Stone Age man wasn't necessarily more advanced than the Neanderthals

January 14, 2015
The tool in question was uncovered in June 2014 during the annual digs at the Grotte du Bison at Arcy-sur-Cure in Burgundy, France. Extremely well preserved, the tool comes from the left femur of an adult reindeer and its age is estimated between 55,000 and 60,000 years ago. Marks observed on it allow us to trace its history. Obtaining bones for the manufacture of tools was not the primary motivation for Neanderthals hunting -- above all, they hunted to obtain the rich energy provided by meat and marrow. Evidence of meat butchering and bone fracturing to extract marrow are evident on the tool. Percussion marks suggest the use of the bone fragment for carved sharpening the cutting edges of stone tools. Finally, chipping and a significant polish show the use of the bone as a scraper. Credit: University of Montreal / Luc Doyon

A multi-purpose bone tool dating from the Neanderthal era has been discovered by University of Montreal researchers, throwing into question our current understanding of the evolution of human behaviour. It was found at an archaeological site in France. "This is the first time a multi-purpose bone tool from this period has been discovered. It proves that Neanderthals were able to understand the mechanical properties of bone and knew how to use it to make tools, abilities usually attributed to our species, Homo sapiens," said Luc Doyon of the university's Department of Anthropology, who participated in the digs. Neanderthals lived in Europe and western Asia in the Middle Paleolithic between around 250,000 to 28,000 years ago. Homo sapiens is the scientific term for modern man.

The production of bone tools by Neanderthals is open to debate. For much of the twentieth century, prehistoric experts were reluctant to recognize the ability of this species to incorporate materials like bone into their technological know-how and likewise their ability to master the techniques needed to work bone. However, over the past two decades, many clues indicate the use of hard materials from animals by Neanderthals. "Our discovery is an additional indicator of bone work by Neanderthals and helps put into question the linear view of the evolution of ," Doyon said.

The tool in question was uncovered in June 2014 during the annual digs at the Grotte du Bison at Arcy-sur-Cure in Burgundy, France. Extremely well preserved, the tool comes from the left femur of an adult reindeer and its age is estimated between 55,000 and 60,000 years ago. Marks observed on it allow us to trace its history. Obtaining bones for the manufacture of tools was not the primary motivation for Neanderthals hunting - above all, they hunted to obtain the rich energy provided by meat and marrow. Evidence of meat butchering and bone fracturing to extract marrow are evident on the tool. Percussion marks suggest the use of the bone fragment for carved sharpening the cutting edges of . Finally, chipping and a significant polish show the use of the bone as a scraper.

"The presence of this tool at a context where stone tools are abundant suggests an opportunistic choice of the and its intentional modification into a tool by Neanderthals," Doyon said. "It was long thought that before Homo sapiens, other species did not have the cognitive ability to produce this type of artefact. This discovery reduces the presumed gap between the two species and prevents us from saying that one was technically superior to the other."

Explore further: Oldest DNA ever found sheds light on humans' global trek

More information: Luc Doyon, Geneviève Pothier Bouchard, and Maurice Hardy published the article "Un outil en os à usages multiples dans un contexte moustérien," on December 15, 2014 in the Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française.

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gkam
1 / 5 (13) Jan 14, 2015
The differences were other: Neanderthals were conservative and crude, while the Homo were more liberal and kind.

