Researchers discover new mechanism of DNA repair

July 3, 2015
Estimated structure of the nucleosomal DNA loops, which are temporarily formed during transcription of chromatin containing intact DNA by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). In the presence of a single-strand DNA break, the loop structure likely changes, preventing rotation of the RNA polymerase along the DNA helix (orange arrow). Credit: Nadezhda S. Gerasimova et al

The DNA molecule is chemically unstable giving rise to DNA lesions of different nature. That is why DNA damage detection, signaling and repair, collectively known as the DNA damage response, are needed.

A group of researchers, lead by Vasily M. Studitsky, professor at the Lomonosov Moscow State University, discovered a new mechanism of DNA repair, which opens up new perspectives for the treatment and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. The article describing their discovery is published in AAAS' first open access online-only journal Science Advances.

"In higher organisms DNA is bound with proteins in complexes called the nucleosome. Every ~200 base pairs are organized in nucleosomes, consisting of eight histone proteins, which, like the thread on the bobbin, wound double helix of DNA, which is coiled into two supercoiled loops. Part of the surface of the DNA helix is hidden, because it interacts with histones. Our entire genome is packed this way, except for the areas, from which the information is being currently read",—says Vasily M. Studitsky , who is the leading researcher and the head of the Laboratory of Regulation of Transcription and Replication at the Biological Faculty of the Lomonosov Moscow State University.

The dense packing allows DNA molecule with a length of about two meters to fit into a microscopic cell nucleus, but it makes significant surfaces of the DNA inaccessible for the repair enzymes—the proteins that manage the "repair" of damaged DNA regions. The damage of the DNA, if not repaired, leads to accumulation of mutations, cell death, and to the development of various diseases, including neurodegenerative, e.g. Alzheimer's disease.

A group of researchers, lead by Vasily M. Studitsky, studied the mechanism of detection of single-stranded DNA breaks at which the connection is lost between nucleotides on one strand in the places where the DNA is associated with histones.

Scientists know quite a lot about the mechanism of the repair. It is known that for the synthesis of a protein, information written in the genetic code, which could be imagined as the manual for its assembly where triples of nucleotides match certain amino acids, should be taken out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm of the cell.

Thin and long strand of the DNA is packed in the nucleus and can tear at the exit to the outside. Moreover, it cannot be sacrificed as the cell's nuclear DNA is is only present in two copies. Therefore, when it is necessary to synthesize specific protein, small region of DNA is unwound, the two strands are disconnected, and the information on the protein structure with one of the DNA strands is written in form of RNA, single-stranded molecule. The mRNA molecule, which serves as the template for making a protein, is synthesized by the principle of complementarity: each nucleotide pair corresponds to another one.

During the transcription of information (its rewriting into RNA) the RNA polymerase enzyme "rides" on the DNA chain, and stops when it finds the break. Like a proofreader of a text, RNA polymerase after it is stalled, triggers a cascade of reactions, resulting in the repair enzymes fixing the damaged area. At the same time, the RNA polymerase cannot detect discontinuities present in the other DNA strand.

"We have shown, not yet in the cell, but in vitro, that the repair of breaks in the other DNA chain, which is "hidden" in the nucleosome, is still possible. According to our hypothesis, it occurs due to the formation of special small DNA loops in the nucleosome, although normally DNA wounds around the histone "spool" very tightly",—says Vasily M. Studitsky,—"The loops form when the DNA is coiled back on nucleosome together with polymerase. RNA polymerase can "crawl" along the DNA loops nearly as well as on histone-free DNA regions, but when it stops near locations of the DNA breaks, it "panics", triggering the cascade of reactions to start DNA "repairs".

During the experiment, special sites, where single-stranded breaks can be introduced by adding specific enzymes in a test tube, were inserted into the DNA. Then a single nucleosome transcribed by a single RNA molecule was studied. In this model system, which was developed in 2002 by the same group of scientists, histones were assembled on the molecule with an accuracy within one nucleotide. Having specially introduced breaks at precise locations on the DNA, the researchers examined the impact of breaks on the progression of the RNA polymerase. It turned out that only in nucleosomes, rather than in the histone-free DNA, the enzyme stopped, when the break was present in the other DNA strand. Wherein it did not stop before the break, but immediately after it. It was difficult enough to understand the mechanism that allows it to notice the damage at the "back" of RNA polymerase, as if it had "eyes on the back of the head", although, obviously, it does not have neither one nor the other.

The analysis of breaks in different positions allowed to hypothesize that stalling of RNA polymerase is caused by the formation of the loop, which blocks movement of the enzyme. The findings open up a new direction for the work on the subject of DNA repair.

Previously the role of chromatin considered passive as scientists thought the DNA repair is possible only on histone-free DNA. However, professorr Vasily M. Studitsky and his colleagues found that the thread can be repaired without complete unwinding of DNA "coils". The highly conserved histones play an important role in this process as changes in their structure are rejected by natural selection. Moreover, the high level of protein conservation just assumes its active participation in many processes.

Furthermore, the models proposed by the scientists first time ever explains the role of the so-called topological locks, which are formed during the passage of any enzyme along the DNA when it meets a nucleosome.

"In terms of applied science discovery of a new mechanism of reparation promises new prospective methods of prevention and treatment of diseases. We have shown that the formation of loops, which stop the polymerase, depends on its contacts with histones. If you make them more robust, it will increase the efficiency of the formation of loops and the probability of repair, which in turn will reduce the risk of disease. If these contacts are destabilized, then by using special methods of drug delivery you can program the death of the affected cells",—Vasily Studitsky concluded, adding that the process of development and testing of such drugs, of course, requires considerable time.

Explore further: A novel DNA damage alarm

More information: Structure of transcribed chromatin is a sensor of DNA damage, Science Advances, advances.sciencemag.org/content/1/6/e1500021

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JVK
1 / 5 (4) Jul 03, 2015
Excerpt 1) "Scientists know quite a lot about the mechanism of the repair. It is known that for the synthesis of a protein, information written in the genetic code, which could be imagined as the manual for its assembly where triples of nucleotides match certain amino acids, should be taken out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm of the cell."

