Ocean geo-engineering produces toxic blooms of plankton

March 15, 2010, University of Western Ontario
Sunset is seen over the sea. Adding iron to the world's oceans to capture carbon and fight global warming could do more harm than good, as the mineral appears to boost the growth of a plankton that produces a deadly neurotoxin, a study published Monday shows.

(PhysOrg.com) -- New research led by The University of Western Ontario warns of the potential for ecological harm caused by the fertilization of oceanic waters with the trace element iron. This fertilization method is being proposed to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and sequester it into the ocean depths.

Ever since scientists were able to demonstrate in the early 1990s that supplementing regions of the world ocean with minute quantities of iron could quickly generate massive booms of phytoplankton, there has been controversy surrounding proposals to commercialize this strategy as a potential means to regulate climate by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Adding iron to large regions of iron-deficient but otherwise nutrient-rich, ocean waters stimulates massive blooms of phytoplankton (photosynthetic, microscopic plant-like organisms), thereby increasing carbon dioxide uptake and removal from surface waters as these cells die and sink, or are eaten by zooplankton and then sink as faecal pellets, and sequestering the excess carbon flux into the deep sea for many years to come.

In a new collaborative study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS), oceanographers and students from Canada and the United States have demonstrated that iron enrichment sharply increases the chances of developing toxic diatom blooms. The phytoplankton species of concern belong to the pennate diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia, a group of species known to be responsible for the death and illness of thousands of marine mammals and birds along the west coast of North America since its initial discovery as a neurotoxin producer in Atlantic Canada in 1987.

Using deckboard experiments in the Gulf of Alaska, the researchers found that water samples enriched with iron developed into the population of the toxic algae Pseudo-nitzchia, doubled the level of toxin in each cell, and created conditions that give the toxic species an advantage over non-toxic species; all factors that increase the chances of an ecologically harmful outcome to iron enrichment.

“It is an indication that we are not the masters of nature when it comes to large-scale ecological manipulations. Any positive carbon sequestration must be balanced against the evident and unforeseen environmental consequences” says Charles Trick, Beryl Ivey Chair for Ecosystem Health, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry at The University of Western Ontario, and lead author of the research report.

The collaborative study entitled ‘Iron enrichment stimulates toxic diatom production in High Nitrate Low Chlorophyll areas’ is co-authored by Charles Trick (The University of Western Ontario), Brian Bill and William Cochlan (Romberg Tiburon Center, San Francisco State University), Vera Trainer (NOAA Fisheries) and Mark Wells and Lisa Pickell (University of Maine).

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3.4 / 5 (5) Mar 15, 2010
Another example of why geo-engineering, along with a host of other technologies(nano and chemical leap to mind) need full-on, total, life-cycle study before being released from the lab, along with those pesky "unintended consequences".
5 / 5 (1) Mar 15, 2010
This could be really effective at reducing the rate of CO2 produced by humans. First, poison the food supply, then late nature take its course
3 / 5 (2) Mar 15, 2010
and, often, nothing will get done at all.
5 / 5 (1) Mar 15, 2010
Could this make "red tide" a triple entendre.
2.3 / 5 (3) Mar 15, 2010
First time I have ever rated all the comments on a topic 5 stars,this is incredible, especially considering the disparate viewpoints expressed
1.7 / 5 (6) Mar 16, 2010
This presumes there is an actual global warming problem to deal with. I hear of 1.2 degree F warming, except that the UN IPCC is exaggerating by about 50%, so it's really about 0.6 degree F. Yawn. Wake me in 20 years.
1.8 / 5 (5) Mar 16, 2010
how do they measure a 1.2 degree change when the error bounds in the heat island compensation formulae are more than 5 degrees? you dont see very many global warming clergymen with a good grasp of statistics i guess. i cant wait till someone actually figures out how to get good climate data and does a meaningful study.

sorry, i don't mean to troll, just feeling cynical today.

In regard to the article above: it sounds like they did thier tests at only one location under very specific conditions. They do not explain if the area used for testing is typical of other locations. I would be suspicious of cherry-picked experimental setup unless more information is given about variations in results based on contitions typical around the globe.
1 / 5 (2) Mar 16, 2010
There are people who survive falling out of airplanes. Based on a sample of only those people, one would conclude that falling from airplanes is a safe way to deplane. Don't forget to take your cary-on bags with you though. :)
not rated yet Mar 16, 2010
So engineer fish that prefer eating the diatoms. Or some kind of virus geared towards them, perhaps. This is an interesting kink, but given how much solar radiation iron fertilization of the dead zones could trap - possibly providing algae as a feedstock for industrial processes in liu of oil - I don't think we should declare the idea dead in the water... so to speak.

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