Earth's surprise inside: Geologists unlock mysteries of the planet's inner core

February 9, 2015
A research team from the University of Illinois and colleagues in China found earth's inner core has an inner core of its own, with crystals aligned in a different direction. Credit: Lachina Publishing Services

Seismic waves are helping scientists to plumb the world's deepest mystery: the planet's inner core.

Thanks to a novel application of earthquake-reading technology, a research team at the University of Illinois and colleagues at Nanjing University in China have found that the Earth's inner core has an inner core of its own, which has surprising properties that could reveal information about our planet.

Led by Xiaodong Song, a professor of geology at the U. of I., and visiting postdoctoral researcher Tao Wang, the team published its work in the journal Nature Geoscience on Feb. 9.

"Even though the inner core is small - smaller than the moon - it has some really interesting features," said Song. "It may tell us about how our planet formed, its history, and other dynamic processes of the Earth. It shapes our understanding of what's going on deep inside the Earth."

Researchers use seismic waves from earthquakes to scan below the planet's surface, much like doctors use ultrasound to see inside patients. The team used a technology that gathers data not from the initial shock of an earthquake, but from the waves that resonate in the earthquake's aftermath. The earthquake is like a hammer striking a bell; much like a listener hears the clear tone that resonates after the bell strike, seismic sensors collect a coherent signal in the earthquake's coda.

"It turns out the coherent signal enhanced by the technology is clearer than the ring itself," said Song. "The basic idea of the method has been around for a while, and people have used it for other kinds of studies near the surface. But we are looking all the way through the center of the Earth."

Looking through the core revealed a surprise at the center of the planet - though not of the type envisioned by novelist Jules Verne.

The inner core, once thought to be a solid ball of iron, has some complex structural properties. The team found a distinct inner-inner core, about half the diameter of the whole inner core. The iron crystals in the outer layer of the inner core are aligned directionally, north-south. However, in the inner-inner core, the iron crystals point roughly east-west.

Not only are the iron crystals in the inner-inner core aligned differently, they behave differently from their counterparts in the outer-inner core. This means that the inner-inner core could be made of a different type of crystal, or a different phase.

"The fact that we have two regions that are distinctly different may tell us something about how the inner core has been evolving," Song said. "For example, over the history of the Earth, the inner might have had a very dramatic change in its deformation regime. It might hold the key to how the planet has evolved. We are right in the center - literally, the center of the Earth."

Explore further: Iron in the Earth's core weakens before melting

More information: Equatorial anisotropy in the inner part of Earth's inner core from autocorrelation of earthquake coda, Nature Geoscience, DOI: 10.1038/ngeo2354

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Macksb
2.3 / 5 (3) Feb 09, 2015
This is probably a chimera state of coupled oscillators, a topic which has recently drawn attention in nonlinear dynamics. Daniel Abrams has been a leader, with several articles dating back to 2004. Mark Panaggio and Abrams wrote the most recent article: Chimera States ArXiv May 12, 2014.

I have made many Physorg posts applying Art Winfree's law of coupled oscillators to physics. Many deal with superconductivity.

A special case arises under extremely high pressure, which is why the earth's core might produce this surprising result.

mndaffy
3 / 5 (4) Feb 09, 2015
I need some help with this one. I recently read a paper about how the dynamo is a plasma and not a classical fluid. How, in P-V-T space does one go from a plasma to an ordered crystalline structure? What are the mechanics? I realize that I am lacking in knowledge in this arena and wish I would have taken some Heliophysics, or astro physics, but maybe someone could help me understand. It seems like a short jump on the PVT surface when the elemental constituents remain the same. Can a solid be called a plasma? Maybe I just need to research what a plasma is.
Maggnus
4.6 / 5 (10) Feb 09, 2015
I need some help with this one. I recently read a paper about how the dynamo is a plasma and not a classical fluid. How, in P-V-T space does one go from a plasma to an ordered crystalline structure? What are the mechanics? I realize that I am lacking in knowledge in this arena and wish I would have taken some Heliophysics, or astro physics, but maybe someone could help me understand. It seems like a short jump on the PVT surface when the elemental constituents remain the same. Can a solid be called a plasma? Maybe I just need to research what a plasma is.


