Astronomers discover 'emerald-cut' galaxy

Astronomers discover 'emerald-cut' galaxy
False-color image of LEDA 074886 taken with Subaru Telescope's Suprime-Cam. The central contrast has been adjusted to reveal the inner disk/bar-like component. Dr. Lee Spitler (Swinburne University of Technology, Australia) took this image.
(PhysOrg.com) -- An international team of astronomers has discovered a rare square galaxy with a striking resemblance to an emerald cut diamond.

The – from Australia, Germany, Switzerland and Finland – discovered the rectangular‑shaped galaxy within a group of 250 some 70 million light years away.

“In the Universe around us, most galaxies exist in one of three forms: spheroidal, disc-like, or lumpy and irregular in appearance,” said Associate Professor Alister Graham from Swinburne University of Technology

He said the rare rectangular-shaped galaxy was a very unusual object. “It's one of those things that just makes you smile because it shouldn't exist, or rather you don't expect it to exist.

“It’s a little like the precarious Leaning Tower of Pisa or the discovery of some exotic new species which at first glance appears to defy the laws of nature.”

The unusually shaped galaxy was detected in a wide field-of-view image taken with the Japanese Subaru Telescope for an unrelated program by Swinburne astrophysicist Dr Lee Spitler.

The astronomers suspect it is unlikely that this galaxy is shaped like a cube. Instead, they believe that it may resemble an inflated disc seen side on, like a short cylinder.

Support for this scenario comes from observations with the giant Keck Telescope in Hawaii, which revealed a rapidly spinning, thin disc with a side‑on orientation lurking at the centre of the galaxy. The outermost measured edge of this galactic disc is rotating at a speed in excess of 100,000 kilometres per hour.

“One possibility is that the galaxy may have formed out of the collision of two spiral galaxies,” said Swinburne’s Professor Duncan Forbes, co‑author of the research.

“While the pre-existing stars from the initial galaxies were strewn to large orbits creating the emerald cut shape, the gas sank to the mid‑plane where it condensed to form new stars and the disc that we have observed.”

Despite its apparent uniqueness, partly due to its chance orientation, the astronomers have managed to glean useful information for modelling other galaxies.

While the outer boxy shape is somewhat reminiscent of galaxy merger simulations which don’t involve the production of new stars, the disc-like structure is comparable with merger simulations involving star formation.

“This highlights the importance of combining lessons learned from both types of past simulation for better understanding galaxy evolution in the future,” said Associate Professor Graham.

“One of the reasons this emerald cut galaxy was hard to find is due to its dwarf-like status: it has 50 times less stars than our own Milky Way galaxy, plus its distance from us is equivalent to that spanned by 700 Milky Way galaxies placed end-to-end.

“Curiously, if the orientation was just right, when our own disc-shaped galaxy collides with the disc-shaped Andromeda galaxy about three billion years from now we may find ourselves the inhabitants of a square looking galaxy.”

The results will be published in The Astrophysical Journal.


Explore further

Astronomers identify thick disc of older stars in nearby Andromeda galaxy

More information: Pre-publication: arxiv.org/pdf/1203.3608v1.pdf

The paper presenting the results of this research, "Leda 074886: A Remarkable Rectangular-Looking Galaxy", will appear in the Astrophysical Journal. It is tentatively scheduled for the May 1, 2012, Issue 750-1.

Journal information: Astrophysical Journal

Provided by Swinburne University of Technology
Citation: Astronomers discover 'emerald-cut' galaxy (2012, March 19) retrieved 16 June 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-03-astronomers-emerald-cut-galaxy.html
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rah
Mar 19, 2012
I'm not a scientist or expert in science news reporting, but did anyone think of possibly including a picture of this galaxy, since that was what the story was about?

Mar 19, 2012
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Mar 19, 2012
There is a picture here:
http://www.cosmos...t-galaxy

yyz
Mar 19, 2012
"...did anyone think of possibly including a picture of this galaxy...?"

I agree that a picture would be most welcome. Figs 1 & 3 of the accompanying (linked) paper are from a deep i'-band Subaru image of this galaxy.

