Enriching the intracluster medium

March 22, 2011, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
A Chandra X-ray Observatory and multi-wavelength image of a cluster of galaxies containing a massive bright elliptical galaxy (large blue glow) that is ejecting jets of material into the cluster. Blue is the X-ray, yellow is the optical, and red is the radio wavelength image. New results from Chandra find that the ejected material significantly enriches the cluster with iron and other elements. Credit: NASA, Chandra, SDSS, and GMRT

(PhysOrg.com) -- Galaxies are sometimes found in large clusters with many hundreds of members. Typically there is a giant elliptical galaxy near the center; most of these ellipticals are very bright emitters of radio radiation as a result of activity around supermassive black holes at their nuclei.

The environment of a black hole can also eject tremendous jets of charged particles into the rest of the cluster. How the intracluster medium is enriched by these jets, and how the energy input might affect the future development of the cluster, its and their stars, are important unsolved problems.

SAO astronomers Ewan O'Sullivan, Simona Giacintucci, Laurence David, and Jan Vrtilek have used the Chandra X-ray Observatory to examine the hot X-ray gas in the intracluster medium around the galaxy NGC 6051, a member of a large . Jets extend out from this object about one hundred thousand light-years.

The scientists find from their analysis of the X-ray data that the total of ejected material has deposited over a million solar masses of iron atoms into the cluster, among other elements, as well as energy roughly equivalent to the radiant output of the Milky Way over a million years.

The astronomers conclude that the at the nucleus can readily produce these impressive consequences.

The results imply that the intracluster gas and presumably the galaxies in the cluster are enriched with iron and other atoms that play a key role in the chemistry, energetics, and subsequent evolution and star-formation activity of the system.

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1 / 5 (4) Mar 22, 2011
Thank you, thank you for more observational evidence that:

a.) Fragmentation of a central massive, compact object produced groups of galaxies, and

b.) Fragmentation of a central massive, compact object produced galaxies of stars !

Cosmology had the whole story backward because nuclear scientists had the story backward.

They overlooked evidence of neutron repulsion in rest mass data of every nucleus with two or more neutrons.

Dynamic competition between gravitational attraction and neutron repulsion sustains our very lives, powers the Sun, and keeps the entire cosmos "alive"

Neutron repulsion is a greater source of nuclear energy than fusion!

"Attraction and repulsion of nucleons: Sources of stellar energy", Journal of Fusion Energy 19, 93-98 (2001).

Neutron Repulsion, The APEIRON Journal, in press, 19 pages (2011).

With kind regards,
Oliver K. Manuel
Former NASA Principal
Investigator for Apollo

1.7 / 5 (6) Mar 22, 2011
How to explain over a million solar masses of matter ejected into the cluster from the central black hole by accretion? How?

Oliver is right that astrophysicists have been constrained by the nuclear physics models. They not dare challenge these established ideas, with so much money having been spent to get to this point.

For me, LaViolette's photon-blue-shifting energy generation and matter-begets-more-matter nucleation model seems like another place to start. Galaxies and clusters grow from within, not without. New matter and energy enter our subset of the greater universe from within these massive core mother stars. What if our subset of the universe is an open-system, rather than closed? The doorways seem to be concentrated in these massive galactic cores. Just reverse thinking, and test against the observations.
1 / 5 (2) Mar 31, 2011
I should note the fact that LaViolette's cosmological model includes giant ellipticals as the final phase of galactic evolution, rather than an intermediate state on it's way to condensation into a spiral. That these giant ellipticals are so often emitters of huge energies is also consistent with the model, as the central core star would be expected to have grown from within into a supermassive hyperon-type star. As the mass increases, so does the production rate regarding the generation of new energy and matter.
1 / 5 (3) Mar 31, 2011
Many other scientists realized that the model of star formation was seriously flawed:

1. Huang S. S., "A nuclear-accretion theory of star formation", Astron. Soc. Pacific. 69, 427-430, 1957.

2. Rouse C. A., Calculation of stellar structure Progress High Temperature Physics & Chemistry, vol 2, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, 97-126, 1969.

3. Manuel, O. K. and Sabu, D. D., "Elemental and isotopic inhomogeneities in noble gases: The case for local synthesis of the chemical elements", Trans. Missouri Acad. Sci. 9, 104-122, 1975.

4. Toth, P., "Is the Sun a pulsar?" Nature 270, 159 - 160, 1977.

5. Ballad R. V., et al., Isotopes of tellurium, xenon and krypton in Allende meteorite retain record of nucleosynthesis, Nature 277, 615-620, 1979.

6. Rouse C. A., Evidence for a small, high-Z, iron-like solar core, Astron. Astrophys. 149, 65-72, 1985.


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