I think you are confusing the core of the sun with the core of the Earth.
mndaffy
4.2 / 5 (5) Feb 09, 2015
This is what I am referring to in part:

"Correlation between the Earth's Magnetic Field and
the Gravitational Mass of the Outer Core"

Google for reference. There was just an article a few weeks ago on recent seismic research that suggested the only way to resolve wave disturbances was to assume the outer core was a plasma. The article was on Phys.org
Maggnus
4.6 / 5 (11) Feb 09, 2015
Do you mean this paper? http://vixra.org/...07v1.pdf

Are you sure you saw this as a phys.org article? They don't usually report on anti-gravity, and De Aquino is considered to be on the fringe.

I have issues with his contention that there is a sphere of plasma surrounding the inner core, as I think this is something that seismology would have picked up prior to now. He has some funny ideas, from what I have seen. I admit, I haven't seen much.

Having said that, I admit I don't have the maths to figure out if what he is saying holds any water. I would, however, suggest caution in citing his work.
mndaffy
3.3 / 5 (3) Feb 09, 2015
It was the link I was referring to, BUT, it was not cited as an exact reference to the recent work I remember. It was more of "along this line of reasoning" type of a reference. Give me a little bit and I will see if I can dig it up from Phys.org. I know that the reference I am speaking of resides here.

Seismology is a funny beast. Small perturbations have complicated sources as the wave function has so many indeterminable parameters. It can be kind of like fitting several variables while assuming a few. With limited understanding of phases in any part of the path it can distort outcomes all throughout the sequential transitions. But, alas, my wave theory experience ended some years ago, and people are using methods unknown a decade ago.
mndaffy
3 / 5 (2) Feb 09, 2015
I have to say I cannot find it at this point in time. I will keep searching. I know I just saw a recently published article and I just am not finding it right now.
beacon1b
1.3 / 5 (13) Feb 09, 2015
I've been trying to get an answer for years as to how the Earth can be so old, yet STILL have a molten interior! In college, it was explained away as a product of radioactive decay, yet only the crust has radioactive elements; the mantle and core are thought to be nickel/iron. One physicist tried to explain this via heat released by formation of the crust, but I don't think the math works. Isn't an Earth much less than ~4 billion years old a simpler, and reasonable, explanation?
tekram
1 / 5 (1) Feb 09, 2015
.. wrong post
dcmuncey1
2.3 / 5 (3) Feb 09, 2015
how many licks does it take to get to the center of a tootsie pop
dcmuncey1
3.5 / 5 (15) Feb 09, 2015
@beacon1b....+all that college and no knowledge (theology degree perhaps?).....pressure would account for enough heat to keep core molten, though Mars doesn't appear to have a molten core having no magneto field to shield from solar wind and such....maybe size does matter....but I would go for 4 billion as opposed to say somewhere around 5000 yrs old as some luddites would believe....but don't mind me I only have a 2 yr degree
Wake
3 / 5 (2) Feb 09, 2015
Any bets that inner core and an inner core of it's own? The pressure and density almost guarantees it doesn't it?
Macksb
2.5 / 5 (4) Feb 09, 2015
Following up on my comment high above, see Cerium's Unusual Behavior, Physorg, January 27, 2011. Under extremely high pressure, one cerium crystal cube is transformed into two different cubes--one larger, the other smaller. Only difference is the volume. Otherwise, same geometry, same structure, same everything. 75,000 atmospheres of pressure.

I made a comment there as well.
mndaffy
1.8 / 5 (4) Feb 09, 2015
I will look into it.

Not sure about the relativity though as the pressure at the Outer/Inner core boundary is 30 times that pressure.
brahmix
4 / 5 (4) Feb 10, 2015
The Cerium paper shows how we can have the duality using pressure (gravity) only in the core. It suggests that the inner-inner core is aligned east-west because the structure of matter is smaller (geometric/crystal/whatever it is) and with different properties. It might be just like plasma (but not exactly) which would explain the magnetic field really well. Plus the crossing magnetic fields will strain the 'iron' in the core, whipping up more heat to compensate for what was lost. I am visualizing the larger structures can only align in one manner, while a small structure must re-orientate itself to fit into the larger, forcing a boundary between the two pressure states. This would mean that the 'iron' structures are not cubes, but interesting shapes.