Several other rectangular-appearing galaxies are also listed in the paper, among them NGC 4488, Sextans A, VCC 1699 and IC 3370. While the reasons galaxies may appear "rectangular" or "boxy" differ from one galaxy to the next, LEDA 074886 resembles a rotating, vertically-heated galactic disk, essentially a "short cylinder seen edge-on", very similar to the aforementioned boxy giant galaxy IC 3370: http://articles.a...ype=.pdf


Mar 19, 2012
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Mar 19, 2012
This means that there is truly more than we know about our universe! Could it be that a higher form of intelligence designed this galaxy? I say this because centrifugal forces are assumed to effect the formation of galaxies. That means that at the core of the galaxy there is a greater force to pull on the linear sides of galaxy.

Mar 20, 2012
XQuantumKnightX got caught up in sheer whimsy
...Could it be that a higher form of intelligence designed this galaxy? I say this because centrifugal forces are assumed to effect the formation of galaxies. That means that at the core of the galaxy there is a greater force to pull on the linear sides of galaxy.
Everything in the Universe is moving, nothing is static, if you came across galaxies colliding they are very likely to go through a multitude of recognisable shapes during billions of years of transition to a semblance of gravitational equilibrium.

The more I consider the Universe & isolation of so many solar systems, it looks much more like a grand experiment on a truly massive scale. Which intelligent agent would want to communicate with the subject of its experiment & therefore introduce a factor which may upset it ?

Having been in microbiology labs, one is struck by the need for a huge permutation space to understand bacterial interactions with any depth at all !

Mar 20, 2012
I send my thanks to user holtt (second message) for posting the link to an image.

From this image, one can see that it is not really square, but an ellipsis, more close to resembling a rectangle.

I downloaded the paper that appeared at the bottom of the linked page given in the second message, but haven't yet read it.

But I will dare the quess that this strange shape is caused by the gravity from two black holes, one at each of the two centers of the ellipsis.
-.

Mar 20, 2012
XQuantumKnightX, please grow up. If there is to be a universal intelect pervading the Cosmos it will be a subatomic property.
Concepts of gods are created by man to fill his emotional needs and to appease his sense of insecurity.
Gods and the theologies that support them are all works of fiction. All written by delusional people who declared that invisible things spoke to them. When you read what they have written you wonder what they have been drinking or smoking.
Otherwise one would have to conclude that they were simply schizophrenic.
One wonders why these strange people bother with a site like Physorg and why they annoy us with their inane postings.

Mar 20, 2012
This comment has been removed by a moderator.

Mar 20, 2012
kevinrtrs displays ignorance of how complexity can arise
..and carefully consider just how it's possible to arise by itself.
Done, also comparative religion for decades & looked at genetic computing algorithms - extrapolated to the 'issue' of life.

All you need
i. Discontinuous stuff eg. Matter made of discrete items - elements
ii. A source of energy, perturbation.
iii. Time
& helpful
iv. Space

Genetic simulations show complexity arises from application of the above rules add to that disparate environments, sources of mutation & selection pressure; change, adaptability & evolution occur.

Universe seems to be a LARGE experiment with a LONG cycle, HUGE Carbon permutation space of ~10^60 & disparate environments. Inevitable complexity arise.

Life isnt optimum, a mere best fit & (just) gets by, obviously none other than complex chemistry (lots of time), nature adept at these permutations.

Belief in "Voices in the Head" isnt necessary.
Eg www.youtube.com/w...Xn96HrtY

Mar 20, 2012
I'm not a scientist or expert in science news reporting, but did anyone think of possibly including a picture of this galaxy, since that was what the story was about?


Yes, I did. That's why I entered the article site. :)

Mar 20, 2012
Kevin, how did something so complex as your god arise? he must of had a creator if complexity and life cannot arise from natural processes. when you can tell me where your god came from i might take you a bit more seriously. Oh wait, you were not there to witness it so its all just speculation on your part anyway, how do you know your god created this world? were you there to see it? NO.

Mar 20, 2012
I don't know why you people argue about God(s). The argument is a paradox, can't be proven either way. Stop moaning about it and admire the square galaxy.

I believe someone should do research relating the tendencies of 'arguing the absence of God / beating the faith into people' with said peoples' lack of IQ.

Science is science. Religion is religion. THEY ARE NOT RELATED. Two completely different dimensional realities which may bump into one another every once in a while.