The DNA repair mechanism is nutrient-dependent and involves RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types of all individuals of all genera via their physiology of nutrient-dependent reproduction. When the RNA-directed molecular mechanisms of DNA repair fail, mutations perturb protein folding and ultimately the accumulated mutations may lead to pathology. Mutations do not lead to the evolution of one species from another.

Excerpt 2) "The highly conserved histones play an important role in this process as changes in their structure are rejected by natural selection."
Vietvet
3.5 / 5 (8) Jul 03, 2015
" Mutations do not lead to the evolution of one species from another."

Words from a preeminent science idiot.
JVK
1 / 5 (5) Jul 03, 2015
Mutation-Driven Evolution http://www.amazon...99661731

Excerpt: "...genomic conservation and constraint-breaking mutation is the ultimate source of all biological innovations and the enormous amount of biodiversity in this world."

Who's the idiot?
Vietvet
3.3 / 5 (7) Jul 03, 2015
@JVK

Mutation-Driven Evolution http://www.amazon...99661731

Excerpt: "...genomic conservation and constraint-breaking mutation is the ultimate source of all biological innovations and the enormous amount of biodiversity in this world."

Who's the idiot?


You are. That's evident with every comment you make.
JVK
1 / 5 (4) Jul 03, 2015
Obviously, you have eaten too much chicken and the viruses have altered your brain function. I could tell you about how to repair the damage, but you wouldn't listen. Besides, we need brain damaged people like you to set an example for others who might want to avoid the brain damage.

Bacteriophages isolated from chicken meat and the horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes http://aem.asm.or...abstract

Vietvet
3.4 / 5 (5) Jul 03, 2015
@JVK

There is a term for what you do.

Throw it at the wall and see what sticks.
JVK
1 / 5 (4) Jul 03, 2015
http://elifescien...fe.07197

Excerpt: These findings suggest extracellular miRNAs can function in target cells and uncover a potential new mode of action for mutant KRAS in CRC.

See also: Insights from Space: Potential Role of Diet in the Spatial Organization of Chromosomes http://www.mdpi.c...5724/htm

Excerpt: Bisphenol A (BPA) inhibits the methylation of imprinted genes during oogenesis [74,75] and affects the expression of microRNA targeting SOX family genes [76], while the endocrine disruptor and pesticide Methoxychlor leads to hypermethylation of Esr2 and induces Dnmt3b expression in the ovary [77]. Studies to date have primarily characterized epigenetic alteration of specific genes and pathways (reviewed in [73]). However, inappropriate activation of estrogen signaling pathways could also have a profound effect on global genome organization...
viko_mx
1 / 5 (3) Jul 04, 2015
"The damage of the DNA, if not repaired, leads to accumulation of mutations, cell death, and to the development of various diseases, including neurodegenerative, e.g. Alzheimer's disease."

So say experts microbiologists. So the question again is how evolution realy works? Magic?
viko_mx
1 / 5 (3) Jul 04, 2015
"Mutation-Driven Evolution http://www.amazon...99661731

Excerpt: "...genomic conservation and constraint-breaking mutation is the ultimate source of all biological innovations and the enormous amount of biodiversity in this world."

Who's the idiot?"

Probably well paid philosofer who have no idea about scienses microbiology and biochemistry.
Neodim
not rated yet Jul 04, 2015
If the synthesis of some command ("...when it is necessary to synthesize specific protein...") is how to set it? For natural DNA repair, possibly, it is important to decipher the system of "commands" of the body.
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jul 04, 2015
For natural DNA repair, possibly, it is important to decipher the system of "commands" of the body.


It's important to know that DNA repair is nutrient-dependent because that's how it is linked to the systems biology that begins with what is known about the RNA-mediated differentiation of cell types via amino acid substitutions.

For example, if the system cannot generate an epigenetic trap via the conserved molecular mechanisms of biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry, organism-level genome stability cannot be achieved. To see what happens when the first consideration is the epigenetic trap (not mutations and evolution) see:

An Epigenetic Trap Stabilizes Singular Olfactory Receptor Expression http://linkinghub...13007782

The explanatory power of my model of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions exponentially increases from this starting point.
Captain Stumpy
3.7 / 5 (3) Jul 04, 2015
It's important to know that DNA repair is nutrient-dependent because
@jk
it can't be, otherwise all 12 populations of Lenski's initial generations until 2003 would have never differed from each other, as they were all in the same medium as well as in the same conditions: NO CHANGES there
therefore, the fact that there WERE mutations and evolution in just a few populations supports the claims by evolutionary theorists by experimental evidence

The explanatory power of my model
there is NO explanatory power if it is wrong
see: http://www.socioa...ew/24367

IOW- creationists/7th day adventists like kohl are wrong

https://en.wikipe...s_ruling
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jul 04, 2015
I doubt that Lenski ever made the conclusions that other people claim he made. If he did, that has changed.

Genomic analysis of a key innovation in an experimental Escherichia coli population
http://www.ncbi.n...3461117/

Abstract conclusion: "Our findings illustrate the importance of promoter capture and altered gene regulation in mediating the exaptation events that often underlie evolutionary innovations."

Serious scientists realize that he has claimed his experiments link ecological variation to ecological adaptation via RNA-mediated events that link the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of all genera via the physiology of their reproduction. Only biologically uninformed science idiots take his claims and try to use them to support their ridiculous theories.
Andrew Palfreyman
not rated yet Jul 04, 2015
Just think how much more readable this article would be if written by a native English speaker.
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jul 04, 2015
Excerpt: "Scientists know quite a lot about the mechanism of the repair. ...triples of nucleotides match certain amino acids, should be taken out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm of the cell.

How much clearer can the fact that DNA repair is RNA-mediated by nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions, which link the stability of organized genomes via the physiology of reproduction in all genera?

If there were no biologically uninformed science idiots to twist the accurate representations of biologically-based cause and effect into a nightmare of confusion, who couldn't understand the fact that all organisms must eat to reproduce and that thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation that are perturbed by mutations do not link the cycles to the physiology of nutrient-dependent reproduction.