While most of the genetic heritage from Neanders is hidden in our genes, their propensities live on today in screams of "WMD!" and "Bring 'em on!".
ctboring
3.7 / 5 (3) Jan 14, 2015
Imagining how various events that may have occurred in the past may have affected humans is an interesting exercise. For example, I don't believe that the Neanderthals were destroyed by any single event. Most probably they slowly disappeared due to climate changes that reduced their available food supplies, deseases that were possibly spread by interactions with their Cro-Magonon cousins, competion with Cro-Magnon peoples for space and resources, and even catclysmic events like volcanic activity. Read "The Last Neanderthal Clan" by Lareau. It is a fictional tale of the struggle for survival of the last remaining Neanderthals. A good read
gkam
1.8 / 5 (5) Jan 14, 2015
ct, it only takes a 1% difference in survival rates for one species to take over another.
dr_mabeuse
4.7 / 5 (13) Jan 14, 2015
Our image of Neanderthals as dull-witted, skin-clad, knuckle-draggers has absolutely no basis in fact. We know that Neanderthals were intelligent, adorned themselves with jewelry, buried their dead with flowers and favorite tools, and probably had a level of culture not much different from modern stone-age homo sapiens. It's about time we gave them the respect they deserve.
TheGhostofOtto1923
2.7 / 5 (7) Jan 14, 2015
ct, it only takes a 1% difference in survival rates for one species to take over another.
Uh where did you get this slice of prime bullshit? Do you perhaps have some kind of reference or other?
Science Officer
2.1 / 5 (8) Jan 14, 2015
If the Neanderthal were really so smart......wouldn't they still be here?
fixitup
1.8 / 5 (5) Jan 14, 2015
The Neanderthal population ended up in present day Russia.....Just take a close look at Putin. I rest my case!
katesisco
3.7 / 5 (3) Jan 14, 2015
The key here may be that the newcomers, the Homo S, may have been a fast breeder. Research indicates Neander children walked quicker but perhaps the Homo interloper were always in a pack where the Neander were mostly family groups?
kentbeaner
1.4 / 5 (11) Jan 14, 2015
Dinosaurs are born in hell, whereas apemen are changed people.
Apemen and elephantmen are cursed masons from tower of Babel. Read Book of Jasher, Chapter 9, verse 35. And the Lord smote the three divisions that were there, and He punished them according to their works and designs; those who said, We will ascend to heaven and serve our gods, became like apes and elephants...
According to Russian Orthodox Christian Vyatcheslav Krasheninnikov: Humans were created about 7525 years ago. Birds participate in time creation. It's a sin to kill birds. Feed the pigeons; when pigeons bow down, people are rescued from hell. Dinosaurs live under our level. They will get out through sinkholes and lakes. To kill them, go for their nerves. Vyatcheslav Krasheninnikov said that first dinosaur will come out of Volga River.
Animals on the ark ate minimal to survive. Only animals that knelt before Noah went inside the ark. Other animals and 700 000 people drowned.
Losik
Jan 15, 2015
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
Whydening Gyre
4.4 / 5 (7) Jan 15, 2015
Only animals that knelt before Noah went inside the ark. Other animals and 700 000 people drowned.


Well, since snakes are here, they must have been on the ark. How does a snake "kneel down?
Whydening Gyre
4.4 / 5 (7) Jan 15, 2015
The differences were other: Neanderthals were conservative and crude, while the Homo were more liberal and kind.

What if it was actually the other way around?
Losik
Jan 15, 2015
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
Torbjorn_Larsson_OM
4.3 / 5 (6) Jan 15, 2015
Poor Neanderthals, always getting an unwarranted slamming by one oPoor Neanderthals, always getting an unwarranted slamming by one or the other. Nice that facts says else, tho'!

@SO: "If the Neanderthal were really so smart......wouldn't they still be here?"

If the bison was really so adapted to the north american plains...wouldn't they still be there?

[The reason for the Neanderthal subspecies extinction isn't known, but like the Denisovans they were never as successful as H. erectus was in similar environments, but different climates. E.g. the climate is thought to be a likely reason, as for other large species at the time.

Incidentally, the Khoisan is now known to be nearly or really a subspecies on par with N & D, we split at about the time AMH arose. And they are still around.]
Whydening Gyre
1 / 5 (1) Jan 15, 2015
@SO: "If the Neanderthal were really so smart......wouldn't they still be here?"

If the bison was really so adapted to the north american plains...wouldn't they still be there?

[The reason for the Neanderthal subspecies extinction isn't known, but like the Denisovans they were never as successful as H. erectus was in similar environments, but different climates. E.g. the climate is thought to be a likely reason, as for other large species at the time.

Incidentally, the Khoisan is now known to be nearly or really a subspecies on par with N & D, we split at about the time AMH arose. And they are still around.]

It is interesting to note the geographical origination andranges of N and D and the overlap. Khoisan seem to localized and quasi isolated to a smaller region of Africa...
OZGuy
4.2 / 5 (5) Jan 15, 2015
The Khoisan are not a sub-species. Their DNA contains fragmentary traces of early human DNA but they are human, same as you and I.

http://www.thebod...770.html
They note that the genetic traces that date back to the first humans are just that: traces, fragments picked out of the 3 billion letters that make up the human genetic code. In other parts of their DNA, the Khoisan have very recent mutations. "It's not as if they stopped evolving and were put away on a shelf," says Michael Hammer, a University of Arizona geneticist who has collaborated with Jenkins and Soodyall. "They preserve ancient lineages, but they are not an ancient group. They are as evolved as any other people."
Whydening Gyre
4.3 / 5 (6) Jan 15, 2015
The Khoisan are not a sub-species. Their DNA contains fragmentary traces of early human DNA but they are human, same as you and I.

They're ALL human same as you and I. Just minor differences - no more than what we see today...
Whydening Gyre
4.4 / 5 (7) Jan 16, 2015
Animals on the ark ate minimal to survive.

They ate dinosaur...

(Man, this guy is good for a lot of material...)
OZGuy
4.3 / 5 (6) Jan 16, 2015
WG
The opening line gives it away, no subtlety intended that's for sure.
Dinosaurs are born in hell, whereas apemen are changed people.

