Electric fields affect wing movement, leading to agitation and changes in brain chemistry

July 30, 2015, University of Southampton
Drosophila. Credit: Wikipedia

A new piece of research led by the University of Southampton has found that the behaviour of fruit flies, which are commonly used in laboratory experiments, is altered by electric fields.

The research indicates that the of the insects are disturbed by static electric fields, leading to changes in avoidance behaviour and the neurochemical balance of their brains.

The paper, published in the Proceeding of the Royal Society B, suggests that the plastic housing laboratory are commonly kept in (which hold their own static electric charge) could agitate the flies, changing their behaviour and neurochemical profile which has the potential to impact or confound other studies for which they are being used.

"Fruit flies are often used as model organisms to understand fundamental problems in biology," say Professor Philip Newland, Professor of Neuroscience at the University of Southampton and lead author of the study. "75 per cent of the genes that cause disease in humans are shared by fruit flies, so by studying them we can learn a lot about basic mechanisms.

"Plastic can retain a charge for a long period and, given the use of plastic in the rearing of these insects and other small insects such as mosquitos, long term exposure to these fields is inevitable."

The researchers put fruit flies in a Y-shaped maze, with one arm of the maze exposed to an electric charge and the other receiving none. They found that the flies avoided the charged chamber and gathered in the non-charged arm. Interestingly flies with no wings didn't display this behaviour, and flies with smaller wings only avoided higher charges - suggesting it is the wings of the fly that are involved in detection and are affected by the fields.

This was borne out when subjecting stationary flies to electric fields. The researchers observed that the wings of the flies could be manipulated by a field of a similar strength to that which produced the avoidance behaviour.

Professor Newland explains: "When a fly was placed underneath a negatively charged electrode, the static field forces caused elevation of the wings toward the electrode, as opposite charges were attracted.

"Static electric fields are all around us but for a small insect like a fruit fly it appears these fields' electrical charges are significant enough to have an effect on their wing movement and this means they will avoid them if possible."

The effect on the wings being moved seems to agitate the flies, as revealed by changes in their brain chemistry. Flies exposed to an electric field showed increased levels of octopamine (similar to noradrenaline in humans) which indicates stress and aggression. The flies also showed decreased levels of dopamine, meaning they would be more responsive to external stimuli.

As well as having consequences for flies used in laboratories, the results also have implications for flies in their natural environment.

"We are particularly interested in how electric fields could be used in pest control," says co-author Dr Christopher Jackson, also of Southampton. "Meshes that can generate static electric fields could be put across windows of houses or green houses to prevent insects like fruit or even mosquitos entering, yet allow air movement."

"It also raises questions of how pollinating species like bees could be affected by power lines, which have stronger electric fields."

Explore further: Infection with Wolbachia bacteria curbs fighting among fruit flies

More information: Exposure to static electric fields leads to changes in biogenic amine levels in the brains of Drosophila, DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2015.1198

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JVK
1.7 / 5 (6) Jul 30, 2015
Zoo (James Patterson novel) https://en.wikipe...novel%29

"The balance of the novel sees Oz gaining acceptance of his data, while world leaders take misguided actions to solve the problem, only to see even worse mammal attacks threaten the existence of man."

The physiology and behavior of insects and mammals is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled via RNA-mediated events that link the fixation of amino acid substitutions to the stability of organized genomes during the development of their behavior.

See for an example in humans: http://link.sprin...4-0895-5 and renew your fear of pheromones http://dx.doi.org...22850708 and the virus-driven changes in their production that could signal the impending death of all who do not evolve (n=0) or adapt and become a more intelligent species.

See also: The Darwin Code: http://rna-mediat...eg-bear/
Vietvet
4 / 5 (4) Jul 30, 2015
Another meaningless word salad from JVK.
JVK
1 / 5 (5) Jul 31, 2015
RNA-mediated events link gene duplication and the fixation of amino acid substitutions to the stability of organized genomes during the development of behavior that is required for the control of reproduction in all genera.

What part of that accurate representation of biologically-based cause and effect is considered to be "meaningless word salad" to anyone who is biologically informed?