Thanks to mndaffy & Macksb for the informative discussion - this is what the forum is for.
Much appreciated.
mbee1
5 / 5 (2) Feb 10, 2015
the temperature of the core is supposed to be hotter than the surface of the sun. how is iron in a crystal at those temperatures which would except for the pressure make it a gas. This article really leaves a lot not explained. If iron at the pressure assumes some kind of solid state I know of no experimental evidence for that state. What the experiment seems to be doing is simply measuring an echo at some kind of boundary and jumps to a whole bunch of assumptions.
brahmix
1 / 5 (2) Feb 10, 2015
mbee1: I puzzle over the same thing. The Cerium experiment is merely a hint towards a science which might explain that (or nullify). Exiting times, I think :-)
The gas... being under such a high pressure surely cannot have a free-flowing and random pattern. I imagine (yea.. ) that the iron nuclei are forced close to each other which creates the 'crystal' shape. The higher the pressure the closer the atoms are packed, forcing smaller 'crystal' shapes. We already know the 'cubic' shape of the iron atom changes when heated, so if we add nickle then the structure gets really interesting: Kamacite and Taenite are examples of this.
alfie_null
4.4 / 5 (7) Feb 10, 2015
I've been trying to get an answer for years as to how the Earth can be so old, yet STILL have a molten interior! In college, it was explained away as a product of radioactive decay, yet only the crust has radioactive elements; the mantle and core are thought to be nickel/iron. One physicist tried to explain this via heat released by formation of the crust, but I don't think the math works. Isn't an Earth much less than ~4 billion years old a simpler, and reasonable, explanation?

No.

And it's not hard to find a wealth of material from a multitude of science disciplines explaining how and why we know the age of the Earth. It's evident you don't like those explanations. Would I be rash to guess there's a wee bit of fundamentalist religion behind that?
Returners
1 / 5 (4) Feb 10, 2015
Beacon:
The core does contain radioactive elements. When they say it's made of iron and nickel they are talking about the two main elements. It's still got trace elements. In fact, most of the radioactive elements are heavier than iron or nickel, and would be likely to sink into the core over time.

Friction between the core and the mantle can produce heat. Angular momentum of the system is conserved by passing it to the Moon or into the infrared photons that eventually escape the Crust. A more correct way is to say the rotational kinetic energy is converted to heat.

Based on temperatures near the surface, I'd expect the core temperature to be above 10,000K and perhaps into the 12,000K range.
mndaffy
4.2 / 5 (5) Feb 10, 2015
@beacon

If you search Google for Earth's Internal Heat Budget you will find a very basic introduction to heat generation within the Earth, but there are many forces that collude to generate heat within the earth. Radiogenic decay is not simply contained to crust of the earth, in fact, trace Pb in the core has been said to generate a lot of heat.

If you really want to dive into the heat budget I would suggest making a career out of geophysics or astrophysics. Planetary evolution is a fun subject. "Returners" has already said what I was going to say about rotational dynamics, but you will probably need to put your fluid dynamics hat on to get into that.

I am off to read the suggested reading.
mndaffy
2.3 / 5 (3) Feb 10, 2015
@ Macksb

Wow, that is interesting. I would like to read the actual article to get a better glimpse of how the structures align with each other. That is a really interesting. The only problems I see with that are the relative pressures but more importantly temps, which are poorly understood. The good relativity is that all are face centered cubic (Cerium, Nickel, Iron). Could it be that analogous behavior could be found in all face centered cubic elemental constituents with similar electron configurations? What are the boundaries and constraints in regards to this? I am trying to imagine the potential energy well and how that changes in cerium's behavior. The problem I keep coming back to is the temperature though. I will have to read more up on Chimera States. A lot of the stuff I looked into was behind a pay wall.

Thanks. Temperature seems to be the key.

mndaffy
3.7 / 5 (3) Feb 10, 2015
Here guys, check this out.

"Iron in the Earth's core weakens before melting" on Phys.org Oct. 10, 2013

Hmmm, mesophases in metals
mndaffy
4 / 5 (4) Feb 10, 2015
Sorry I assumed everyone here was a "guy"
nilbud
not rated yet Feb 10, 2015
Guys is genderless at this stage, although the singular is masculine. As in "So much for that guy beacon's thirst for knowledge, LOL".
MRBlizzard
1 / 5 (1) Feb 10, 2015
mndaffy: . . . How, in P-V-T space does one go from a plasma to an ordered crystalline structure? What are the mechanics?