The mutations are linked to pathology -- except by science idiots, like AF SSgt (retired) Stumpy who was raised by wolves and calls himself a Captain.
Captain Stumpy
3.7 / 5 (3) Jul 04, 2015
Are the results of Lensky confirmed by the international scientific community? I have not heard for independent groups of researchers that have done similar experiments with similar results
@renTROLL
1- yes, it HAS been validated, through various means, from Dr Extavour et al to Dr Whittaker et al (which is how Beacon got started, by the way)

2- of course you didn't hear about it, you don't read or care about SCIENCE or evidence, as shown by your promotion of religion over science here on PO
Captain Stumpy
3.7 / 5 (3) Jul 04, 2015
I doubt that Lenski ever made the conclusions that other people claim he made. If he did, that has changed
@jk
from your own link
We previously described the evolution of a novel trait, aerobic citrate utilization (Cit+), in an experimental population of Escherichia coli. Here we analyze genome sequences to investigate the history and genetic basis of this trait. At least three distinct clades coexisted for more than 10,000 generations prior to its emergence. The Cit+ trait originated in one clade by a tandem duplication that captured an aerobically-expressed promoter for the expression of a previously silent citrate transporter. The clades varied in their propensity to evolve this novel trait, although genotypes able to do so existed in all three clades, implying that multiple potentiating mutations arose during the population's history.
IOW - this says exactly what both ANON and i have told you it says
and that is just the later generations!
2Bcont'd
Captain Stumpy
3.7 / 5 (3) Jul 04, 2015
@jk cont'd
The mutations are linked to pathology
except, somehow, in the first hundred plus thousand generations? WTF? the Lenski experiments (especially the first generations till 2003) directly refute your claim
http://myxo.css.m...dex.html

except by science idiots, like AF SSgt (retired) Stumpy who was raised by wolves and calls himself a Captain
this coming from a girl who says
I am a serious scientist (medical laboratory scientist) with 40 years experience in diagnostic medicine
or claims
In the past two years I've learned enough about physics to link the speed of light on contact with water to the de novo creation of amino acids
both of which are blatant lies! and proven to be blatant lies to boot!

at least i can prove myself!
you've only proven that you are a chronic liar with Dunning-Kruger following creationist dogma!
see also your May 30 tantrum here: http://phys.org/n...ols.html
JVK
1 / 5 (4) Jul 04, 2015
...multiple potentiating mutations arose during the population's history.


Biologically uninformed science idiots think that means the "potentiating mutations" were linked to the evolution of the ability to use citrate, which is something that arose during thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation. It led to the stability of organism-level thermoregulation in some strains, and cell death in others.

Ecological variation leads to ecological adaptation via the conserved molecular mechanisms of organism-level thermoregulation. It leads to mutations and pathology when the variation is too great.

That's how nutrient-stress and social stress lead to pathology when organisms cannot repair their DNA in the context of the anti-entropic epigenetic effects of nutrient-dependent microRNAs that control the virus-driven entropic elasticity caused by viral microRNAs.

Stress does not lead to the evolution of anything via mutations.
JVK
1 / 5 (4) Jul 04, 2015
Predicting evolution by in vitro evolution requires determining evolutionary pathways. http://aac.asm.or...035.full

Excerpt:
"...the power of DNA shuffling might be applied to the problem of predicting evolution in nature from in vitro evolution in the laboratory. As a predictor of natural evolutionary processes, that power may be misleading because in nature mutations almost always arise one at a time, and each advantageous mutation must be fixed into the population by an evolutionary pathway that leads from the wild type to the fully evolved sequence."

It is the failure to predict how any evolutionary pathway could lead to a fully evolved sequence that remains the problem for the biologically uninformed.

Most theorists still don't recognize the need for the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled fixation of RNA-medicated amino acid substitutions that differentiate cell types. Thus, serious scientists laugh at all their ridiculous claims.
JVK
1 / 5 (4) Jul 04, 2015
For an example of what serious scientists are doing to combat evolution and fight disease, see also "Rational Design of Antibiotic Treatment Plans: A Treatment Strategy for Managing Evolution and Reversing Resistance" http://journals.p....0122283

Excerpt: "We identified optimized treatment paths that returned the highest probabilities of selecting for reversions of amino acid substitutions and returning TEM to the wild type state."

Can you imagine how many people have been killed by evolutionary theorists during the past decade -- if only because of their ridiculous belief in beneficial mutations? Have they killed someone you love, or will people like Andrew Jones, James Stumpy, and Steven Taylor help to cause their death by ignorance?
Captain Stumpy
3.7 / 5 (3) Jul 04, 2015
Can you imagine how many people have been killed by evolutionary theorists during the past decade -- if only because of their ridiculous belief in beneficial mutations? Have they killed someone you love, or will people like Andrew Jones, James Stumpy, and Steven Taylor help to cause their death by ignorance?
@jk
the only thing people have to truly fear is the pseudoscience practitioners like yourself who mix valid science with creationist/7th day advent dogma and religion in an attempt to justify their beliefs and feel good about themselves despite their historical failures which have brought them to making false claims easily researched - i've pointed out your lies above:

so now, be specific and fill us in:

Specifically state how Lenski/Extavour/Whittaker et al are wrong in their studies

Specifically show the evidence where you claimed "I've learned enough about physics to link the speed of light on contact with water to the de novo creation of amino acids"
Captain Stumpy
3.7 / 5 (3) Jul 04, 2015
Most theorists still don't recognize the need for the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled
your dinning-kruger is showing again
please read the following: http://www.ploson...tion=PDF

also:
...ridiculous belief in beneficial mutations?
But you saw for yourself that Lenski proved Beneficial mutations... so be VERY specific when you detail how that is not true

more importantly - make sure that everything you post has links and references so we can post it to ScienceMag to correct their publications and studies

i would tell you to post it directly to them, but they REFUSE to publish pseudoscience... so you are stuck making a fool of yourself here and committing your blatant lies to PO
anonymous_9001
5 / 5 (3) Jul 05, 2015
Stress does not lead to the evolution of anything via mutations.


But that's wrong because stress-induced mutagenesis is very well detailed. It's an incredibly well studied and documented system.
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jul 05, 2015
stress-induced mutagenesis is very well detailed


You quoted me: "Stress does not lead to the evolution of anything via mutations."

How does stress-induced mutagenesis lead to the evolution of anything?

