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Best of Last Week: Big Bang singularity, unlocking Earth's inner core and another problem with antibiotics(Phys.org)—It was an intriguing week for physics as a pair of theorists suggested that their quantum equation predicts the universe has no beginning and thus there was no Big Bang. In their paper published in Physics Letters B, Saurya Das and Rajat Bhaduri, suggest their math shows that the universe has existed forever and that it may also account for both dark energy and dark matter. Also, some at this year's American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting have been hinting at the possible discovery in 2015 of a new particle in physics—due, they suggest, to the LHC coming back online, twice as powerful as before. Meanwhile, another group suggested that on quantum scales, there are many second laws of thermodynamics—they think there are whole families of them at extremely small scales.
http://phys.org/news343294668.html
Other SciencesMon, 16 Feb 2015 08:40:01 ESTnews343294668Study examines impact of domestic violence interventionIt is estimated that nearly 25 percent of women will experience severe violence at the hands of an intimate partner. The first step to seek help: call the police.
http://phys.org/news342859172.html
Other SciencesWed, 11 Feb 2015 07:00:01 ESTnews342859172Physics professor publishes exact solution to model Big Bang and quark gluon plasmaUnlike in mathematics, it is rare to have exact solutions to physics problems.
http://phys.org/news337956678.html
PhysicsTue, 16 Dec 2014 12:51:27 ESTnews337956678Taming the Boltzmann equationPhysicists at Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany, have developed a new algorithm that is capable of solving the Boltzmann equation for systems of self-propelled particles. The new method also reveals previously unknown patterns of collective motion in such systems.
http://phys.org/news335697663.html
PhysicsThu, 20 Nov 2014 09:21:16 ESTnews335697663We need to know about alien biology before we know how they thinkShould E.T. finally give Earth a ring, it's not only important to understand what the message says but why it is being sent, a speaker at a talk about extraterrestrials urged this week. This requires understanding about alien social behavior, also known as sociology.
http://phys.org/news331801895.html
Astronomy & SpaceMon, 06 Oct 2014 09:00:01 ESTnews331801895Adding uncertainty to improve mathematical modelsMathematicians from Brown University have introduced a new element of uncertainty into an equation used to describe the behavior of fluid flows. While being as certain as possible is generally the stock and trade of mathematics, the researchers hope this new formulation might ultimately lead to mathematical models that better reflect the inherent uncertainties of the natural world.
http://phys.org/news331227369.html
Other SciencesMon, 29 Sep 2014 16:36:51 ESTnews331227369A fun way of understanding Einstein's General Theory of RelativityMany people fail to realize just how much energy there is locked up in matter. The nucleus of any atom is an oven of intense radiation, and when you open the oven door, that energy spills out; oftentimes violently. However, there is something even more intrinsic to this aspect of matter that escaped scientists for years.
http://phys.org/news330853695.html
PhysicsThu, 25 Sep 2014 10:00:01 ESTnews330853695Heat distributions help researchers to understand curved spaceThe heat equation is one of the most important partial differential equations. The behavior of the solution to the equation reflects the geometry of the underlying space very well. Therefore, this equation has been investigated very extensively in both analysis and geometry. The solution evolves over time so that the Dirichlet's energy functional decreases most efficiently. Recently, F. Otto introduced another characterization: the solution evolves so that the Boltzmann entropy increases most efficiently from the viewpoint of optimal transportation. Both of these characterizations enable us to study the heat equation on spaces admitting singularities, where usual differential calculus does not work. However, their identification in such spaces is unknown.
http://phys.org/news328255083.html
Other SciencesTue, 26 Aug 2014 07:50:06 ESTnews328255083Maths can make the internet 5-10 times fasterMathematical equations can make Internet communication via computer, mobile phone or satellite many times faster and more secure than today. Results with software developed by researchers from Aalborg University in collaboration with the US universities the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and California Institute of Technology (Caltech) are attracting attention in the international technology media.
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TechnologyThu, 17 Jul 2014 07:50:01 ESTnews324798671Zippy supercomputer helps UAH solar scientists answer questionsTalk about a mathematics hot rod – how does 13 quadrillion calculations per second grab you?