It crossed my mind that the condensation of a gas to a solid is the reverse of Sublimation. We probably have a good theory of sublimation. The condensation of a chemical plasma made up of very unbound, weakly bonding (at temperature) molecular fragments might be a place to start.
Maggnus
5 / 5 (3) Feb 10, 2015
@Macksb - if I am following you correctly, you are saying that the extreme pressure at the core of the planet may be producing a chimera state of coupled oscillators in the iron inner-inner core? And, if I continue to follow you correctly, I wonder if this state of coupled oscillators may be the source of the earth's magnetic field?

Would you mind explaining this state and what it may suggest for the inner core? It's well above my pay grade!
mndaffy
4 / 5 (4) Feb 10, 2015
Maggnus,

That is not what he is saying at all. He is talking only about the inner core structure. Dynamo generation is not located there.
Maggnus
5 / 5 (3) Feb 10, 2015
Maggnus,

That is not what he is saying at all. He is talking only about the inner core structure. Dynamo generation is not located there.


I'm sorry, perhaps my wording was clumsy. I was asking if the chimera state of coupled oscillation could be a source of the Earth's magnetic field.
eightyape
1 / 5 (4) Feb 10, 2015
The East West polarisation of the inner crystal mass and the north south polarisation of the outer crystal mass is astounding.
It implies a bi -directional "tugging" on the earths gravity in my head...the easy west alignment corresponding with the orbital plane of the solar system and the outer core polarising in directionality with the sun...
trying tio imagine what a pole shift of the earth looks like in the middle just got more complicated, but to be presented with two juxtaposed polarities at the centre of the earth, wow. someone should get a prize for this.
As tho why it has regions, along the orbital axis at the centre but pinned outside that by the suns field influence? without the outer region would the inner crystal just zoom off on the orbital plane?
If we can use this technique to monitor possible fluctuations in the polarities then we will learn athing or two.
somewhere in this polarity puzzle is a fuller understanding of gravity.
Macksb
2.3 / 5 (3) Feb 10, 2015
I have not spoken about the relevance of this new inner core model to geomagnetism, but yes, that has been on my mind since my first post.

Iron is always a candidate for magnetic effects. Aligned iron even more so. Two different sets of aligned iron even better. Massive coupled oscillator effects, north south orientation plus east west--all quacking like a magnetic duck.

A geomagnetic duck? Maybe. A flipping geomagnetic duck that can stand on its head for extended periods? That's a tall order. The flips of earth's magnetic poles are quite irregular. Too irregular for an organized system of coupled oscillators, which should be fairly periodic. But if the east west aligned inner core fluctuates above and below the equator of the dual inner core now and then--who knows? Maybe if the east west alignment dips and points a bit south of the equator, the South Pole becomes dominant. Such a dip might result from various other geomagnetic influences.

Conjecture, entirely.

mndaffy
3.7 / 5 (3) Feb 10, 2015
Bahhaaahhaahhahhaaaaaa ! That was hilarious ! Standing on it's head quaking like a duck for how long again?

You gotta remember something. The pole reversals can be relatively short transitions geologically, as little as 70-100 years upon current research. The recent decrease has only been 130 years in the making and is already at an average of a 25% deterioration (130 years, sound familiar?) We also have to remember that there are higher order polarities to the magnetic field. I can see possibly see the inner core, in whatever state it is in, acting as an impedance mechanism, or possibly a mild amplifier, but I would have a very hard time reconciling the actual field being generated by the inner core, even if it were snapping in and out of different phases. That might be my ignorance showing on particle physics though.
eightyape
1 / 5 (4) Feb 10, 2015
Im trying to visualise the whole system, comes dfrom the boyhood question of "if gravitys so powerful how come the universe isnt just a lump...ive always coonvinced by simple logic that gravity is a two way deal, an orbit is a highly balanced state, inferring that (in my head at least ) that there are at least two components to gravity or at least its effect in our region of space.
the sun forming an inward pull and the rest of the mass of the solar system lined up against it maintaining this balance...
to see it?
a dual polarisation at the centre of our little gravity well.
well thats pretty cool.
i like that.
eightyape
1 / 5 (4) Feb 10, 2015
wonder what the mifddle of jupiter looks like? or saturn with the hexagonal weirdness found at its poles?
imagine the crystal spinning in the middle of that thing? if it has one.
do all the planets have cores that could be similar...can we ever know? is this experiment even possible on other planets?
can the principle be used to priduce an antigravity engine.because thats all that really matters in any case.
eightyape
1 / 5 (4) Feb 10, 2015
the thoughts on pole shift were just musings but i would suppose that the dominating factor in any equation to balance this anomaly woiuld infer that the suns field would be dominant, does th esun contain some exotic crystal plasma at its core that the earth is mnirroering?
is the dominant force in the sun an east west one?
could explain the turbulence and constant field switiching, how come the swithicng doesnt happen every time in the aerh crystal and not the sun crystal? the theoretical sun crystal?
can we match the data between sun seismology with this and discern anything?
Its one of the most astounding techniques and discopveries in the history of mankind...
when ou start to think what it might imply.
but what do i know? i fix buses for aliving and dig holes .
eightyape
1 / 5 (4) Feb 10, 2015
on the geomagnetic duck, a geomagnetic mollusc might be the case, the pole shifts occuring when the force holding the east /west polatrrity is weaker and the sun does its 7 year flip- the right circumstances, the sun takes the earth spole shift with it in concert..a random component of the planetary geometry clicking in once very so often. .a geomagnetic locking system possibly linked to the oscillation of the moon? a naturally unbalanced state of momentum and polar pull on the earth that when the lock is picked? the mollusc is kicked off the rock when the flip is occurring and the east west force of the molluscs sucker just weak enough,,,when it flips...it just lands on the other side of the rock and sticks again.

