolved protection against this virus via mutations and natural selection.

That is not something an intelligent person would accept. Is it?
Dr_ Rock
4 / 5 (4) Aug 19, 2015
Species specificity is nutrient-dependent and controlled by the physiology of reproduction, which suggests that something as simple as a change in diet could eliminate this human-specific virus-driven pathology via a single amino acid substitution.


Really? A single amino acid substitution in the virus? Is there any experimental evidence supporting your bold statements? You're not convincing anyone here but merely continue to delude yourself.
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Aug 19, 2015
Is there any experimental evidence supporting your bold statements?


What bold statements? My model of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation that prevent the accumulation of viruses from leading to genomic entropy via viral microRNAs has been incorporated into the works of serious scientists since it was first presented for a lay audience in book publication in 1995.

It was also incorporated into the plot of Greg Bear's science fiction novels "Darwin's Radio" and "Darwin's Children" after first being suggested by Greg in "Blood Music" in 1985.
JVK
1 / 5 (2) Sep 18, 2015
In one more day, my antagonists here will have been silenced for one month. This link is to an article published more than 2 years ago, that should have silenced my antagonists forever,

See: The Social Life of Genes http://www.psmag....es-64616

If you do not understand the following two quotes from the article you are probably a biologically uninformed theorist who believes whatever pseudosceintific nonsense about evolution that you were taught to believe in.

1) "This is what a cell is about. A cell," he said, clasping some amberjack, "is a machine for turning experience into biology."

2) "Cole was channeling John Milton: "The mind is its own place, and in itself can make a heaven of hell, a hell of heaven."

Neo-Darwinian evolutionary theorists continue to create hell on earth. Only serious scientists are Combating Evolution to Fight Disease http://comments.s....1247472

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