The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is an order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by George V of the United Kingdom. The Order comprises five classes in civil and military divisions. In descending order of seniority, these are: Only the highest two ranks automatically cause an individual to become a knight or dame, an honour allowing the recipient to use the title "Sir" (male) or "Dame" (female) before their first name (though men can be knighted separately from this and other Orders of Chivalry). Honorary knighthoods, given to individuals who are not nationals of a realm where Queen Elizabeth II is Head of State, permit use of the honour as a post-nominal but not as a title before their name. Awards in the Order of the British Empire in the Commonwealth Realms were discontinued with the establishment of national systems of honours and awards such as the Order of Australia, the Order of Canada and the New Zealand Order of Merit. Foreign recipients are classified as honorary members of the Order they receive, and do not contribute to the numbers restricted to that Order as full members do. There is also a related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are not members

Publisher
Oxford University Press
Country
United Kingdom
History
1984–present
Website
http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/
Impact factor
5.51 (2010)

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1940s blood samples reveal historical spread of malaria

DNA from 75-year old eradicated European malaria parasites uncovers the historical spread of one of the two most common forms of the disease, Plasmodium vivax, from Europe to the Americas during the colonial period, finds ...

Study tracks genomic changes that reinforce darter speciation

When they share habitat, orangethroat and rainbow darters tend to avoid one another, even though they are closely related and can produce "hybrid" offspring. The males compete with males of their own species and will almost ...

Re-cracking the genetic code

Crack open a biology textbook and you will find the table summarizing the standard genetic code. This refers to the set of rules by which the cell "decodes" the information contained in DNA and "translates" it into the amino ...

Genomic fluke close-up

Parasitic flukes have been a leading source of food-borne infections, sparking fear and wreaking havoc on human public health, and contributed to more than 3 billion in animal agricultural losses per year in the U.S. alone.

Improved mapping of Swedish genes from 1,000 individuals

People—or more specifically just Swedes—are more like chimpanzees than previously known. This is indicated in a genetic mapping of one thousand Swedish individuals, where new DNA sequences that should be included in the ...

Extinction of Icelandic walrus coincides with Norse settlement

An international collaboration of scientists in Iceland, Denmark and the Netherlands has for the first time used ancient DNA analyses and C14-dating to demonstrate the past existence of a unique population of Icelandic walrus ...

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