Lenski proved Beneficial mutations


What kind of biologically uninformed science idiot continues to repeat the pseudoscientific nonsense he was taught to believe in when no experimental evidence ever linked the mutations to increasing organismal complexity via the biophysically constrained chemistry of nutrient-dependent reproduction, which is controlled by the metabolism of the nutrients to species-specific pheromones in species from microbes to man?
Captain Stumpy
4 / 5 (4) Jul 05, 2015
What kind of biologically uninformed science idiot continues to repeat the pseudoscientific nonsense he was taught to believe in
@jk
a religiously motivated Dunning-Kruger affected mensa claiming menial lab tech who lies about their history to get people to think he is educated (forgetting he already admitted to failing out of college) while providing absolutely NO empirical evidence that Lenski is wrong.

But we already expected that from you!

so lets be SPECIFIC about the mentioned beneficial mutations re: Lenski-
In 2008 microbiologist Richard Lenski produced a beneficial mutation in the lab, when his E. coli developed a trait that enabled them to utilize citrate as a carbon source. While E. coli has internal cellular mechanisms that can process the citrate, one hallmark of the species is that it cannot transport citrate across the cell wall. This mutation enabled them to do so.
http://rationalwi...mutation
Captain Stumpy
3.7 / 5 (3) Jul 05, 2015
@jk cont'd
so as you can see by the easily read link i gave above: Lenski PROVED that his mutations are beneficial, regardless of your failure to see it... Lenski proved that not all mutations are pathological, despite your continued insistence that he didn't prove anything, or, as you put it "when no experimental evidence ever linked the mutations to increasing organismal complexity"

problem is: you want to link everything "via the biophysically constrained chemistry of nutrient-dependent reproduction, which is controlled by the metabolism of the nutrients to species-specific pheromones"

it really is too bad you can't see your blindness or ignorance (stupidity, actually, because you've been shown the error of your beliefs, by ANON, myself and various Dr's and PhD's in studies)

want to know why you can comprehend science?
http://www.ploson...tion=PDF
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jul 05, 2015
Epistatic Adaptive Evolution...
http://journals.p....1004884
...the genotype-phenotype relationship is necessary to understand how variable phenotypes have evolved... The blue-sensitive visual pigment in human (human S1) evolved from the UV-sensitive pigment...

Excerpt: This observation is consistent with the results of epistatic adaptive evolutionary studies such as antibiotic resistance [2], drug resistance [41], coenzyme evolution [2], [42] and coevolution of two ecotypes [43] in microbial systems as well as the evolution of hormone receptors [7], visual pigments [44] and hemoglobins [45] in vertebrates.

My comment: Epistatic adaptations are nutrient-dependent. They involve the physiology of reproduction. Beneficial mutations are not part of any evolutionary path linked to increasing organismal complexity in vertebrates.

Mutations are linked to pathology unless they eliminated from organized genomes.
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jul 05, 2015
The link that retired AF SSgt (E-5) James Stumpy provided does not address the fact that none of the following nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated events are attributed to mutations. They are attributed to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that stabilize the organized genome of all genera via the biophysically constrained chemistry of their nutrient-dependent protein folding.

Excerpt: "...antibiotic resistance [2], drug resistance [41], coenzyme evolution [2], [42] and coevolution of two ecotypes [43] in microbial systems as well as the evolution of hormone receptors [7], visual pigments [44] and hemoglobins [45] in vertebrates."

Elekonich and Robinson (2000) linked our 1996 model of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation to invertebrates. See: http://www.ncbi.n...10980296

Excerpt: "Effects of hormones on brain and behavior occur through three mechanisms... (reviewed in Arnold and Breedlove, 1985; Diamond et al., 1996)."
JVK
2.3 / 5 (3) Jul 05, 2015
Lenski PROVED that his mutations are beneficial...


Please ask your champion of that pseudoscientific nonsense to clearly state that in his words.

Others, see our section on molecular epigenetics in Diamond et al. (1996)

http://www.hawaii...ion.html

No new molecular mechanisms have "evolved" via mutations that perturb protein folding. All molecular mechanisms, which we linked to the physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to man, are nutrient-dependent and they are linked via the biophysically constrained chemistry of RNA-mediated protein folding.

The role of histones in DNA repair has been indirectly addressed in a series of published works that link the de novo creation of nutrient-dependent olfactory receptor genes to RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in all vertebrates and invertebrates via the physiology of their pheromone-controlled reproduction.
Vietvet
4 / 5 (4) Jul 05, 2015
My apologies to the readers of PO. I inadvertently gave a "5" to JVK's last comment.
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jul 05, 2015
See for evidence that SSgt Stumpy is a wiki-idiot

http://rationalwi...mutation
Excerpt: Vivid examples of beneficial mutations

Lactase persistence - why humans with significant European or Kenyan ancestry can digest milk as adults.
Antibiotic resistant bacteria — at least beneficial from the point of view of the bacteria.
Radiation -resistant fungi[1] (and perhaps other lifeforms) inside Chernobyl
------------
Remember: "...antibiotic resistance [2], drug resistance [41], coenzyme evolution [2], [42] and coevolution of two ecotypes [43] in microbial systems as well as the evolution of hormone receptors [7], visual pigments [44] and hemoglobins [45] in vertebrates."

None of these things occur via mutations, yet all are attributed to mutations by biologically uninformed science idiots.

See also: Celebrating independence from ridiculous theories http://rna-mediat...heories/
Whydening Gyre
5 / 5 (4) Jul 05, 2015
"...antibiotic resistance [2], drug resistance [41]...

It appears to me that these 2 qualities are beneficial (to the organism, anyway) mutations...
Captain Stumpy
4 / 5 (4) Jul 05, 2015
Beneficial mutations are not part of any evolutionary path linked to increasing organismal complexity...
@jk
repeating a lie doesn't make it more true
Mutations are linked to pathology unless they eliminated from organized genomes
[sic] 1- except, of course, that Lenski, Extavour, Whittaker and many more proved you wrong about this
2- this means your own model is "pathological" and not beneficial as it required mutations
The link that retired AF SSgt
nope, retired from the Army & the Fire Department... can't you even get that right? are you illiterate too?
does not address the fact that none of the following nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated events are attributed to mutations
but my link DOES prove that Lenski et al have shown there are beneficial mutations and that there is no requirement for "nutrient dependent pheromone controlled" adaptation in the first 100K generations- proving you're a liar (again)!

epic fail for you jk...

