Probing Question: Are MOOCs here to stay?

June 20, 2013 by Melissa Beattie-Moss, Pennsylvania State University
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) allow students to take college-level courses entirely over the Internet. Credit: Patrick Mansell

In higher education, 2013 may be remembered as the year of the MOOC. For those playing catch-up, MOOCs, or Massive Open Online Courses, are college-level classes taught entirely over the Internet. Like students in brick-and-mortar classrooms, students enrolled in MOOCs take notes and tests and participate in discussions. Unlike traditional courses—or even typical online courses—MOOCs are usually free, draw hundreds or even thousands of students, and are run with minimal direct contact with teachers, with an emphasis instead on brief and (presumably) engaging video presentations.

Colleges and universities are scrambling to get onboard the MOOC train—hundreds now offer some form of Web-based curriculum—while at the same time debating what the trend means for the future of .

Is MOOC-mania justified and are MOOCs here to stay?

"We know a lot about teaching small classes and even large lecture classes," Penn State Associate Professor of English Stuart Selber said. "And we know a lot about creating online courses for the scales we're used to. But the 'massive' part of MOOCs is a new frontier for higher education. We know very little, if anything, about teaching and learning in a context involving tens of thousands of students."

Selber directs Digital Education in English, teaches courses in computers and composition and oversees English participating in the University's "Teaching with Technology" certificate program.

There are about 450 MOOCs currently available worldwide, he explained, and students can take classes on an array of topics, such as "Understanding Einstein," offered by high-profile consortiums such as Stanford's Coursera (Penn State already has five course offerings through the Coursera network), or "The Ancient Greek Hero," offered by EdX, run by MIT and Harvard. Computer or peer-graded quizzes are the norm, and the honor code is in place regarding cheating. The disadvantages? Perhaps the most glaring ones are the lack of accreditation—although that's starting to change, Selber noted—and the loss of a customized learning environment and teacher-student interaction. The chief advantages are self-paced learning and convenience, and the tuition price-tag (zero dollars and zero cents) is pretty appealing to many students, too.

"MOOCs may not be free forever, at least not all of them," Selber cautioned. "People are trying to figure out business models that can support their design and delivery. They're an expensive proposition if approached seriously." The hope of their proponents is that MOOCs will democratize education, he added. "The dream is that this approach will open up learning opportunities to both traditional and non-traditional students, increasing access to the best and brightest teachers in higher education, and reducing the costs of higher education. But it's too soon to know what the effects of MOOCs might really end up being." As Selber pointed out, technology is only one component of learning contexts. "All on its own, technology is unlikely to bring about dramatic cultural change," he said. "There must also be social and political alignment. Right now, MOOCs are aligning with concerns over the high costs of higher education. That's giving them traction."

There's no denying that MOOCs were born during a "perfect storm" of economic recession, climbing tuition rates, and widespread Internet access. But its advocates are quick to add that this is an idea whose time has come, even without the recession. Does the research bear that out?

"Well, I've heard people reference 'the MOOC literature,' but that doesn't really exist yet," said Selber. "There are lots of experiments going on out there and anecdotal evidence is starting to emerge, and that's certainly a good start. I'm looking forward to getting past all of the hype—the hype has been epic—and learning from evidence-based accounts of MOOC activity from thoughtful teacher-researchers."

Some of the needed research, Selber added, is about dialogue. "Learning has a social component and dialogue is important. How will MOOCs impact that? Do online discussions really work in education?" Dialogue, he said, is "an essential part of any learning setting, online or off, massive or not. What happens in a course when there's the potential for 50,000 students to join a conversation? And how should the MOOC teacher treat that conversation, a conversation she can't possibly follow closely? These are examples of the open questions researchers need to study."

It's possible, Selber noted, that we're going to need to think in other ways about the role of dialogue in an academic course. "If MOOCs encourage us to revisit taken-for-granted assumptions, that would be very positive indeed."

Although the future of MOOCs is uncertain, Selber said, what we can expect to see is the development of multiple types of MOOCs. "That is, these courses won't end up being just one thing. Some will be free, others will charge. Some will offer credit (in various forms); others will provide relatively little feedback and assessment. Some will serve traditional students; others will focus on working professionals or on those interested in enrichment. The types that emerge at any particular school will be a function of larger social, political, and economic contexts."

The bottom line, according to Selber, is we should curtail the hysteria about MOOCs destroying or saving the American college campus. And if you have trouble thinking rationally about it, you could always turn to the Duke MOOC, "A Beginner's Guide to Irrational Behavior."

Explore further: College credit for online courses gains momentum

Related Stories

College credit for online courses gains momentum

November 16, 2012

The American Council on Education, a nonprofit organization that represents most of the nation's college and university presidents, is preparing to weigh in on massive open online courses - MOOCs, for short - a new way of ...

More top universities to offer free online courses

February 21, 2013

More of the world's elite universities are joining the rush to offer "massive open online courses," but it's still uncertain whether so-called MOOCs will help more students earn college degrees.

New frontier for scaling up online classes: credit

November 19, 2012

In 15 years of teaching, University of Pennsylvania classicist Peter Struck has guided perhaps a few hundred students annually in his classes on Greek and Roman mythology through the works of Homer, Sophocles, Aeschylus and ...

Recommended for you

Study reveals patterns in STEM grades of girls versus boys

September 25, 2018

A new study, led by UNSW Sydney Ph.D. student Rose O'Dea, has explored patterns in academic grades of 1.6 million students, showing that girls and boys perform very similarly in STEM—including at the top of the class.

Chinese Cretaceous fossil highlights avian evolution

September 24, 2018

A newly identified extinct bird species from a 127 million-year-old fossil deposit in northeastern China provides new information about avian development during the early evolution of flight.

Ancient mice discovered by climate cavers

September 24, 2018

The fossils of two extinct mice species have been discovered in caves in tropical Queensland by University of Queensland scientists tracking environment changes.

The first predators and their self-repairing teeth

September 24, 2018

The earliest predators appeared on Earth 480 million years ago—and they even had teeth capable of repairing themselves. A team of palaeontologists led by Bryan Shirley and Madleen Grohganz from the Chair for Palaeoenviromental ...


Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.