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Astronomy & SpaceTue, 03 Jun 2014 09:35:39 ESTnews321006908Mathematical equation could reduce traffic jams(Phys.org) —New research has found traffic jams and accidents could be reduced by controlling the reaction times of robotic cars.
http://phys.org/news302937422.html
Other SciencesWed, 06 Nov 2013 05:17:32 ESTnews302937422Are you ready to retire? Mathematical models estimate the value of pension plansThere comes a time in each of our lives when we consider starting a pension plan –either on the advice of a friend, a relative, or of our own volition. The plan of choice may depend on various factors, such as the age and salary of the individual, number of years of expected employment, as well as options to retire early or late.
http://phys.org/news301593725.html
Other SciencesMon, 21 Oct 2013 17:02:49 ESTnews301593725Simulation sets atoms shivering(Phys.org) —In "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" (JK Rowling, 1997), Harry, Ron, and Hermione encounter a massive stone chessboard, one of many obstacles in their path. To advance, they must play, and win. Although the board and pieces are much larger than normal, and the circumstances a bit peculiar, one thing remains clear to them—this is a game of chess, with the same rules as always.
http://phys.org/news299147789.html
PhysicsMon, 23 Sep 2013 10:00:02 ESTnews299147789The Drake Equation revisited: An interview with Sara SeagerPlanet hunters keep finding distant worlds that bear a resemblance to Earth. Some of the thousands of exoplanet candidates discovered to date have similar sizes or temperatures. Others possess rocky surfaces and support atmospheres. But no world has yet provided an unambiguous sign of the characteristic that still sets our pale blue dot apart: the presence of life.
http://phys.org/news297408604.html
Astronomy & SpaceTue, 03 Sep 2013 06:31:41 ESTnews297408604When calculating cell-growth thermodynamics, reconsider using the Gibbs free energy equationA forthcoming article in The Quarterly Review of Biology provides the basis for an argument against using the Gibbs free energy equation to accurately determine the thermodynamics of microbial growth.
http://phys.org/news290057667.html
BiologyMon, 10 Jun 2013 04:35:07 ESTnews290057667Researchers develop formula that can calculate person's speed by just looking at their footprintsTwo Spanish scientists have designed an equation that provides a highly accurate estimate of an individual's speed based on stride length. They used data from professional athletes and walking and running experiments on a beach in order to come up with the equation. The result has applications in the study of fossil trackways of human footprints.
http://phys.org/news285844594.html
Other SciencesMon, 22 Apr 2013 10:16:56 ESTnews285844594On the origins of the Schrodinger equation(Phys.org) —One of the cornerstones of quantum physics is the Schrödinger equation, which describes what a system of quantum objects such as atoms and subatomic particles will do in the future based on its current state. The classical analogies are Newton's second law and Hamiltonian mechanics, which predict what a classical system will do in the future given its current configuration. Although the Schrödinger equation was published in 1926, the authors of a new study explain that the equation's origins are still not fully appreciated by many physicists.
http://phys.org/news284638321.html
PhysicsMon, 08 Apr 2013 11:30:01 ESTnews284638321Generating, sustaining electrical currents with unique properties for information processing closer to realitySpintronics is a form of signal processing similar to that used in traditional electronics, but it takes advantage of a property of electrons known as spin. Spin is often visualized as an arrow about which the electron rotates, much like a top spinning around its axis. Generating a stream of electrons in which these 'arrows' are all parallel—a so-called spin-polarized current (see image)—is the foundation upon which spintronics is based. Imperfections in a material, however, can easily destroy polarization. Simply applying an oscillating voltage across the device could help to maintain a spin-polarized current even in the presence of impurities, according to theoretical research by Seng Ghee Tan at the A*STAR Data Storage Institute, Singapore, and co‐workers.
http://phys.org/news278749622.html
PhysicsWed, 30 Jan 2013 06:40:01 ESTnews278749622At last, how many alien civilizations are there?During the space age, 1961 was a special year: the Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first man to orbit Earth, while the American astronomer Frank Drake developed the now famous Drake Equation. This equation estimates the number of detectable extraterrestrial civilizations in our Milky Way galaxy, supposing our present electromagnetic detection methods. The Drake equation states:
http://phys.org/news273739899.html
Astronomy & SpaceMon, 03 Dec 2012 06:52:04 ESTnews273739899Outside a vacuum: Model predicts movement of charged particles in complex mediaPicture two charged particles in a vacuum. Thanks to laws of elementary electrostatics, we can easily calculate the force these particles exert upon one another, and therefore predict their movements.
http://phys.org/news273323541.html
PhysicsWed, 28 Nov 2012 11:12:31 ESTnews273323541Mathematician announces that he's proved the ABC conjecture(Phys.org)—In all of history there are very few names that stand out in the field of mathematics, at least among those not in the field: Euclid, Newton, Pythagoras, etc. This is likely due to several reasons, chief among them is that math is so seldom used by most people and the fact that its use in other sciences causes the underlying concepts to become overshadowed. That might change if what Shinichi Mochizuki of Kyoto University is claiming is true; that he has written a proof of the ABC conjecture. To mathematicians it's akin to the Grand Unified Theory of physics, a proof that would tie together most of the fundamental ideas in the field into one neat, fully explainable bundle.