2Bcont
Captain Stumpy
4 / 5 (4) Jul 05, 2015
@jk cont'd
Excerpt:
NONe of your "excerpts" prove my comment wrong, or that Lenski didn't prove beneficial mutations
No new molecular mechanisms have "evolved" via mutations that perturb protein folding
no one claimed that ANY "mutations that perturb protein folding" were the reason for Lenski's mutations... the mutations responsible were beneficial, not pathological... but i guess your reading glasses are broke?
All molecular mechanisms... are nutrient-dependent
except, of course, those first 100K generations which had the exact same environment and media and only certain populations evolved... which (again) directly refute your claims about "all" as well as your repetitious lie about "mutations are pathological" or "never beneficial"
... Stumpy is a wiki-idiot
i used a link that was easy to read because of your refusal to acknowledge the lexicon and nomenclature of the biological field... and because you have literacy problems...
2Bcont'd
Captain Stumpy
4 / 5 (4) Jul 05, 2015
@jk cont'd
that link was to clarify to YOU what things meant... and how to comprehend basic biology, which you seem to not have a firm grasp of
Please ask your champion of that pseudoscientific nonsense to clearly state that in his words
do you really want me to embarrass you again? so far, EVERY scientists that has replied about your claims has debunked your stupidity with detail as well as biological facts supported by experimental evidence which you continually refuse to acknowledge... the blame is on you, not them... and they already DID debunk you and put the claims into words easy enough for you to understand... shall i find them and repost them for you?
See also: Celebrating independence from ridiculous theories http://rna-mediated.com
PHISHING SITE
PSEUDOSCIENCE SITE
SPAMMING TROLLING POST
reported
Captain Stumpy
4 / 5 (4) Jul 05, 2015
@jk last post
None of these things occur via mutations, yet all are attributed to mutations by biologically uninformed science idiots.
this is what is called denial of evidence as well as stupidity

mutations, as described and defined to you more than 50 times by myself alone, are also contained within your own model.... as you readily agreed when the term was not used but the definition was used! remember when I asked "DOES your model make any changes to the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal genetic element?
This is a yes or no answer"
(this is the DEFINITION of mutation) to which you answered
YES!
--Thanks for asking
therefore, the only "biologically uninformed science idiot" posting here is the one who refuses to accept biological facts or learn the lexicon of the field which is used for clear, concise communication (something anathema to religious folk like you) - IOW- JVK
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jul 05, 2015
so far, EVERY scientists that has replied about your claims has debunked your stupidity with detail as well as biological facts supported by experimental evidence


You infer that they all are biologically uninformed science idiots. If your representation of them is true, they should start to inform themselves via correspondence with serious scientists at Rockefeller, which is what I did in the early 1990's.

The Sum of Our Parts
http://www.the-sc...r-Parts/
Captain Stumpy
4 / 5 (4) Jul 05, 2015
You infer that they all are biologically uninformed science idiots
@jk
no, YOU infer that because of your Dunning-Kruger, narcissism and religion!

each and everyone of them has specifically refuted your CLAIMS with factual hard evidence in experiments and validated studies...
If your representation of them is true
WTF?
you saw the posts yourself... or are you playing the delusional card again?
they should start to inform themselves via correspondence with serious scientists at Rockefeller, which is what I did in the early 1990's
so you are now claiming that the PhD's and "ACTUAL" scientists which refute your specific claims that i've posted to you are wrong because you said so? and because obviously no one but you knows the literature?
really?

wow

http://www.ploson...tion=PDF
BaBloom
5 / 5 (5) Jul 05, 2015
This thread was too long so I have to send in several parts- Part 1
Please forgive me for coming out of left field, but I would like to make some comments. As to my background, I was a nuclear physicist before I retired. Biology is not my expertise, but the methods of science are. I think it's important to respect each other regardless of our opinions. Not that all opinions are equal however. I still think it's important to stop the personal name calling, it will get you nowhere. Just state the issues and what you think are the implications. Don't try to convince anybody of anything. Each of us has to get there by oneself. Science requires one thing however, TRUTH. Nature really does not care about what you think. She does not care whether or not you're offended by the implications of these discovered TRUTHs. It is what it is.

BaBloom
5 / 5 (5) Jul 05, 2015
Part 2-
We have two primary ways of dealing with our universe: One is the assumption that it's purely mechanistic (i.e. deconstructable), only following the imbedded laws of the universe, regardless of the complexity. It's an assumption. That's ok. You don't need to justify it. I did that all my working life in physics. Some stuff turned out to be correct and some things didn't.
BaBloom
5 / 5 (5) Jul 05, 2015
Part 3 -
The other is an assumption that something metaphysical, magical, or spiritual intercedes in order for the whole kit and caboodle to work. It's an assumption. That's ok. You don't need to justify it. It's just NOT science. Evoking large multisyllabic technical jargon does not demonstrate an understanding of what may be at work. As a matter of fact I become very suspicious listening to all the jabberwocky. I assure you I can teach any of you SPECIAL RELATIVITY without sounding obscure. Even the mathematics is high school level only. That does not mean there are not very complex and difficult phenomena. It's just not necessary to obscure it further. In the words of my old physics professor, "eschew obfuscation". LOL.
BaBloom
5 / 5 (4) Jul 05, 2015
Part 4 -
Both of the above represent different TRUTHS. The early Greeks divided thinking about the world into two parts. One was "Mythos" and the other "Logos". They do not overlap, but they were held on an equal footing. What takes place in Mythical space has its own rules and may or may not be congruent to the rules of Logical space. Usually not.

If you're more of a spiritual person try not to get trapped into looking for the God of the gaps. That was attempted centuries ago and failed. Also if you think about it, it would be a pretty strange way to operate the universe. It would make God a crappy engineer. That's my opinion of course.
BaBloom
5 / 5 (5) Jul 05, 2015
Part 5 -
I should say that, by disposition and choice I am an atheist. It's an assumption. Do I know there is no God? Of course I don't. It's an assumption and choice based on my sense of the world as I see it, nothing more. If I have to stand before my creator someday at least I was honest with my actions, thoughts, and feelings. I hope there are points for that.