eightyape
1 / 5 (4) Feb 10, 2015
i up your duck with a mollusc, always clinging on but the flip sometimes catches it unawraes? the opull off the other planets is the other side of the sun perhaps and the moon pos?
peraps the flip ooccurs in concert across all planets in the solar system with movingcores
eightyape
1 / 5 (4) Feb 10, 2015
i up your duck with a mollusc, always clinging on but the flip sometimes catches it unawraes? the opull off the other planets is the other side of the sun perhaps and the moon pos?
peraps the flip ooccurs in concert across all planets in the solar system with movingcores
Nik_2213
5 / 5 (3) Feb 10, 2015
A thought or two...

Never mind the assortment of radioactive elements presumed thinly mixed through the mantle and core from studying non-solar neutrinos, don't forget that, following the Moon's formation, it was in a much, much closer orbit, raising huge 'Earth tides'. We only notice the 'sea tides', but there are still 'Earth tides'. That's a lot of energy...

Also, if you look at a correctly mounted Earth globe, you'll notice that the poles tilt, do not align with the Sun's axis. It's what gives high-latitudes seasons. And the magnetic poles are further offset.
Torbjorn_Larsson_OM
5 / 5 (4) Feb 11, 2015
The inner core separation is recent, but it could be a sign of phase change due to cooling.

Geodynamos are, as mndaffy mentioned, well founded (if not well understood) in Earth geofield behavior. But also vs Venus absence (hot atmosphere -> stagnant mantle convection) and Moon/Mars local crustal fields (geodynamo remnants).

[ http://en.wikiped...ic_field ]

Since conductive mantle convection is a MHD problem (generates and is generated by the field), it can be "simplified" to a plasma for convenience at times, I'm sure. Same as astronomical plasmas are simplified to gas at times, depending on what problem you want to study. That doesn't mean the mantle/core is a plasma, nor that plasmas are gases.

[tbctd]
Torbjorn_Larsson_OM
5 / 5 (5) Feb 11, 2015
[ctd]

Molten cores, which appends to at least Earth, likely Venus, Moon (Apollo data) and Mars (recent marsquakes), are so due to pressure and heat. Heat sources for Earth net heat flow to the surface is ~ 50 % remnant heat and ~ 50 % radioactivity (as seen by observing geoneutrinos).

[ http://en.wikiped...t_budget ]

The remnant heat is accrued by collision and gravitational sorting (converting gravitational potrential energy to heat) at formation. Especially in Earth's case, the last collision between pre-Earth Tellus and Theia planetesimals remelted Tellus more or less completely and added the last 10 % of mass. Hence Earth (and Moon) is 100 million years younger than Mars.

[ http://en.wikiped...pothesis ]

Radioactive elements are mostly lithophiles, and is thus aggregated by sorting to the mantle and crust.

