'Ghost of Mirach' Materializes in Space Telescope Image

October 31, 2008
The "Ghost of Mirach" galaxy is shown in visible light on the left, and in ultraviolet on the right. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/DSS

(PhysOrg.com) -- NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer has lifted the veil off a ghost known to haunt the local universe, providing new insight into the formation and evolution of galaxies.

The eerie creature, called NGC 404, is a type of galaxy known as "lenticular." Lenticular galaxies are disk-shaped, with little ongoing star formation and no spiral arms. NGC 404 is the nearest example of a lenticular galaxy, and therefore of great interest. But it lies hidden in the glare from a red giant star called Mirach. For this reason, NGC 404 became known to astronomers as the "Ghost of Mirach."

When the Galaxy Evolution Explorer spied the galaxy in ultraviolet light, a spooky ring materialized.

"We thought this celestial ghost was essentially dead, but we've been able to show that it has an extended ring of new stars. The galaxy has a hybrid character in which the well-known, very old stellar population tells only part of the story," said David Thilker of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. "It's like the living dead."

Thilker and members of the Galaxy Evolution Explorer team spotted the Ghost of Mirach in images taken during the space telescope's all-sky survey. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer is a relatively low-cost NASA mission, launched in 2003, with an ambitious charge to survey the entire visible sky in ultraviolet light, a job never before accomplished. Because Earth's atmosphere absorbs ultraviolet photons -- a good thing for us living creatures who are susceptible to the damaging light -- ultraviolet telescopes must operate from space.

The first images of the Ghost of Mirach taken by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer hinted at a surrounding ultraviolet-bright extended structure. Subsequent, longer exposure observations indeed show that the lenticular galaxy is surrounded by a clumpy, never-before-seen ring of stars.

What is this mysterious ultraviolet ring doing around an otherwise nondescript lenticular galaxy? As it turns out, previous imaging with the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array radio telescope in New Mexico had discovered a gaseous ring of hydrogen that matches the ultraviolet ring observed by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The authors of this Very Large Array study attributed the gas ring to a violent collision between NGC 404 and a small neighboring galaxy 900 million years ago.

The ultraviolet observations demonstrate that, when the hydrogen from the collision settled into the plane of the lenticular galaxy, stars began to form in a ghostly ring. Young, relatively hot stars forming in stellar clusters sprinkled throughout NGC 404's ring give off the ultraviolet light that the Galaxy Evolution Explorer was able to see.

"Before the Galaxy Evolution Explorer image, NGC 404 was thought to contain only very old and evolved red stars distributed in a smooth elliptical shape, suggesting a galaxy well into its old age and no longer evolving significantly," said Mark Seibert of the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington in Pasadena, Calif. "Now we see it has come back to life, to grow once again."

"The Ghost of Mirach has been lucky enough to get a new lease on life through the rejuvenating, chance merger with its dwarf companion," added Thilker.

The findings indicate that the evolution of lenticular galaxies might not yet be complete. They may, in fact, continue to form stars in a slow, piecemeal fashion as they suck the raw, gaseous material for stars from small, neighboring galaxies. It seems the Ghost of Mirach might act more like a vampire than a ghost.

Provided by NASA

Explore further: Image: The evolution of supernova 1987A

Related Stories

Image: The evolution of supernova 1987A

February 27, 2017

Thirty years ago, on 23 February 1987, the light from a stellar explosion marking the death of a massive star arrived at Earth to shine in Southern Hemisphere skies.

Dark matter detection receives 10-ton upgrade

March 9, 2017

In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter.

The dawn of a new era for Supernova 1987a (Update)

February 24, 2017

Three decades ago, astronomers spotted one of the brightest exploding stars in more than 400 years. The titanic supernova, called Supernova 1987A (SN 1987A), blazed with the power of 100 million suns for several months following ...

NASA's Galaxy Evolution explorer in standby mode

February 8, 2012

(PhysOrg.com) -- NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer, or Galex, was placed in standby mode today as engineers prepare to end mission operations, nearly nine years after the telescope's launch. The spacecraft is scheduled to ...

Giant ultraviolet rings found in resurrected galaxies

August 11, 2010

Astronomers have found mysterious, giant loops of ultraviolet light in aged, massive galaxies, which seem to have a second lease on life. Somehow these "over-the-hill galaxies" have been infused with fresh gas to form new ...

Giant ring of black holes

February 9, 2011

(PhysOrg.com) -- Just in time for Valentine's Day comes a new image of a ring -- not of jewels -- but of black holes.

Recommended for you

Planetary waves, first found on Earth, are discovered on Sun

March 27, 2017

The same kind of large-scale planetary waves that meander through the atmosphere high above Earth's surface may also exist on the Sun, according to a new study led by a scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research ...

Stars born in winds from supermassive black holes

March 27, 2017

Observations using ESO's Very Large Telescope have revealed stars forming within powerful outflows of material blasted out from supermassive black holes at the cores of galaxies. These are the first confirmed observations ...

NASA spacecraft investigate clues in radiation belts

March 27, 2017

High above Earth, two giant rings of energetic particles trapped by the planet's magnetic field create a dynamic and harsh environment that holds many mysteries—and can affect spacecraft traveling around Earth. NASA's Van ...

Evidence of giant tsunami on Mars suggests an early ocean

March 27, 2017

(Phys.org)—A team of researchers with members from France, Italy and the U.S. has found what they believe is evidence of a giant tsunami occurring on Mars approximately 3 billion years ago due to an asteroid plunging into ...


Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

4 / 5 (1) Nov 01, 2008
Man. Why do we hear so little about all these other great space telescopes? All we hear about is Hubble Hubble Hubble.

Anyway, it's nice to finally see an article about the GEE.
not rated yet Nov 02, 2008
I believe the paper to which you are referring to in regards to NGC 404's HI excess is 'High-Resolution Observations of the Galaxy NGC 404: A Dwarf S0 with Abundant Interstellar Gas' by MS del Rio et al published in the Astrophysical Journal in 2004 (The paper is available at arXiv:astro-ph/0403467). In this paper, pg 10 has a remarkable side by side view of comparably sized fields around NGC 404 (both containing Mirach, BTW) one from the Palomar Sky Survey and the other from the VLA radio telescope. The radio view is eerily similar to the GALEX UV view! In the paper, the authors propose several explanations for this ring of neutral hydrogen, one being that simply no stars formed from it! (Clearly a moot point now with the GALEX observation). Also mentioned is the possibility of NGC 404 disrupting a nearby gas-rich dwarf galaxy. But clearly the jury is still out on this peculiar finding in a galaxy long thought to have given up the ghost.:)
not rated yet Nov 02, 2008
In the 2004 paper mentioned above, the authors found that the mass of the external HI ring was on the order of 38 million solar masses and slightly inclined to the plane of rotation of NGC 404. What I find curious is that if vigorous star & cluster formation is evident in far-UV observations presumably from this HI disk, why are no hydrogen-alpha (H-a) regions observed as would be expected when hi-energy radiation from these young objects should profusely produce H-a star forming regions?

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.