So to sum up, this is how I judge the truthfulness and honesty of a scientific conversation. If you ask a REAL scientist about something, let's say a Bose, Einstein Condensate (don't worry about what that is), and you keep digging down further and further, there is a point where the scientist MUST eventually say, "I DON'T KNOW", period.
JVK
1 / 5 (4) Jul 05, 2015
Thanks.
I've never met a nuclear physicist who could explain the biophysically constrained chemistry of nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and protein folding. That does not mean other scientists will simply say "I DON'T KNOW"

Obviously, there are serious scientists who know that mutations perturb protein folding, which is why mutations do not lead to increasing organismal complexity.

See 1) http://jonlieffmd...the-mind
2) http://rna-mediated.com/
Here you will find information that links physics, chemistry, and molecular epigenetics via RNA-mediated events such as the de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes in order to encourage a public discussion of a paradigm shift.
2) Genes and the Human Condition (From Behavior to Biotechnology)
https://www.cours...iac8ueua
JVK
1 / 5 (4) Jul 05, 2015
mutations, as described and defined to you more than 50 times by myself alone


No matter how many times biologically uninformed science idiots describe mutations and/or define them, they cannot be linked from ecological variation to ecological adaptation because mutations perturb protein folding.

From the article text above:
We have shown that the formation of loops, which stop the polymerase, depends on its contacts with histones. If you make them more robust, it will increase the efficiency of the formation of loops and the probability of repair, which in turn will reduce the risk of disease.

Watch this video: https://youtu.be/YQ1A5pP9Z9U

Mutations do not reduce the risk of disease, they cause it.

BaBloom
5 / 5 (5) Jul 05, 2015
And finally -
However, when someone always has an answer, no matter how deep you go, that's when I ask the person if they can hear that loud clanging behind me. They of course say no, I can't hear it. What is it? And I say that's my bullshit detector going off.

I hope this helps.

Best Regards to All
Bob Bloom
JVK
1 / 5 (4) Jul 06, 2015
Thanks. Please tell that to George FR Ellis who co-authored with Stephen Hawking in the 60's. The difference between the two is that George learned about biologically-based cause and effect.

See: Top-down causation: an integrating theme within and across the sciences?
http://rsfs.royal...abstract

George is also helping others to put an end to the bullshit that other serious scientists have heard coming from theoretical physicists and evolutionary theorists.

Scientific method: Defend the integrity of physics http://www.nature...-1.16535

Of course, there will always be people like you, who claim that not enough is known -- or that additional evidence is required. That's the calling card of an atheist. They hear clanging bells and somehow loose their ability to see anything that can't be placed into the context of a ridiculous theory.
JVK
1 / 5 (4) Jul 06, 2015
Also, see: http://dx.doi.org...ure14574
Excerpt: "Many species have differentiated sex chromosomes, but also show a temperature override, where genes and environment interact to determine sex10, 11, 12, 13, 14."

Watch them try to fool others who know how sexual differentiation of cell types arises in the context of the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled sexual reproduction of yeasts.

Genes and the environment interact at the level of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation that requires nutrient-dependent DNA repair.

See also: http://www.hawaii...ion.html
"Parenthetically it is interesting to note even the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a gene-based equivalent of sexual orientation (i.e., a-factor and alpha-factor physiologies). These differences arise from different epigenetic modifications of an otherwise identical MAT locus (Runge and Zakian, 1996; Wu and Haber, 1995)."
nzod
5 / 5 (3) Jul 06, 2015
@BaBloom:
I just registered to say thank you for the concise and beautiful summary! It should be 'sticky' above all comment threads here, at least.
(Not that it would deter the most notorious trolls, but at least maybe it gets some of them thinking.)
Thanks again!
Whydening Gyre
5 / 5 (3) Jul 06, 2015
@BaBloom:
I just registered to say thank you for the concise and beautiful summary!

Didn't just register, but - wholeheartedly agree...!
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (2) Jul 06, 2015
Best Regards to All
Bob Bloom
@Bob Bloom
Thanks for chiming in. I totally agree with most of your posts (personally, i have issue with the whole "metaphysical" part being considered "truth", but that's not important)
I would like to further elucidate certain things based upon this
Not that all opinions are equal however. I still think it's important to stop the personal name calling, it will get you nowhere. Just state the issues and what you think are the implications
the problem with some trolls (like above) are that they promote with "large multisyllabic technical jargon" that sounds legit, and in some cases is actually science, but then wander off the Choo-choo tracks with obviously false claims which cannot be substantiated.
Considering the scientific literacy of the bulk of the youth, especially in the USA, then we have people who blindly follow because "he says it must be real"...
2Bcont'd
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (2) Jul 06, 2015
2Bcont'd
now, even the actual posting guidelines state pretty much what you said above, as well as to "keep science" and not post pseudoscience, especially links to pseudoscience, but when you have a religious acolyte pushing his fundamental beliefs (as JVK above does) then there is no room for actual science in his world view, as it conflicts with his religion, therefore he can't see the lies he is posting.

pointing out that something is pseudoscience or a blatant lie can be helpful to the nooB's here, especially if there is someone conversant with the subject willing to point out the flaws (Like Anon, a degree holding Biologist, or RealScience)

in one way, the "names" some people think are derogatory above are not names so much as labels for warning (like Troll, etc)
IMHO- if the MODS are not going to actually moderate the site for the nooB's, then it lies to the regulars to point out the BS.

THANKS for joining in the fray and i hope to learn more from you!
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (2) Jul 06, 2015
something to add... sorry
I hope this helps
@Bob Bloom
i am hoping that you continue to comment in the astrophysics (or physics) threads as i would love to continue to learn as much as i can... i have different talents, but i love astrophysics etc.

