Galactic 'hailstorm' in the early universe

January 16, 2015, University of Cambridge
Comparison of outflows from telescope observation and computer simulation. Credit: Tiago Costa

Two teams of astronomers led by researchers at the University of Cambridge have looked back nearly 13 billion years, when the Universe was less than 10 percent its present age, to determine how quasars - extremely luminous objects powered by supermassive black holes with the mass of a billion suns - regulate the formation of stars and the build-up of the most massive galaxies.

Using a combination of data gathered from powerful and supercomputer simulations, the teams found that a quasar spits out cold gas at speeds up to 2000 kilometres per second, and across distances of nearly 200,000 light years - much farther than has been observed before.

How this cold gas - the raw material for star formation in galaxies - can be accelerated to such high speeds had remained a mystery. Detailed comparison of new observations and supercomputer simulations has only now allowed researchers to understand how this can happen: the gas is first heated to temperatures of tens of millions of degrees by the energy released by the supermassive black hole powering the quasar. This enormous build-up of pressure accelerates the hot gas and pushes it to the outskirts of the galaxy.

The supercomputer simulations show that on its way out of the parent galaxy, there is just enough time for some of the hot gas to cool to temperatures low enough to be observable with radio telescopes. The results are presented in two separate papers published today (16 January) in the journals Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society and Astronomy & Astrophysics.

Quasars are amongst the most luminous objects in the Universe, and the most distant quasars are so far away that they allow us to peer back billions of years in time. They are powered by supermassive at the centre of galaxies, surrounded by a rapidly spinning disk-like region of gas. As the black hole pulls in matter from its surroundings, huge amounts of energy are released.

Outflow (red) and gas flowing in to the quasar in the centre (blue). The cold clumps shown in the inset image are expelled out of the galaxy. Credit: Tiago Costa
"It is the first time that we have seen outflowing cold gas moving at these large speeds at such large distances from the ," said Claudia Cicone, a PhD student at Cambridge's Cavendish Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Cosmology, and lead author on the first of the two papers. "It is very difficult to have matter with temperatures this low move as fast as we observed."

Cicone's observations allowed the second team of researchers specialising in to develop a detailed theoretical model of the outflowing gas around a bright quasar.

Outflow (red) and gas flowing in to the quasar in the centre (blue). The cold clumps shown in the inset image are expelled out of the galaxy. Credit: Tiago Costa
"We found that while gas is launched out of the quasar at very high temperatures, there is enough time for some of it to cool through radiative cooling - similar to how the Earth cools down on a cloudless night," said Tiago Costa, a PhD student at the Institute of Astronomy and the Kavli Institute for Cosmology, and lead author on the second paper. "The amazing thing is that in this distant galaxy in the young Universe the conditions are just right for enough of the fast moving hot gas to cool to the low temperatures that Claudia and her team have found."

Working at the IRAM Plateau De Bure interferometer in the French Alps, the researchers gathered data in the millimetre band, which allows observation of the emission from the which is the primary fuel for and main ingredient of galaxies, but is almost invisible at other wavelengths.

Explore further: Research reveals the real cause of death for some starburst galaxies

More information: — "Very extended cold gas, star formation and outflows in the halo of a bright quasar at z > 6" by Claudia Cicone et al. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 2015.

— "Fast cold gas in hot AGN outflows" by Tiago Costa et al. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 2015.

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cantdrive85
1.4 / 5 (9) Jan 16, 2015
Nothing more than theoretical mumbo jumbo in the above article and papers...
Uncle Ira
4 / 5 (8) Jan 16, 2015
BH's with the mass of a billion suns existing 750 million years after the universe was created...how?


You go first no-Skippy.

Anyone?


Be patient Cher, the smart peoples are probably busy doing their early morning real science stuffs and probably haven't had time yet to come around to check on the crankpots yet. (I see the Nazi-can'tdrive-Skippy tried to answer you. I can't see what he wrote but as you can see, the crankpots seem to be the early ones to show. Wasn't he silly enough for you?)
movementiseternal
Jan 16, 2015
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
Uncle Ira
4.2 / 5 (5) Jan 16, 2015
@ no-Skippy. I tried to google-Skippy for the answer too. No luck for me like you didn't have either. I don't think that is google-Skippy's fault. It probably has to do with us not knowing how to ask the question so google-Skippy understands what we are asking about.

I don't have to explain how one "can't" form.


Well do you have the theory on how they did form?

But in order to base a theory on the fact that it did...you have to explain how it did....cher.