I would really like to see the research and experimentation of you fellas arguing either side of this proving the other wrong. It's impossible. That means that it ultimately boils down to YOUR OPINION. And frankly, I don't really care to hear your opinion, nor does 99% of the other subscribers here want to. We want to read about a square galaxy, not how dumb religious people are or how God is smarter than physicists.

(My standpoint? I practice Christianity)

Mar 20, 2012
i never said a god could not exist. i do not claim to know. i do know that kevin is being incredibley hypocritcal though and im going to call him on it. the argument i gave is the one he has spammed on dozens of astronomy threads. he says because no one was there to see things that its all just speculation on the part of scientists.

Mar 20, 2012
Billy Madison tickled my interest re this gem
I don't know why you people argue about God(s). The argument is a paradox...
No, argument isnt a paradox, your claim is too easy a way out so u dont have to think. Only source of idea of a deity is traced to the human mind, ie. "Voices in the Head", all religions are the same in that respect & several other failures of claims vs actions. Anyone who believes in any deity suffers emotional hypnosis, truth appears to be probabilistic, Eg. As for quantum mechanics.

Billy Madison then admitted following an old middle eastern cult
(My standpoint? I practice Christianity)
WoW "Practice" ! That's brave you admit in public, you:-

- Seek non-virgins who get married and stone them ?
- You are either a slave or if you keep a slave you will be ok killing them if they don't make you a profit when you go away.
- Other attributes fully consistent with an impotent deity

Religion has no discipline, is emotional & is static, wake up - please !

Mar 20, 2012
@Mike Massen
- Seek non-virgins who get married and stone them ?
- You are either a slave or if you keep a slave you will be ok killing them if they don't make you a profit when you go away.
- Other attributes fully consistent with an impotent deity


Yes. Every day I have a coffee, scrambled eggs and then pillage the local village for wenches to punish. You, sir, are a troll.

your claim is too easy a way out so u dont have to think.

Had you read my previous comment, I said science and religious beliefs concern completely "different dimensional realities". That means my study of science and religion don't interfere with one another because I recognize the fact one doesn't relate to the other.

idea of a deity is traced to the human mind, ie. "Voices in the Head",

I'm pretty sure all scientific discoveries / theories / hypothesis have initially started as an idea in someone's mind, or am I mistaken and everything we know appeared on paper magically?


Mar 20, 2012
@Mike Massen
Religion has no discipline, is emotional & is static, wake up - please !


How does this statement not also apply to science?

If science had discipline, we would not be jumping outside of the box to make irrational statements that lead to the Theory of Relativity or Quantum Physics.

Science isn't emotional? When they released studies showing neutrinos traveled faster than light the science community went into an uproar.

Science isn't static? Yes, there are new theories developed every year but there are also new religious ideas proposed every year as well. Concerning the static part: I guess when I apply calculus to a problem I'm using a completely new revolutionary math concept that was developed last year, I must be trendy then right?

Mar 20, 2012
Some nebulas can appear fully rectangular, so I presume, it's similar case http://images.nat...x450.jpg The epicycle model of spiral arms allows irregular polygonal shapes due the 4:1 gravitational resonance http://upload.wik....svg.png After all, even the shape of our Milky way is quite rectangular. http://arxiv.org/abs/1010.1790 In this connection it may be significant, that the swastika has been used as a Vedian symbol for "wheel of suns". The ancient astronomers could know a way more things about our galaxy, than the average PO reader.

Mar 20, 2012
@Billy Madison

You broach Schizophrenia.

Science is "The Disciplined acquisition of knowledge", ie it is fully evidentiary, substantive & reproducible and offers predictions. Religion, or rather he who claims to follow a cult, has a problem with consistency and sincerity. If u claim 100% practising follower then you must act as Jesus said, if you don't and are selective then you cannot be a Christian.

Science is asymptotic in respect of convergence of a theory, it is a dynamic and each step offers evidence in context with several cross discipline aspects, Eg. of the foundations that offered the medium through which we communicate.

Sure ideas start with a speculation but are then put to test, this cannot happen in any religion, many claim a deity speaks to them, from Moses to Mohammed, these are mere claims, repeated by many Eg George Bush jnr, replete with claims, not one can be tested.

