World's largest particle detector IceCube detects first high-energy neutrinos from the cosmos

November 21, 2013 by Terry Devitt
This is the highest energy neutrino ever observed, with an estimated energy of 1.14 PeV. It was detected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole on Jan. 3, 2012. IceCube physicists named it Ernie. Twenty-eight events with energies around and above 30 TeV were observed in an all-sky search, conducted between May 2010 and May 2012, for high-energy neutrino events with vertices contained in the IceCube neutrino detector. Credit: Credit: IceCube Collaboration

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory, a particle detector buried in the Antarctic ice, is a demonstration of the power of the human passion for discovery, where scientific ingenuity meets technological innovation. Today, nearly 25 years after the pioneering idea of detecting neutrinos in ice, the IceCube Collaboration announces the observation of 28 very high-energy particle events that constitute the first solid evidence for astrophysical neutrinos from cosmic accelerators.

"This is the first indication of very high-energy neutrinos coming from outside our solar system, with energies more than one million times those observed in 1987 in connection with a supernova seen in the Large Magellanic Cloud," says Francis Halzen, principal investigator of IceCube and the Hilldale and Gregory Breit Distinguished Professor of Physics at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. "It is gratifying to finally see what we have been looking for. This is the dawn of a new age of astronomy."

Details of the research appear in a manuscript published in the Nov. 22, 2013 issue of the journal Science.

Because they rarely interact with matter, the nearly massless subatomic particles called neutrinos can carry information about the workings of the highest-energy and most distant phenomena in the universe. Billions of neutrinos pass through every square centimeter of the Earth every second, but the vast majority originate either in the sun or in the Earth's atmosphere.

Far rarer are neutrinos from the outer reaches of our galaxy or beyond, which have long been theorized to provide insights into the powerful cosmic objects where high-energy cosmic rays may originate: supernovas, black holes, pulsars, active galactic nuclei and other extreme extragalactic phenomena.

IceCube, run by the international IceCube Collaboration and headquartered at the Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center (WIPAC) at UW–Madison, was designed to accomplish two major scientific goals: measure the flux, or rate, of high-energy neutrinos, and try to identify some of their sources.

This is an artistic rendering of IceCube DOMs below the Antarctic ice. Inside IceCube, a total of 5,160 sensitive detectors hang from 86 steel cables. Credit: Jamie Yang, The IceCube Collaboration.

The analysis presented in the Science paper reveals the first high-energy neutrino flux ever observed, a highly statistically significant signal (more than 4 sigma) that meets expectations for neutrinos originating in cosmic accelerators.

"From hints in earlier IceCube analyses, we have used improved analysis methods and more data to make a significant step forward in our search for the elusive astrophysical signal," says collaboration spokesperson Olga Botner, of Uppsala University. "We are now working hard on improving the significance of our observation, and on understanding what this signal means and where it comes from."

"IceCube is a wonderful and unique astrophysical telescope—it is deployed deep in the Antarctic ice but looks over the entire universe, detecting neutrinos coming through the Earth from the northern skies, as well as from around the southern skies," says Vladimir Papitashvili of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Division of Polar Programs.

"The IceCube Neutrino Observatory has opened a new era in neutrino astrophysical observations," adds Jim Whitmore of the NSF's Physics Division, who with Papitashvili manages operation of the observatory and the associated U.S. research projects. "It is in the forefront of the entire field of neutrino astronomy, now delivering observations that have been long-awaited by both theorists and experimentalists."

The 28 high-energy neutrinos were found in data collected by the IceCube detector from May 2010 to May 2012 and analyzed for neutrino events exceeding 50 teraelectronvolts (TeV) coming from anywhere in the sky. The events cannot be explained by other neutrino fluxes, such as those from atmospheric neutrinos, nor by other high-energy events, such as muons produced by the interaction of cosmic rays in the atmosphere.

The IceCube Laboratory at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, in Antarctica, hosts the computers collecting raw data. Due to satellite bandwidth allocations, the first level of reconstruction and event filtering happens in near real-time in this lab. Only events selected as interesting for physics studies are sent to UW-Madison, where they are prepared for use by any member of the IceCube Collaboration. Credit: Sven Lidstrom. IceCube/NSF

"Now that we have the full detector we have the sensitivity to see these events. After seeing hundreds of thousands of atmospheric neutrinos, we have finally found something different," Halzen explains. "We've been waiting for this for so long."

IceCube is comprised of 5,160 digital optical modules suspended along 86 strings embedded in a cubic kilometer of ice beneath the South Pole. The National Science Foundation-supported observatory detects neutrinos through the tiny flashes of blue light, called Cherenkov light, produced when neutrinos interact in the ice.

The IceCube detector was completed in December 2010 after seven years of construction. It was built on time and on budget and in its first two years has performed above its design specifications.

"The success of IceCube builds on the efforts of hundreds of people around the world," says Botner. "IceCube collaborators made it all happen—from the design and the deployment in a harsh environment, proving the feasibility of the concept, to data harvesting and physics analysis. All required concerted efforts that ultimately have led to the observations presented in this paper. Now the collaboration is addressing a further challenge: how to make IceCube a big contributor to astronomy."

Explore further: IceCube Neutrino Observatory reports first evidence for extraterrestrial high-energy neutrinos

More information: Evidence for High-Energy Extraterrestrial Neutrinos at the IceCube Detector; The IceCube Collaboration; Science (2013); DOI: 10.1126/science.1242856

Related Stories

Researchers at IceCube detect record energy neutrinos

April 26, 2013

( —Researchers at the Antarctic research station IceCube are reporting that they've detected the highest ever energy neutrinos ever observed. In their paper they've uploaded to the preprint server arXiv, the team ...

Neutrinos put cosmic ray theory on ice

April 20, 2012

( -- A telescope buried beneath the South Pole has failed to find any neutrinos accompanying exploding fireballs in space, undermining a leading theory of how cosmic rays are born.

IceCube neutrino observatory nears completion

August 31, 2010

In December 2010, IceCube -- the world's first kilometer-scale neutrino observatory, which is located beneath the Antarctic ice -- will finally be completed after two decades of planning. In an article in the AIP's Review ...

Fermilab sends first neutrino beam to NOvA experiment

September 17, 2013

DOE's Fermilab has switched on its newly upgraded neutrino beam, soon to be the most intense in the world. The laboratory spent the past 15 months upgrading its accelerator complex in preparation for the NOvA experiment, ...

Recommended for you

Laser cooling a polyatomic molecule

April 26, 2017

(—A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes ...


Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

1.3 / 5 (4) Nov 22, 2013
Here's the local rag's version.
University of Wisconsin-Madison has observed 28 neutrinos that traveled millions of light-years through space, crashing into the South Pole ice and emitting a flash of blue light the size of six city blocks.
Hardly " ... tiny flashes of blue light, called Cherenkov light..."
1.5 / 5 (4) Nov 22, 2013
Looking at the graphic shown in the free part of the article in Science, the graphic they show of the Cerenkov radiation flash detected from this ~ 10^15 ev neutrino looked to be at least 1/2 KM wide.
2.2 / 5 (5) Nov 22, 2013
Those are actually moron particles, heralding the approach of the next great Tea Party candidate for Vice President, sent from planet Kolob to rescue the faithful.

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.