One thing that can help you learn about certain "troll" types and especially "conspiracy theorists" is the following:
http://www.ploson...tion=PDF

this readily applies to religious fundamentalists as well
as you can see, the bulk of JVK's posts tend to validate this specific study (and others)

more fodder for you to read:
http://phys.org/n...ies.html

if you will also do a little google-work (or a lot, really) you will see that a lot of the lashing out JVK does is because of his personal life failures & inadequacies, thus anyone educated simply gets his trolling posts (see above)
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jul 06, 2015
High-throughput monitoring of wild bee diversity and abundance via mitogenomics
http://onlinelibr...abstract

The first author of the article above appears to be a co-author of "Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution" http://www.scienc...abstract
Excerpt: Phylogenomic analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequences, with site-specific nucleotide or domain-specific amino acid substitution models, produced statistically robust and congruent results resolving previously controversial phylogenetic relationships.

Although the multi-syllable words commonly used by serious scientists may not be understood by biologically uninformed science idiots, it should be clear that the honeybee model organism of cell type differentiation is linked via amino acid substitutions to other species via metabolic networks and genetic networks, not via mutations and evolution.
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jul 06, 2015
News article excerpt:
"The loops form when the DNA is coiled back on nucleosome together with polymerase. RNA polymerase can "crawl" along the DNA loops nearly as well as on histone-free DNA regions, but when it stops near locations of the DNA breaks, it "panics", triggering the cascade of reactions to start DNA "repairs"."

See also: http://phys.org/n...nts.html
"Many researchers, including ourselves, have shown that chromatin looping is widespread during gene expression..."

Title of this news article: Researchers discover new mechanism of DNA repair.

What was the new mechanism they discovered?

See also:
Excerpt: http://dx.doi.org.../nrm3965 It will be important to link studies of chromatin contacts and chromosomal organization with information about the functional characteristics of the sequences that control transcription, and DNA replication and repair.
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jul 06, 2015
A 3D Map of the Human Genome at Kilobase Resolution Reveals Principles of Chromatin Looping http://www.cell.c...)01497-4

A 3D Map of the Yeast Kinetochore Reveals the Presence of Core and Accessory Centromere-Specific Histone http://www.cell.c...)00972-X

Does anyone think that the conserved molecular mechanisms of biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent protein folding in yeasts are the same mechanisms that control RNA-mediated DNA repair via links between metabolic networks and genetic networks--exemplified in the honeybee model organism?
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (2) Jul 07, 2015
multi-syllable words commonly used by serious scientists may not be understood by biologically uninformed science idiots
@JK
you know, this is absolutely correct... i would like to share some demonstrations of that
here is a good one when i asked a Dr. to clarify your comments on their work
I can clarify that although our work does, we hope, provide an example of how nutrition/ecology could affect the evolution of potentially adaptive traits, you [Cpt] are right that we in no way claim that mutations in the heritable genome play no role in evolution. Indeed, as you [Cpt] correctly state, just because we provide evidence that nutritional conditions play a role, this does not negate a role for mutations. Indeed, in that very same paper, we provide evidence that heritable differences in the genome sequences between Drosophila species, in other words, mutations, ALSO play a role in the evolution of the trait we are studying.

So Kohl is mistaken...
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (2) Jul 07, 2015
@jk
more examples against your ability to comprehend science and "multi-syllable words"
The paragraph that he chose to quote is taken out of context ("Mutations are rare; getting two mutations is even rarer...."), as I believe you have already noticed. The very next paragraph begins "Evolution isn't about playing one hand of blackjack though, its about playing lots and lots of hands, over a very long period of time. On a long enough timescale, you will eventually see one of these rare chance events."
so we can see, you are correct that " multi-syllable words commonly used by serious scientists may not be understood by biologically uninformed science idiots", your comment also points a long, strong finger in your own direction as one of those "biologically uninformed science idiots" proving you don't understand what you read and claim to be "expert" in and are promoting pseudoscience and religious tenets over actual science

thanks for sharing
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jul 07, 2015
we in no way claim that mutations in the heritable genome play no role in evolution.


A double negative attests to nothing that they, according to you, seem to claim. They are protecting their interest in the ongoing funding of their approach at the same time that funding is being eliminated by the approach of serious scientists who understand how RNA-mediated cell type differentiation occurs.

our work does, we hope, provide an example of how nutrition/ecology could affect the evolution of potentially adaptive traits


Indeed, it does -- without the pseudoscientific nonsense about beneficial mutations that they placed into the context of the double-negative and evolution instead of ecological adaptations.

Their funding depends on the misrepresentations of biologically-based cause and effect that they continue to make. It's like telling lies to keep your job. Some people will do it. Some people do not need to.
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jul 07, 2015
nutrition/ecology could affect


Ecological variation epigenetically effects the molecular mechanisms of cell type differentiation that affect nutrient-dependent behavior. Serious scientists understand the difference between effect and affect. The difference begins with epigenetically-effected gene activation, not mutations that perturb protein folding.

see: Brain on stress: How the social environment gets under the skin and the correction. http://www.pnas.o...80.short

www.pnas.org/cont...pdf+html
Excerpt: The authors note that on page 17184, right column, first paragraph, line 4, "effect" should instead appear as "affect."

I explained this to reviewers of my 2012 review and included this footnote:

2'Effect(s)' and 'affect(s)'. In context, sensory input effects hormones that affect behavior. An effect of sensory input on hormones can result in behavioral affects/affects on behavior.
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (2) Jul 07, 2015
A double negative attests to nothing that they, according to you, seem to claim
@jk
so, as i pointed out above, you are still having problems with your reading and comprehension? thanks for pointing that out... i will help you
we in no way claim
this part means that the Dr, and the rest IN NO WAY CLAIM - or IOW - they do NOT claim
that mutations in the heritable genome play no role in evolution
which means, translated for those with your inability to comprehend basic english, this:
The Dr makes NO claim (per your insistence & posts on that thread) that mutations in the heritable genome play no role in evolution

this is in direct refute of your claims, in that thread and others, that her work supported your "mutations are never beneficial" or "mutations are always pathological" claims and BS
it also means that
our work ... provide[s] an example of how nutrition/ecology could affect the evolution of potentially adaptive traits
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (2) Jul 07, 2015
They are protecting their interest in the ongoing funding of their approach at the same time that funding is being eliminated by the approach of serious scientists who understand how RNA-mediated cell type differentiation occurs
@jk cont'd
I will posit this question directly to her and seek her specific response. I am willing to bet large sums of money that you are [still] lying and trying to incite anger, thus trolling and attempting to smear a legitimate reputation because your reputation is failed and proven to be full of lies and religious dogma
without the pseudoscientific nonsense about beneficial mutations that they placed into the context of the double-negative and evolution instead of ecological adaptations
for someone who claims to be a mensa member, you sure do have a LOT of problems with reading and comprehension, especially WRT basic English
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (2) Jul 07, 2015
@jk cont'd
i will also make sure to include this remark
Their funding depends on the misrepresentations of biologically-based cause and effect that they continue to make. It's like telling lies to keep your job. Some people will do it. Some people do not need to.
what your comment tells me, however, is that you are well versed in "telling lies to keep your job", especially as you have been caught in more lies than the proverbial "devil" herself...