[ http://en.wikiped...fication ]
eightyape
1 / 5 (2) Feb 11, 2015
mollusc.
Macksb
5 / 5 (1) Feb 11, 2015
Geoduck
James_Mooney
3 / 5 (2) Feb 12, 2015
I seem to remember crystals in that movie - Journey to the Center of the Earth. Of course, there were also dinosaurs. No doubt the cause of the magnetic field: MagnetoHydroDinosaurDynamics.
william_r_mcdonald
5 / 5 (1) Feb 12, 2015
I wonder how these offset crystal alignments relate to magnetic polar reversals. This research may help us to be able to predict when the next one will happen.
mndaffy
1 / 5 (1) Feb 12, 2015
William, I think a better predictor of magnetic pole reversal would be a detailed time based log of mantle and asthenospheric heat content, coupled with Milankovitch cycles and solar magnetic field cycles. I am pretty sure ESA's SWARM will yield coupling between the earth's magnetic field and the sun's magnetic filed/output. It may be years to come, but it will probably come. My bet that The sun's field does indeed force the earth's to some degree. But I could be wrong. Maybe your hypothesis would effect the higher order poles.
william_r_mcdonald
3 / 5 (2) Feb 12, 2015
mndaffy, Yes, you are right, we have those good predictors already. I'm looking at this as yet another peice of that puzzle. Perhaps when the offset reaches a critical angle, the whole thing flips. Who knows? unfortunately, we don't have a geological record for variation between the inner and inner-inner mantel like we do for the polar reversals. But we can watch it going forward.
mndaffy
1 / 5 (1) Feb 12, 2015
Yes, we can watch it moving forward, and I have faith that with AI, quantum computing, and current data collection we are going to see a lot of new information on a myriad of earth systems that are dynamically interlaced. We are in an awesome part of history. I was so grateful when SWARM came online and it is a blast watching all the work being done. The good news is we do have some record of magnetic fluctuations and we do have pretty accurate models of the geomagnetic field. I am interested to see how this all boils down to creating a habitable planet.

Good day Sir !
Z99
not rated yet Feb 16, 2015
Late to post this. I am, I must be, stupid. The diagram shows the iic aligned in one direction (call it X (as in (X,Y, Z) = 3° near-Euclidean space). I can't picture this. I keep hitting a wall considering radial symmetry. What does "east-west" mean other than w.r.t. the magnetic or spin axis? And without respect to a (2°-D) surface? (or equivalently, a disc perpendicular to axis) East/West is the direction of the vector of spin, and has no meaning, afaics, ON the axis (maybe not important given its vanishing volume?) but certainly is characterized by arcs around said axis, not straight lines relative to some (external) x,y,z coordinate frame.
mndaffy
1 / 5 (1) Feb 16, 2015
You are right, it is. A little confusing. Moving through 3d-4d space can be easy for some people mentally, but to get in writing is very difficult. Especially for a broad audience. It is a hindrance in science, or art, etc.
Macksb
5 / 5 (1) Feb 16, 2015
Responding to the two preceding comments, regarding east-west versus north-south, the fundamental point is Winfree's concept, which is that in any two oscillator system the oscillations will be opposed. One form of Winfree "opposition" might be two planes intersecting at a right angle. Here, I think we have a two oscillator system: the inner inner core and outer inner core. And the arrows in these two cores appear to be at right angles to each other.

Other factors probably dictate the NSEW (approximately) alignment issue. Earth's magnetic pole maybe, earth's equator, the sun, the plane of the planets, etc.

eightyape
not rated yet Feb 16, 2015
Perhaps when the offset reaches a critical angle, the whole thing flips. - thats what i said,,,sort of... i meant geomagnetic limpet....not molluscs. geolimpet theory.

might be two planes intersecting at a right angle. Here, I think we have a two oscillator system: the inner inner core and outer inner core. And the arrows in these two cores appear to be at right angles to each other.

i said that as well,,,,
eightyape
not rated yet Feb 16, 2015
its my pet geomagnetic planar gravity high pressure crystalline geolimpet ...you cant have it.
eightyape
not rated yet Feb 16, 2015
enough of this nonsense, i have detailed plans for a flying motorcycle with detatchable wing and unique take off system to design...proper physics.
unless we can catch the limpet and get it to drive a space engine then its irelevant anyway.
eightyape
not rated yet Feb 18, 2015
http://www.livesc...ial.html in a strange act of synchronicity having not thought of limpets in a very long time, the university in the town where i live no less has an interest in limpets too!

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