The god painted by Moses, Jesus, Mohammed, by attribute, is an impotent "God of Suffering" :-(

Mar 20, 2012
XQuantumKnightX, please grow up. If there is to be a universal intelect pervading the Cosmos it will be a subatomic property.


I agree that there is an "universal intellect pervading the Cosmos and that it is a subatomic property" My personal belief is that GOD is the definition of all matter from Atoms, Quirks, Gluons, Higgs, etc... The intellect is non local and omni present. Our perception is as a cells perception in your body and GOD is the whole perception of Human Being. Life originate from the subatomic realm but spans all dimensions.

Mar 20, 2012
"disciplined acquisition of knowledge","universal intelect pervading the Cosmos", "intellect is non local and omni present" "GOD is the Human" etc are imbecile postmodern and religious phrases without any value. What have the remarks about Christians, Jesus, Mohamed etc. to do in discussion about rectangular shape of some galaxy? People, wake up - your heads are full of religious sh*t, it's really disgusting.

It just illustrates, what the religion is actually serving for many people: it's the only way, which they can manifest your intellectual integrity - without it they have nothing to say about anything. Sometimes I've feeling, I'm discussing here with medieval people who aren't able of single coherent idea.

Mar 20, 2012
@ Mikey
Physorg "Comments Guideline" states I shouldn't feed the trolls, so I'm done with our discussion. You obviously don't understand what you're talking about.

Regarding the topic, it looks like we just took a snapshot of it at an angle.

View ---> / (the '/' is the galaxy)

This would give it a 'squarish' look. Unless somewhere it's stated the distances of the top and bottom are the same relative to the telescope's view.

Mar 20, 2012
If intelligent design is true, why do we breathe eat and drink through the same hole? Choking is the 4th leading cause of death in the United States. Why can eyes only see visible light and not the many other aspects of the spectrum? Why are our noses far inferior to other animals on earth? Why is the human entertainment complex built right next to it's sewage system?

If you apply any rational thought, you'll debunk intelligent design by yourself. Your only arguments are based on ignorance. "I can't figure out how life was made, so it must be a god!"

Not to mention nearly every statement made about the physical world by various religions has been contradicted by observable evidence.

It is far better for me to understand the Universe as it is, than to persist in delusion, however satisfying. - Carl Sagan

Mar 20, 2012
@hkreuz

Perfection is the art of imperfection. If everything was perfect... wouldn't it all sum to "0" ?

If intelligent design is true...Why can eyes only see visible light... Why are our noses far inferior... human entertainment complex built right next to it's sewage"


And you actually kind of supported intelligent design (although I took it out of the context you meant it, you made an unintentional point):
You express concerns dealing with the imperfections of biological life. You then discuss humans, who are an intelligent species, building an entertainment facility (facility being of intelligent design) right next to a sewage system. This means that, according to your statements, imperfections are of an intelligent (of some level) design.


Mar 20, 2012
@Billy
Apparently you misunderstood the text because you are only capable of reading literally. I didn't imply humans built anything. I was mentioning how illogical it is to place a penis or vagina (an entertainment complex) next to a sewage system (the anus). I was implying that, if humans are by design, it's unintelligent design rather than intelligent design. Hence the several flaws in humans. I'm assuming you missed this reference because you've a) Never heard of NDT and b) Have never used previously referenced body parts as an "entertainment complex"

Obviously we don't have spectrometers in our eyes, logical placement of body parts, or decent hearing or smelling is because evolution didn't deem it necessary. Though, this seems to escape you, and you still think that an argument from ignorance or authority is satisfactory.

There is no shame it not knowing. The problem arises when irrational thought and attendant behavior fill the vacuum left by ignorance. - Neil DeGrasse-Tyson

Mar 20, 2012
thats all just complete speculation on your part. their is no evidence for or against god at this point. although their is plenty of evidence the books about religion written by man are a bunch of old myths/stories people made up to help them deal with a brutal and violent existence that often isnt "fair" and the feeling that those that hurt us should suffer even if we cant do anything ourselves so they try to rely on some "higher power" to fufill the desire for justice and fairness in an unfair and unjust world.

Mar 20, 2012
Home planet of the Borg discovered...