Viruses perturb the RNA-mediated events. That fact is also now being linked to all pathology by those who have ignored what has been known to science fiction novelists as their fiction became fact during the past 30 years.

http://rna-mediated.com/
---information that links physics, chemistry, and molecular epigenetics via RNA-mediated events such as the de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes in order to encourage a public discussion of a paradigm shift.
http://www.rnasociety.org/
Example: http://rnajournal...abstract
gkam
3.4 / 5 (5) Jul 31, 2015
EM fields: What do you think they are doing to us?
JVK
1 / 5 (5) Jul 31, 2015
Thanks, for asking.

They appear to have horribly altered the genetically predisposed development of the brain in evolutionary theorists who remain unable to grasp any concepts associated with RNA-mediated cell type differentiation during thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation that are perturbed by viruses.

Vietvet exemplifies that fact. He probably should eat more salads to enable brain development that is not perturbed by the viruses in dead animal flesh.
gkam
3 / 5 (4) Jul 31, 2015
" . . . genetically predisposed development of the brain in evolutionary theorists who remain unable to grasp any concepts associated with RNA-mediated cell type differentiation during thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation that are perturbed by viruses"
----------------------------

Oh, . . uh, yeah. I fergott.
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jul 31, 2015
Re: "The balance of the novel sees Oz gaining acceptance of his data, while world leaders take misguided actions to solve the problem, only to see even worse mammal attacks threaten the existence of man."

See also: A Spectroscopic Mechanism for Primary Olfactory Reception http://chemse.oxf...abstract

The problem with acceptance of facts from quantum mechanics that link nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry to biophysically constrained cell type differentiation in all genera via their physiology of reproduction is the biologically uniformed science idiots who attribute everything known to serious scientists to mutations and evolution.

It is not that they forget about such things; it's the refusal to learn about anything that cannot readily be conveyed in classes by teachers who are teaching evolution for dummies.
JVK
1 / 5 (4) Jul 31, 2015
Israeli middle schools defend their students from biologically informed science idiots whose media representations might otherwise contribute to the ignorance that we see displayed here.

Rather than wait until their children have absorbed too much pseudoscientific nonsense, they began teaching the nonsense along with what is known to serious scientists about ecology.

See: Israeli Middle Schools School to Include Theory of Evolution http://www.educat...olution/

Excerpt:
"...learning about evolution is not the primary function of the decision, but rather to use it as a building block for students to learn more about their ecology."

Students who learn about ecology link variation to ecological speciation via nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. From that point on, they will laugh at anyone who tries to teach them about mutations and evolution. Dawkins is a comedian.
gkam
3.7 / 5 (3) Jul 31, 2015
"ecology link variation to ecological speciation via nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation"
------------------------------------

Which proves nothing.
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jul 31, 2015
It links the light-induces de novo creation of amino acids to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that determine the cell types of all living genera in the context of their nutrient-dependent physiology of reproduction, which is perturbed by viruses.

What do you think needs to be proved, now that Koonin has admitted that the Modern Synthesis includes nothing about the role of viruses. Doesn't that prove that evolutionary theorists are biologically uninformed science idiots? If not, what more would it take to prove that fact?

Others have given up trying to explain anything to the biologically uninformed.
"...evolutionary science has now "moved on to such an extent" that she and Peter Saunders don't really care anymore about "trying to convince the neo-Darwinists." http://www.huffin...450.html

But, see for comparison: http://rna-mediat...l-types/
JVK
1 / 5 (4) Jul 31, 2015
See also: http://phys.org/n...tml#nRlv
Excerpt: "Whatever the epigenetic control turns out to be, it is clearly handed down across generations."

The epigenetic control is nutrient-dependent and RNA-mediated in the context of their physiology of reproduction and ecological speciation.

A difference in diet links grazers to predators that have ecologically adapted teeth.
Graeme
not rated yet Aug 03, 2015
It goes to show that the complete environment needs to be examined for the experiment, electric fields, magnetic fields, electromagnetic radiation, exact air composition including temperature, pressure, oxygen, content, and other contents like odors. Bachground sound might make a difference too.
JVK
2 / 5 (4) Aug 03, 2015
Thanks. Without the innate immune system and response to sensory input that links virus-perturbed protein folding to pathology and nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair to healthy longevity via the de novo creation of receptors in the cell wall, epigenetically altered RNA-mediated differentiated cell types would not be found in the organized genomes of any individual of any species.

