LHC physics data taking gets underway at new record collision energy of 8TeV

April 5, 2012

(PhysOrg.com) -- At 0:38 CEST (18:38 EDT) this morning, the LHC shift crew declared ‘stable beams’ as two 4 TeV proton beams were brought into collision at the LHC’s four interaction points. This signals the start of physics data taking by the LHC experiments for 2012. The collision energy of 8 TeV is a new world record, and increases the machine’s discovery potential considerably.

“The experience of two good years of running at 3.5 TeV per beam gave us the confidence to increase the energy for this year without any significant risk to the machine,” explained CERN1’s Director for Accelerators and Technology, Steve Myers. “Now it’s over to the experiments to make the best of the increased discovery potential we’re delivering them!”

Although the increase in collision energy is relatively modest, it translates to an increased discovery potential that can be several times higher for certain hypothetical particles. Some such particles, for example those predicted by supersymmetry, would be produced much more copiously at the higher energy. Supersymetry is a theory in particle physics that goes beyond the current Standard Model, and could account for the dark matter of the Universe.

Standard Model Higgs particles, if they exist, will also be produced more copiously at 8 TeV than at 7 TeV, but background processes that mimic the Higgs signal will also increase. That means that the full year’s running will still be necessary to convert the tantalising hints seen in 2011 into a discovery, or to rule out the Standard Model Higgs particle altogether.

“The increase in energy is all about maximising the discovery potential of the LHC,” said Research Director Sergio Bertolucci. “And in that respect, 2012 looks set to be a vintage year for particle physics.”

The is now scheduled to run until the end of 2012, when it will go into its first long shutdown in preparation for running at an energy of 6.5 TeV per beam as of late 2014, with the ultimate goal of ramping up to the full design energy of 7 TeV.

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1 / 5 (4) Apr 05, 2012
In September 2008 the LHC imploded during testing at 10 TeV testing. LHC could fail anytime again, because the poor quality of power current connections between collider segments makes a lottery from such regime. The subsequent upgrade should just prohibit the propagation of implosion, but it didn't repair the low welding quality of remaining segments. In addition, there is undergoing discussion about actual effectiveness of this expensive research (1, 2).
5 / 5 (4) Apr 05, 2012
Large projects will have high costs and many errors, it is their nature. As a comparison, the famed Hubble telescope was flawed in its _primary systems_, yet it was repaired and went on to become indispensable.

Large projects will also have their detractors. (But Nielsen? Please, check with his Wikipedia page on how overall lunatic, and against the experimental LHC, this theorist has become in his old age.)

- Will LHC fail in the same manner again? No, the accident lead to development and installment of a preventive monitoring system and, for good measure, damage preventing relief valves.
5 / 5 (5) Apr 05, 2012
- Is the LHC costly? At a construction cost of ~ $4.4 bn in 2010 $ value, it is much less expensive than the SSC it replaced at a projected construction cost of ~ $12 bn in 1993 $ value or ~ $18 bn in 2010 $ value. (See their respective Wikipedia pages. $ comparison from the CPI calculator of the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.)

At a 1/4th the cost, LHC delivers about as much science on Higgs (but a bit slower) as SSC would have and hopefully a handle on supersymmetry physics beyond the Standard Model.

- Is LHC not effective? It is optimized for the above, and it delivers. It will lead up to design criteria for the next generation accelerators.

Errata: Missing link on the LHC upgrade http://www.physor...rgy.html .
1 / 5 (1) Apr 06, 2012
In the paper said
.. Supersymetry is a theory in particle physics that goes beyond the current Standard Model, and could account for the dark matter of the Universe.

Nowadays it seems supersymetry (a kind of the theory of everything) is far beyond our success. Someone may interest in other non- conventional concept of TOE such as