This guy is either one of the weirdest trolls on here or really crazy. Mind you, could be worse, he could be a scientologist.
OZGuy
4.3 / 5 (6) Jan 16, 2015
Sorry if this appears to be labouring the point but just to clarify, there are no living sub-species of humans. Defining any human group as a sub-species is a dangerous route to start down and needs to be nipped in the bud.

http://en.wikiped..._sapiens
Modern humans are the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens, which differentiates them from what has been argued to be their direct ancestor, Homo sapiens idaltu.


All humans alive today are Homo sapiens sapiens and that obviously includes the Khoisan, Basques etc.
Whydening Gyre
3 / 5 (2) Jan 16, 2015
Modern humans are the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens, which differentiates them from what has been argued to be their direct ancestor, Homo sapiens idaltu.


All humans alive today are Homo sapiens sapiens and that obviously includes the Khoisan, Basques etc.

And if the Neanderthal was still around? Modern Human...
The only thing that makes a human a modern human is if they are still here...
OZGuy
4.3 / 5 (6) Jan 17, 2015
WG
Not that concerned about classifying Neanderthals or the relationships between modern humans and any of the archaic hominins.
I just get antsy when i read the words sub-species relating to any living human group. Tolerate classifying living humans into sub-species and next we'll be back to eugenics and possibly the horror that resulted in.

People find enough ill-conceived excuses to kill each other they don't need another.
Whydening Gyre
1 / 5 (1) Jan 17, 2015
WG
Not that concerned about classifying Neanderthals or the relationships between modern humans and any of the archaic hominins.
I just get antsy when i read the words sub-species relating to any living human group. Tolerate classifying living humans into sub-species and next we'll be back to eugenics and possibly the horror that resulted in.

People find enough ill-conceived excuses to kill each other they don't need another.

How bout CO-species?
PhotonX
4.2 / 5 (5) Jan 17, 2015
Dinosaurs are born in hell, whereas apemen are changed people.
Apemen and elephantmen are cursed masons from tower of Babel...blah, blah, blah.
I can't tell if you're serious, or trying to be funny, but it really doesn't matter--it isn't working either way. It's just impossible to satirize fundamentalist religious beliefs. Bowing pigeons save lives--it's damned hard to parody that.
Whydening Gyre
3 / 5 (2) Jan 18, 2015
Too bold for someone to claim that ever existed neanderthals. All that have proponents of darwinism is a compilation of bones of different ages from different sources first processed and then assembled to the likeness of something between man and monkey in the sculpture workshop of one ore more sponsored universities that give reliable information only to the imagination of the authors. Illusions like fear are a lucrative business for some people.

Back on the shite list...
Whydening Gyre
3 / 5 (2) Jan 18, 2015
>Whydening Gyre

The history knows very well lies of darwinists - documented and proven forgeries. This suggests the way of thinking of these people. Emotions do not help the truth but to deception. The honest attitude to the facts helps to the truth.

Word salad mumbo-jumbo...
You spend too much time locked up in a room. Go out and have some FUN and then get back to me...
Osiris1
1 / 5 (3) Jan 18, 2015
Neither one of those species did more than squat by fires and defecate for over half a million years. Monkeys use tools too. The real progress came suddenly full grown about 12,500 years ago or a bit before when a small number of men were bioengineered with genes from off planet. Operation was done in maybe a lab in a secret valley long ago and now covered by hundreds of feet of filthy oily water...the Persian Gulf. That is the site of the Garden of Eden. Man was 'kicked out' because his new species, with souls now per the Great Commission, was a finished product and graduated from school!! That is where the sudden appearance in Turkmenistan and other places of ordered towns complete with plumbing, sewers, fired brick, mortar, and other trappings of modern civilization were discovered in ruins over 10,000 years old.
gkam
2.3 / 5 (3) Jan 18, 2015
Did they have Tee-Vee?
TheGhostofOtto1923
2.6 / 5 (5) Jan 18, 2015
WG
The opening line gives it away, no subtlety intended that's for sure.
Dinosaurs are born in hell, whereas apemen are changed people.

This guy is either one of the weirdest trolls on here or really crazy. Mind you, could be worse, he could be a scientologist.
Even worse - he's a religionist. This is no crazier than the first woman being created from the rib of the first man, who was then seduced by a talking snake and thereby ruined it for all of us. Her transgressions condemned women to suffer the Purge once every month, did you know it?
The honest attitude to the facts helps to the truth
-And these facts can be found in the same book which includes duplicitous rib-women, talking snakes, and dubious explanations of bodily functions such as menstruation.
Osiris1
1 / 5 (2) Jan 18, 2015
By the way, the Neanderthalers ARE still around even though only in small amounts. Greatest concentration was at location of their last stand, Portugal. They escaped by interbreeding with their competitors. All were still kinda stupid like Republicans today....some even drank tea. Took alien bioengineering to smarten them up. KGB found that out.
Osiris1
1 / 5 (2) Jan 18, 2015
Denisovians, not neanderthalers were in Russia mr 'fixitdown'.

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