as i pointed out before, you continue to validate the findings in this study:
http://www.ploson...tion=PDF

JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jul 07, 2015
Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors http://www.ncbi.n...24693349

My 2012 review led to publication of my 2013 review Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. http://www.ncbi.n...24693353

I was then able to discuss biologically-based cause and effect in the context of ecological variation and ecological adaptations outside the context of pseudoscientific nonsense about mutations and evolution.

This is the link to the invited review of nutritional epigenetics that I submitted in March 2014 for publication in the journal "Nutrients"
Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems
http://figshare.c...s/994281

The change from evolution to ecological adaptations is a problem for theorists.
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (2) Jul 07, 2015
publication of my 2013 review Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model.
Which then lead actual biologists to refute your claims with actual science and biology with the following critique: http://www.ncbi.n...4049134/

repeating a lie doesn't make it more true the ump-teenth time around
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jul 07, 2015
Ecological adaptations are nutrient-dependent and occur only in the context of the physiology of reproduction. Mutations perturb the protein folding that leads to fixation of the amino acid substitutions that stabilize the organized genomes of all genera.

our work ... provide[s] an example of how nutrition/ecology could affect the evolution of potentially adaptive traits


That claim is misleading. Adaptive traits are disassociated from mutations in the context of ecological variation linked to ecological adaptations via RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in all genera.

If anyone can get a serious scientist to claim that ecological variation is linked to ecological adaptations via mutations, there might be some honest discussion of what is currently known by serious scientists about top-down causation.

Until then, some of us can see through the smoke-screen of double-negative claims by evolutionary theorists.

JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jul 07, 2015
http://www.ncbi.n...4049134/ is not a refutation.

Jones claims that he does not like my model. He did not offer any examples of experimental evidence that might otherwise have shown that nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions are not the link from ecological variation to ecological adaptations in all genera.

Note my use of the "double negative." He did not offer.... are not the link ...

The anonymous fool concluded: "...James Kohl presents an unsupported challenge to modern evolutionary theory and misrepresentations of established scientific terms and others' research."

See: http://www.geneng...;a=false
More than 20,000 microRNA-Focused Publications Were Assessed as a Means to Characterize the Field

In my review, I wrote: The role of the microRNA/messenger RNA balance... will certainly be discussed in published works that follow. Accurate models predict and explain.
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jul 07, 2015
Accurate models also replace misrepresentations of nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated biologically-based cause and effect, like this one.

A Role for the Fifth G-Track in G-Quadruplex Forming Oncogene Promoter Sequences during Oxidative Stress: Do These "Spare Tires" Have an Evolved Function?
http://pubs.acs.o....5b00202

Reported as: https://www.faceb.../?type=1
Re: "...a factory-installed safety feature across many forms of life."

Whose factory installed the RNA-mediated safety feature that enables the nutrient-dependent repair that links the biophysically constrained chemistry of protein folding via amino acid substitutions to the stability of organized genomes in all living genera in the context of their physiology of reproduction?
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jul 07, 2015
http://www.ncbi.n...4049134/ Criticisms... [of my model]

"Editor's note

The 2013 review article by James Vaughn Kohl published in Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology and criticized in the above Letter to the Editor was subjected to standard peer review and the revised version was accepted by me after it had been accepted by both reviewers."

The insult to the editor and reviewers is not subtle. Andrew Jones cites Dr. PZ Myers' blog, Pharyngula (Kohl, 2014b).

Myers is a biologically uniformed science idiot whose idiot minions gleefully attack anyone he attacks.

His attack on me followed from my accurate representation of the role of chromosomal rearrangements. He eliminated me from discussion after I provided a link to this article for support. http://www.pnas.o...abstract

"...our results illustrate a detailed chain of events linking a chromosomal rearrangement to changes in overt social behavior."
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (1) Jul 08, 2015
Myers is a biologically uniformed science idiot ...
His attack on me followed from my accurate representation of ...He eliminated me from discussion after I provided a link to this article for support. http://www.pnas.o...abstract
@jk
and like always, your continued LIES catch up with you...
this also reinforces the evidence i've presented that you cannot comprehend basic English or biology, as you "interpret" what you want to believe based upon your creationist dogma and Dunning-Kruger, narcissism and egotistical delusions.

You were banned for being PREJUDICED [a homophobe] and attempting to use PZMyers site as a platform to promote your stupidity and religious FEAR
Comment #317
16 January 2014 at 9:12 am
PZ Myers posted - Mere stupidity I will tolerate, but I really don't need to give a platform to homophobes. Kohl has been banned
http://freethough...s-place/

Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (1) Jul 08, 2015
The anonymous fool concluded: "...James Kohl presents an unsupported challenge to modern evolutionary theory and misrepresentations of established scientific terms and others' research."

See: http://www.geneng...;a=false
More than 20,000 microRNA-Focused Publications Were Assessed as a Means to Characterize the Field
@jk
the linking of those 20,000 publications does not, in any way, support your conclusions, nor does it in any way reinforce your claims.
in fact, it reinforces my evidence proving you to be unable to comprehend basic English and biology
Whose factory installed the RNA-mediated safety feature that enables...
strawman and creationist logic is PSEUDOSCIENCE
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4049134/ is not a refutation.
actually, it IS... it points out your fallacious beliefs and shows your inability to comprehend biological processes
just like Myers did in the above link

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