Well it's obvious that they did form or they wouldn't be looking at them, eh Cher? Or do you think they didn't form and that they always just were forever and ever even before the universe formed? If that is what you are trying to say then yeah, we got to wait on the smart peoples to show up and explain to us not so smart Skippys.
Uncle Ira
4.2 / 5 (5) Jan 16, 2015
@ P.S. for you no-Skippy

I took you off "ignore idiot" status cause I thought you might have the answer...


If you thought that you more stupid than the average fool around here. Thinking I might have the answer shows you don't think much about what you are thinking. Until you realize that I am not the real scientist-Skippy you would do best to keep me on the don't let me look at this list.
zz5555
5 / 5 (6) Jan 16, 2015
BH's with the mass of a billion suns existing 750 million years after the universe was created...how?

I'm certainly no expert, but I get the impression that "how" isn't currently known for sure. Here's an article from last year that has a hypothesis on how the primordial black holes could get so big so soon in the early universe: http://phys.org/n...eed.html .
Uncle Ira
4 / 5 (4) Jan 16, 2015
BH's with the mass of a billion suns existing 750 million years after the universe was created...how?

I'm certainly no expert, but I get the impression that "how" isn't currently known for sure. Here's an article from last year that has a hypothesis on how the primordial black holes could get so big so soon in the early universe: http://phys.org/n...eed.html .


@ zz-Skippy thanks for that. Now no-Skippy and me have a good theory about the how part.

@ no-Skippy, the linkum that zz-Skippy put up works good and is a short not too long article about two scientist-Skippys who might be able to answer your question about how. But it seems it is only a suggestion not a science rule or law so don't be too hard on them for it.
Uncle Ira
4.2 / 5 (5) Jan 16, 2015
Pawning the formation mechanism off as "density purturbations" might satisfy people like IRA


Since I am not the real scientist-Skippy like you are not either the best I can do is let the experts try to explain it so it makes sense to me. What, you think I should let some no-fate-Skippy who changed his name to reset-Skippy be the first person I should go to for answers? You are the one with that magnet holds the universe together theory where gravity doesn't do it theory. Zephir-Skippy has a better one than that one..

...but so does sucking his thumb after he applies his sphincter spice.


Whatever that means it is probably just as stupid as your magnet theory of the no-gravity universe. Why you don't just sit your self down in the corner where the smart people won't embarrass you too much Cher. It don't bother me none that you want to make me the misere, but the zz-Skippy was only try to help you and being nice about it too.

RealityCheck
1 / 5 (6) Jan 16, 2015
Hi reset. Supermassive BH formation is no problem in non-Big Bang scenarios where the Universe is merely an infinite, eternally processing physical energy-space' system wherein local volumes and epochs recycle from fundamentally infinitesimal energy-space 'fluctuations/perturbations' to produce complexity/macro scale phenomena/features which can eventually recycle back to fundamental infinitesimal constituents/states via BHs 'reprocessing' of whatever accumulates within EH. This happens when BHs become big enough to have 'eaten' much of the surrounding energy-space features/perturbations 'mass' and explode/release its interior energy-space states/contents to form new locally processing epochs/phenomena. No Big Bang hypothesis related 'growth time' constraints means no problem with observing supermassive quasars in every observable volume/epoch. Plasma states/streamflows forces resist outwards directed radiation pressure which would otherwise limit inflow/growth rates.
Uncle Ira
4.3 / 5 (6) Jan 16, 2015
If you were responding to me Ira, I did re-instate your status as an ignored idiot..


Wise move on your part podna. That way you won't get your feelings hurt non.

.but I am sure whatever you said is very valuable to the world...like usual.


Non Cher, not so valuable to the world. Just to me.

But just between you and me and everybody else, I bet the no-Skippy now the reset-Skippy will take the little peek at what I write because he can't help himself. That is true no-Skippy?
vidyunmaya
1 / 5 (3) Jan 17, 2015
Upside-down logic to save What ? big-bang contradictions or Black-hole Psychology super-imposed
how do you expect Science to know the real knowledge base-Origins Cosmology Vedas ?
Cosmological Index holds the keys
Tuxford
1.8 / 5 (5) Jan 28, 2015
BH's with the mass of a billion suns existing 750 million years after the universe was created...how?

Anyone?


Quite simply, as has been stated, the universe is much older. The Huge Bang Fantasy is a simply a fantasy. See where science has led us??? Irrationally rational thinking is too limiting for true insight. Might as well be in Disneyland.

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