Efforts to save endangered languages

December 14, 2009 by Lin Edwards weblog
Efforts to save endangered languages
Recitation of oral texts by the late Latte Apa, senior ritual practitioner of the Thangmi community, India. Image credit: World Oral Literature Project

(PhysOrg.com) -- There are an estimated 6,500 languages in the world, with around fifty percent of them endangered and likely to cease to exist by 2100, but efforts are now being made to save them from extinction.

Languages are dying out around the globe through globalisation, social change, a shift in populations from rural areas to cities, and often well-intentioned education in national languages and national cultures rather than local indigenous languages and traditions. Of the 6,500 languages estimated by UNESCO to be still in use, only 11 are spoken by half the world's population, and 95 percent of the languages are spoken by five percent of the global population.

A new project, the World Oral Literature Project, led by Dr Mark Turin of the University of Cambridge's Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, aims to preserve the being lost as elders die and young people turn to the national languages taught in schools and used by the media. The project is recording and documenting languages that face the prospect of dying out, with the goal of preserving their poems, chants, stories, and anything else that can be recorded.

Turin receives boxes of DVDs from small indigenous communities around the world, who hope the project will preserve their language and literature for future generations. The project uses a range of media including voice recorders, video cameras and other multimedia technologies, and is building a digital archive that will be accessible on demand both by academics and by people of the communities themselves.

An oral tradition is central for many of the groups, rather than a written tradition, and many communities have never had their songs and stories recorded by anyone. Groups collaborating with anthropologists to have their languages recorded for the first time are widespread, and include communities such as the Amurdag community in Northern Australia, the Maka in Paraguay, Chulym in Siberia, and the Kallawaya community in Bolivia.

The idea for the project began when Turin documented the language of the Thangmi community in Nepal for his PhD in endangered languages at Leiden University in The Netherlands. The choice of language was random, with Turin selecting the community from a map on his supervisor's study wall. The language was virtually unknown outside the tiny community, and was completely undocumented.

Turin's project eventually created a trilingual word list in Thangmi, Nepali, and English, that is still sold in the community and which is being used to teach children about their own language and heritage. Turin said he was amazed so few linguists are working on endangered languages, and people "do PhDs on the apostrophe in French," but no one knows precisely how many undocumented languages there are. When a ceases to exist, so does its cultural world view, and much of the heritage of the community is lost.

The World Oral Literature Project has secured funding of £30,000 to aid communities in the recordings. Its first international workshop is to be held in Cambridge this week. Similar projects are being carried out by National Geographic and their Enduring Voices project, the Arcadia fund, and the Hans Rausing Endangered Languages Project. It is also worth noting that in Europe there are many languages in need of efforts to preserve them, such as Cornish in England, Gaelic in Scotland, and Breton in France.

More information: World Oral Literature Project
The World Oral Literature Project is currently seeking sustainable long-term funding to ensure that it can make a permanent contribution to the
urgent documentation of endangered traditions.

© 2009 PhysOrg.com

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10 comments

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marjon
not rated yet Dec 14, 2009
Anyone care to thank the Catholic Church for keeping Latin alive?
jester0000
1 / 5 (2) Dec 14, 2009
I just don't see the purpose of saving "endangered" languages. Do we constantly need to be saving everything that threatens to die out? Society just can't let ANYTHING go anymore. If the language is dying out it's because NOBODY SPEAKS IT ANYMORE!!! WHY SAVE IT?! Just my 2 cents...
Yelmurc
not rated yet Dec 14, 2009
I have no problem with recording all these languages before they vanish. Its part of our history. Just archive it somewhere on the internet and if anyone wants to learn about the languages let them access all the information for free.
frajo
1 / 5 (1) Dec 14, 2009
Anyone care to thank the Catholic Church for keeping Latin alive?
There are no native speakers of Latin anymore.
Instead I'd like to thank the Greeks for keeping their language alive.
frajo
1 / 5 (1) Dec 14, 2009
Do we constantly need to be saving everything that threatens to die out?
If you don't want you don't need to.
But there are people who are interested in the past of humanity because they are interested in the future of humanity. They will continue to gather knowledge and they will continue to better understand past and future in order to teach those who want to know.
CarolinaScotsman
not rated yet Dec 14, 2009
Anyone care to thank the Catholic Church for keeping Latin alive?
There are no native speakers of Latin anymore.
Instead I'd like to thank the Greeks for keeping their language alive.

The modern Greek language is no more related to classical Greek than Italian is to Latin. The only similarity is the name.
rjm1percent
5 / 5 (1) Dec 14, 2009
If you don't want you don't need to.


So I can somehow aovid my taxes and not fund this project?
frajo
1 / 5 (1) Dec 14, 2009
Anyone care to thank the Catholic Church for keeping Latin alive?
There are no native speakers of Latin anymore.
Instead I'd like to thank the Greeks for keeping their language alive.
The modern Greek language is no more related to classical Greek than Italian is to Latin. The only similarity is the name.
You don't need any higher education in Greece to be able to read and understand 99% of the Kaini Diathiki (New Testament) which is written in ancient Greek. This is by no means comparable to the differences between Latin and its offspring languages Italian, French, Spanish. Wikipedia:
From the linguistic changes which took place in Koine, Greek gained such a resemblance to its medieval and modern successors that almost all characteristics of modern Greek can be traced in the surviving texts of Koine. As most of the changes between modern and ancient Greek were introduced via Koine, Koine is largely intelligible to speakers of the modern language.
metrod
5 / 5 (2) Dec 20, 2009
Latin, although relatively immobile, has had a continuous chain of fluent speakers since the fall of the Roman Empire. Most of the cultural production of Western civilisation, until around 1750 - was in Latin, not in the vernaculars - and secular universities conducted their business in Latin - producing vast amounts of poetry, theatre and novels. Almost all scientific and philosophical writing was in Latin. Spoken Latin is now endangered, with only a few fluent speakers left. A revival project for oral Latin has been set up,which is proving quite successful - it has had over 5 million audio files downloaded over the past 2 years, from students across the globe: http://latinum.mypodcast.com
psychdoc
5 / 5 (1) Jan 05, 2010
Depending on your view, language is either reflective of, or responsible for, the form and content of the very structure of our thoughts. Diversity of language can aid in identifying different perspectives on known phenomena, thus allowing us to try alternate means of conceiving of and addressing the problems that face us today. Depending on the relationship between a given language and a culture, we can understand the biological, environmental, social, and political forces that shape and maintain a culture's values and beliefs.

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