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Other SciencesWed, 12 Sep 2012 07:52:58 ESTnews266655119Do moons of gas giants affect the habitable zone?(PhysOrg.com) -- If you aren’t familiar with the Drake Equation, or how it may actually apply to exomoons, continue reading to learn more about the famous equation. Additionally, what conditions could make a habitable moon like Pandora as depicted in Avatar, or the forest Moon of Endor as seen in Return of the Jedi?
http://phys.org/news250340372.html
Astronomy & SpaceWed, 07 Mar 2012 11:01:01 ESTnews250340372Scientists revise the 60-year-old definition of surface tension on solidsResearchers of VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland have shown that surface tension on a solid material is unconnected to the energy required to create a new surface. Consequently, surface tension on a solid does not exist in its conventional meaning.
http://phys.org/news249561004.html
PhysicsMon, 27 Feb 2012 10:30:12 ESTnews249561004Aiding cancer therapy by mathematically modeling tumor-immune interactionsCancer is one of the five leading causes of death. And yet, despite decades of research, there is no standardized first-line treatment for most cancers. In addition, disappointing results from predominant second-line treatments like chemotherapy have established the need for alternative methods.
http://phys.org/news246717953.html
Other SciencesWed, 25 Jan 2012 12:46:06 ESTnews246717953New equation predicts molecular forces in hydrophobic interactionsThe physical model to describe the hydrophobic interactions of molecules has been a mystery that has challenged scientists and engineers since the 19th century. Hydrophobic interactions are central to explaining why oil and water don't mix, how proteins are structured, and what holds biological membranes together. Chemical engineering researchers at UC Santa Barbara have developed a novel method to study these forces at the atomic level, and have for the first time defined a mathematical equation to measure a substance's hydrophobic character.
http://phys.org/news237567575.html
ChemistryTue, 11 Oct 2011 16:01:57 ESTnews237567575Physicists discover 'magnetotoroidic effect'(PhysOrg.com) -- For many years, scientists have known about the magnetoelectric effect, in which an electric field can induce and control a magnetic field, and vice versa. In this effect, the electric field has always been homogeneous. Now, scientists have found that a curled electric field can also be used to control magnetic fields, constituting a novel phenomenon that they call the "magnetotoroidic effect."
http://phys.org/news236234204.html
PhysicsMon, 26 Sep 2011 08:10:01 ESTnews236234204Special report highlights 'greatest hits' of scientific supercomputingIn 2007, a report that concluded that the Earth was warming, probably as a result of human activities, resulted in a share of the Nobel Peace Prize. The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's next assessment, expected in 2014, once again includes simulation data generated from DOE leadership supercomputers, this time at Oak Ridge and Argonne national laboratories. Next a team of researchers, led by Warren Washington of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, will use a 2011 allocation of 110 million processor hours at Argonne and Oak Ridge to begin the generation of the largest treasure trove of climate data to date.
http://phys.org/news234430786.html
TechnologyMon, 05 Sep 2011 08:40:12 ESTnews234430786Astrophysicists apply new logic to downplay the probability of extraterrestrial lifeDavid Spiegel and Edwin Turner of Princeton University have submitted a paper to arXiv that turns the Drake equation on its head. Instead of assuming that life would naturally evolve if conditions were similar to that found here on Earth, the two use Bayesian reasoning to show that just because we evolved in such conditions, doesn’t mean that the same occurrence would necessarily happen elsewhere; using evidence of our own existence doesn’t show anything they argue, other than that we are here.
http://phys.org/news230979224.html
Astronomy & SpaceWed, 27 Jul 2011 09:53:44 ESTnews230979224Predicting random violence by mathematics(PhysOrg.com) -- In a new study published in Science, researchers, led by physicist Neil Johnson from the University of Miami, show that attacks by groups such as the Taliban or Hezbollah may seem sporadic, they eventually begin to follow a mathematical pattern.
http://phys.org/news228742466.html
Other SciencesFri, 01 Jul 2011 12:34:57 ESTnews228742466Genius of Einstein, Fourier key to new humanlike computer vision(PhysOrg.com) -- Two new techniques for computer-vision technology mimic how humans perceive three-dimensional shapes by instantly recognizing objects no matter how they are twisted or bent, an advance that could help machines see more like people.
http://phys.org/news227805375.html
TechnologyMon, 20 Jun 2011 16:16:46 ESTnews227805375