Mar 20, 2012
Quick question for the experts here -> I read earlier that all galaxies are moving away from each other like points on an expanding balloon. And that some zillion years in the future, milky way would be left alone in the neighborhood as everyone else will move out of our observable boundary.

Then I also read about 'collision with the disc-shaped Andromeda galaxy about three billion years' later.

How can both be true at the same time!!??

Mar 21, 2012
all galaxies are moving away from each other like points on an expanding balloon. And that some zillion years in the future, milky way would be left alone in the neighborhood as everyone else will move out of our observable boundary.

Then I also read about 'collision with the disc-shaped Andromeda galaxy about three billion years' later.

How can both be true at the same time!! -abhishekbt

Galaxies that are close to each other like the local group will remain together (or merge) because of mutual gravity. But galaxies farther away (not in our local cluster) will eventually disappear from sight.

Mar 21, 2012
Sub: Heart of Universe-emerald-cut' galaxy
At 70 MLY , I do expect such formations - at Heart to Garland Mode
emaralds that adore Cosmic Divine Function. Search Cosmology Vedas Interlinks- Science ,Philosophy, Religion and Cosmology Definition- Here SREVATSA is an Index.I am searching other information-cited here- http://articles.a...ype=.pdf
Vidyardhi Nanduri-http://vidyardhic...pot.com/
Thanks for the image

Mar 21, 2012
@hkreuz

Did you not read where I said, in parenthesis,
although I took it out of the context you meant it, you made an unintentional point
? I understood your lingo, but as I said in my previous statement, you **unintentionally** brought up a point.

evolution didn't deem it necessary

Yes, and these flaws lead us to be the dominant species of this planet. You're completely missing the point of my original response to you - did you even read what I said?

You know what we do have now? Spectrometers, technology that can pick up the faintest sounds and smells and soap to bring about the cleanliness of our "entertainment" parts. These are creations from our own personal intelligent design.

I wouldn't say my argument suffers from ignorance, but more an open mind.

BTW - has anyone thought about my comment saying that we are looking at the galaxy with the galaxy being at an angle?
VIEW ---> / ('/' = galaxy)

I, too, am a Dr. Tyson fanboi - something we can both agree on.

Mar 21, 2012
@Billy

Apparently I don't understand the concept of taking something someone said and desperately trying to make wildly absurd connections with them in an attempt to show that they support your ideas.

And according to the consensus around the room, they don't understand it either, but we appreciate your attempt at playing.

Mar 24, 2012
Reading some comments I'd say; Jeez.. "They killed Kenny!"

My comment; Jeez.. That's a weird thing.. Amazing!

Mar 25, 2012
knowalot:
For these dozens of parameters to be perfectly fine tuned for stable matter and life to exist, an intelligent designer is a more plausible explanation than chance. Even a multiverse would need a fine tuning mechanism to produce our unlikely universe.
If multiple universes come into being as a result of brane collisions, with possibly varying sets of resultant properties, large numbers of such "experiments" could result in unstable (no-go) universes--but there could still be a few (or maybe just one) that could "survive and prosper". No fine tuning needed--just the luck of the draw.

[God's] essence and being is very simple indeed.
A creator is necessarily more complex than a creation, for it must contain all the information needed for the creation, plus its own information.

God was Himself not created, because He did not begin to exist, but exists outside of space and time.
Words with little meaning, unfortunately. Please explain "outside of space and time".

Mar 25, 2012
knowalot made claims, like all different claims before
..He did not begin to exist, but exists outside of space and time. Such is the definition of God since the time of the Greeks and later the church fathers.
So humans defined a deity, how did this arise, Provenance please ?

If source of info is old testament, in Genesis god acted as if he didnt know at first eve disobeyed, when he found out got angry. Clearly this god doesnt know whats going to happen - so why call it a god ?

If re new testament, how can a god only have one son that never wrote anything, points to an impotent god. Many people feel a connection with the universe, sense of oneness, you can get this by meditation, drugs and some arrive at this through dreams or born that way eg. Williams Syndrome. We after-all are made of the same stuff. So an emotional reaction re sense of existence is common, sometimes I feel that too.

But, I don't invoke a feeble impotent deity that cant communicate at all well !

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