A team of scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis (WUSTL) and the University of Arizona (UA) in Tucson led by Samuel Achilefu have created a pair of high-tech glasses that help surgeons visualize cancer cells during surgeries, which glow blue when viewed through the glasses.
Achilefu published the 2013 article he coauthored as part of a special section in the SPIE Journal of Biomedical Optics on fluorescence molecular imaging that details the development of the high-tech glasses (available via open access in the SPIE Digital Library).
Achilefu, a professor of radiology and of biomedical engineering at WUSTL and co-leader of the Oncologic Imaging Program at Siteman Cancer Center, and his team developed the technology that incorporates custom video, a head-mounted display, and a targeted molecular agent injected into a patient that attaches to cancer cells, making them glow.
Viktor Gruev, assistant professor of engineering at WUSTL, and Rongguang Liang, professor of optical engineering at UA, assisted with development of the glasses. WUSTL graduate students Suman Mondal, Shengkui Gao, and Yang Liu and postdoctoral fellow Nan Zhu also played key roles.
Achilefu, along with Ramesh Raghavachari of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, has chaired the conference at SPIE Photonics West on Reporters, Markers, Dyes, Nanoparticles, and Molecular Probes for Biomedical Applications since its introduction in 2009.
The wearable technology was used during surgery for the first time on 10 February.
"This technology has great potential improve patient outcome and enhance decision making for health-care professionals," Achilefu said. "Our goal is to make sure no cancer is left behind."
Cancer cells are difficult to see, even under high-powered magnification. The high-tech glasses are designed to make it easier for surgeons to distinguish cancer cells from healthy cells, helping to ensure no stray tumor cells are left behind during surgery.
Currently, surgeons are required to remove the tumor as well as neighboring tissue that may or may not include cancer cells. The samples are sent to a lab, and if cancer cells are found in neighboring tissue, a second surgery often is recommended to remove additional tissue.
"We're in the early stages of this technology, and more development and testing will be done, but we're certainly encouraged by the potential benefits to patients," said breast surgeon and WUSTL associate professor of surgery Julie Margenthaler, who performed the procedure in February. "Imagine what it would mean if these glasses eliminated the need for follow-up surgery and the associated pain, inconvenience and anxiety."
The glasses could reduce the need for additional surgical procedures and continued stress on patients, as well as time and expenses. Margenthaler said about 20-25 percent of breast cancer patients who have lumps removed require a second surgery.
Achilefu worked with Washington University's Office of Technology Management and has a patent pending for the technology. He also is seeking FDA approval for a different molecular agent he's helping to develop for use with the glasses, which specifically targets and stays longer in cancer cells.
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Achilefu will present a keynote paper on nanotechnology-based devices for use in cancer imaging including challenges of using nanomedicine in clinical settings at SPIE DSS in Baltimore, Maryland, on 8 May. The presentation is titled "The era of nanomedicine: perspectives and potential applications in oncology."