Simply put, without the de novo creation of nutrient-dependent receptors, we would all be like brainless neo-Darwinian theorists who think that mutations can lead to increasing organismal complexity, like the complexity of cell types detailed in this short video.

https://www.youtu...7-Od9Wr8
antialias_physorg
3.7 / 5 (3) Aug 03, 2015
It goes to show that the complete environment needs to be examined for the experiment

It's always one of these things we have to be extremely careful about when devising experiments. Just because humans don't have a sense for a particular force/input doesn't mean the organism under scrutiny doesn't react to it. It's one of those areas where (unintentional!) bias is frequently introduced.

"Shielding" from as many effects as you can think of* is important - otherwise you have to go for multivariate studies and then stuff gets really complicated (for one the number of experiments vastly increases in order to have the same statistical power)

*Therein lies the problem. Sometimes you forget an effect that turns out to be non-negligible. Is radiation shielding necessary? Does gravity affect the experiment? Some stuff (like gravity) you just can't shield against.
JVK
1.7 / 5 (6) Aug 03, 2015
All experimental evidence that has not linked the light-induced de novo creation of amino acids to RNA-mediated events and cell type differentiation via the biophysically constrained chemistry of nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding may have first eliminated everything known about virus-perturbed protein folding from their results.

For example, Lenski's meaningful interpretations of what he thought were evolved differences were actually driven by virus-perturbed thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation.

The ridiculous theories about theories about millions of years of evolution have still not been placed into the context of the "re-evolved" flagellum and what led to its re-evolution "over-the-weekend." The immune system obviously links the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptation of bacteria to structures and functions that are obviously linked to species survival before neo-Darwinian nonsense is added.
gkam
3.7 / 5 (3) Aug 03, 2015
"RNA-mediated events and cell type differentiation via the biophysically constrained chemistry of nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding" is responsible for the creation of the Sun, and several supernovas. Not only that, but the Grand Canyon was produced electrically by ancient aliens.
JVK
1.8 / 5 (5) Aug 03, 2015
The sun's biological energy and light slowed on contact with water created amino acids, and nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions created all the different cell types in all living genera via fixation of the substitutions in the context of their physiology of nutrient-dependent reproduction.

The facts have become perfectly clear to all serious scientists, and what we have here are comments from biologically uninformed science idiots who are unwilling to execute this search https://www.googl...mediated

TheGhostofOtto1923
1 / 5 (1) Aug 03, 2015
"RNA-mediated events and cell type differentiation via the biophysically constrained chemistry of nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding" is responsible for the creation of the Sun, and several supernovas. Not only that, but the Grand Canyon was produced electrically by ancient aliens.
And Im pretty sure it was sunspots that made you sick.
JVK
1 / 5 (5) Aug 03, 2015
Obviously, gkam and other anonymous fools, are products of atypical RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. The most likely reason for their ridiculous comments is that they are mutant human strains. Natural selection against ignorance may eliminate them from phys.org discussions, but BEWARE, they will always be OUT THERE!

For comparison, see: http://www.jbc.or...abstract
"We consistently found that mutant strains for RNAi (dcr1-, ago1-, rdp1-, and clr4-) are defective in selectively eliminating cum1+ sense transcript in the G1 phase of the cell cycle."

If anyone has discovered a mutant strain of any organism that is not defective, please tell an intelligent serious scientist about the discovery. If the serious scientist can't stop laughing about your discovery, you will know you have found a serious scientist. Pseudoscientists are less likely to find your pseudoscientific nonsense to be a source of comic relief.
Vietvet
3 / 5 (2) Aug 03, 2015
beneficial mutations

ScholarAbout 353,000 results (0.03 sec

https://scholar.g...as_sdtp=
JVK
1 / 5 (4) Aug 03, 2015
There is no such thing as a beneficial mutation. They perturb protein folding.

http://www.huffin...216.html

How can any intelligent person not know that.

http://dx.doi.org...5.07.002
Pathogenetics. An introductory review

Mutations are not benefical. Neo-Darwinian theorists should accept that fact and try to explain something about how evolution could occur without selection against mutations.

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