not rated yet Apr 06, 2012
Is the LHC costly? At a construction cost of ~ $4.4 bn in 2010 $ value, it is much less expensive than the SSC it replaced at a projected construction cost of ~ $12 bn in 1993 $ value or ~ $18 bn in 2010 $ value.
With such argument the physicists should be payed in nominal value of dollar in 1993...;-) Of course, the price of colliders grows steadily. And the price of LHC collider is much higher (approx. $9bn or £6.19bn as of Jun 2010), every year of it's maintenance costs another $1bn. http://www.guardi...ics-cern
1 / 5 (1) Apr 06, 2012
The question rather is, if the further increase of collider cost with brute power can bring the corresponding improving our understanding of Universe. The physicists involved do indeed care about their jobs and salaries and they would say "yes, indeed!" as a single man - but I'm not so sure about it. IMO the Universe appears like the foggy landscape when illuminated with light: the higher energy we will use, the more fuzzy results we will get. The era of cheap findings taken with brute force approach is already over as we hit the boundaries of observable Universe - now we should develop smarter methods. Why I do believe, the high energy physics is already over its zenith? At the human observer scale the observable reality appear complex and fractal, at the larger or smaller scale it appears deterministic and driven with laws of quantum mechanics and general relativity. But when we extrapolate this perspective even further, then the Universe becomes indeterministic again.
1 / 5 (1) Apr 06, 2012
At the water surface the similar perspective emerges. At the proximity the spreading of ripples is deterministic, but with increasing distance it gets more fuzzy again. This result actually follows from packing geometry of particles, from which the water surface is composed by. To be understood well, I'm not against basic research of observable reality, but I would like to get some warranty, there is still something to find. IMO for us, the human observers of high but limited complexity the very distant Universe would always appear like the impenetrable random noise. The contemporary physics has many ways where to go: the research of cold fusion, scalar waves, antigravity, high temperature superconductivity, ZPE devices sucking the energy from vacuum fluctuations, various psychic phenomena, etc.. The collider research exhausted the limits, which are given with its methodology and the question is, if the people involved in it will be willing to understand it.
not rated yet Apr 07, 2012
No new dimensions found yet.


Maybe if the energy is increased by a factor of 100.
not rated yet Apr 07, 2012
The funny point is, these dimensions were already found - it just depends, how you look at it. For example, in this study the stability of collisions products may be greatly enhanced, if we consider the extradimensions.


Did we ever observe the formation of such stable heavy products during LHC collisions? It would serve as an evidence of extradimensions.


Actually, we never observed the formation of stable black holes in the LHC collider - but the formation of heavier atom nuclei is observed routinely.


And now the question is: why the formation of stable microscopic black holes is considered as an evidence of extradimensions - while the formation of stable atom nuclei isn't? Isn't something heavily confused, if not rotten in the Kingdom of Denmark?
not rated yet Apr 09, 2012
Tennex - microscopic black holes cannot form in a 3 dimension universe. You have to expand it to additional dimensions in order to allow the energy density.
1 / 5 (1) Apr 09, 2012
Atoms (nuclei) are indeed such a microscopic black holes with additional dimensions. For example, in completely flat 3D space-time the light cannot undergo lensing and all forces should follow the inverse square law. The photons are heavily lensed around atoms, they even cannot escape from it in similar way, like the the photons from black holes - this is the way, in which atoms absorbs photons. And the forces inside of atoms violate the inverse square law heavily, for example the nuclear forces are indirectly proportional to fifth power of distance. This is indeed evidence of six dimensions.

Briefly speaking, the string theorists (and other physicists, as the concept of extradimensions can be applied to general relativity too) ingeniously guessed the existence of extradimensions in their theories. But they failed to recognize them in existing artefacts as a single man, because their math is low-dimensional and it handles nonlinear members of their equations in another way.
1 / 5 (1) Apr 09, 2012
There's another problem with description of observable reality with extradimensions. You can for example walk inside of train independently to the motion of train, which is exactly what the concept of extradimensions mean: the independent degrees of freedom. It works so until you keep your eyes closed. Whenever you open your eyes, you'll see, that the rest of informations about your position is mediated with three-dimensional space. It means, that these extradimensions penetrate heavily. We cannot have purely three dimensional space, such a space applies only to subtle part of objects. This example illustrates, that the concept of extradimensions works relatively well in macro or micro-world, but it's essentially fringe in our human world, which is not three or eleven-dimensional, but very highly dimensional. The common math will fail in its description.
1 / 5 (1) Apr 09, 2012
In AWT the extradimensions are applied in following way: the 3D sphere in 3D space cannot be seen, as it will be completely transparent. If it would be four-dimensional, it will appear like the 3D blob or refracting gravitational lens composed of gradient of vacuum density. If this refracting effect will be so strong, it will enable the the formation of individual lenses within original lens, then this sphere will become six dimensional. If every individual lens within this composite lens will be composed of additional lenses, then the whole lens will become nine-dimensional and so on. It means, the common "3D sphere", which we can see around us are actually very highly dimensional objects with respect to light spreading, they're composed of many nested levels of particles, which do behave like tiny gravitational lenses refracting the light. It just requires certain consistency in thinking for its understanding.

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