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en-usPhys.org provides the latest news on mathematics, math, math science, mathematical science and math technology. Model shows how surge in wealth inequality may be reversed(Phys.org)—For many Americans, the single biggest problem facing the country is the growing wealth inequality. Based on income tax data, wealth inequality in the US has steadily increased since the mid-1980s, with the top 10% of the population currently owning about 73% of the country's wealth. In a new paper published in PLOS ONE, researchers have quantitatively analyzed several of the major factors that affect wealth inequality dynamics, and found that the most crucial factor associated with the recent surge in wealth inequality since the '80s has been the dramatic decrease in personal savings, followed closely by a large increase in the dominance of capital income over labor income.
http://phys.org/news/2015-07-surge-wealth-inequality-reversed.html
Mathematics Thu, 30 Jul 2015 09:10:01 EDTnews357447315Using math to make GuinnessIf you ever read public health research, you've probably encountered the term "Student's t-test," or just "t-test." The experimenters will do this magical test, and suddenly conclude that everything is awesome. But even when you're familiar with the t-test and what it does, very little thought goes into where this came from, or who came up with it. Well, today I'm going to tell you the origins of this staple of public health research.
http://phys.org/news/2015-07-math-guinness.html
Mathematics Wed, 29 Jul 2015 08:40:02 EDTnews357376585Researchers develop math model to determine greatness of cities(Phys.org)—A team of life scientists and mathematicians at Imperial College in London has created a series of formulas that together allow for determining what they deem the greatness of a city. In their paper published in Journal of the Royal Society Interface, the team describes the factors they consider to be critical in judging the greatness of a city and the formulas they developed to create a model.
http://phys.org/news/2015-07-math-greatness-cities.html
Mathematics Wed, 15 Jul 2015 09:50:01 EDTnews356169971'Smaller is smarter' in superspreading of influence in social networkA study by City College of New York physicists Flaviano Morone and Hernán A. Makse suggests that "smaller is smarter" when it comes to influential superspreaders of information in social networks. This is a major shift from the widely held view that "bigger is better," and could have important consequences for a broad range of social, natural and living networked systems.
http://phys.org/news/2015-07-smaller-smarter-superspreading-social-network.html
Mathematics Wed, 01 Jul 2015 18:58:57 EDTnews354995926Stuck on you: Research shows fingerprint accuracy stays the same over timeFingerprints have been used by law enforcement and forensics experts to successfully identify people for more than 100 years. Though fingerprints are assumed to be infallible personal identifiers, there has been little scientific research to prove this claim to be true. As such, there have been repeated challenges to the admissibility of fingerprint evidence in courts of law.
http://phys.org/news/2015-06-stuck-fingerprint-accuracy.html
Mathematics Mon, 29 Jun 2015 16:47:41 EDTnews354815255Don't freak if you can't solve a math problem that's gone viralIt's been quite a year for mathematics problems on the internet. In the last few months, three questions have been online everywhere, causing consternation and head-scratching and blowing the minds of adults worldwide as examples of what kids are expected to know these days.
http://phys.org/news/2015-06-dont-freak-math-problem-viral.html
Mathematics Thu, 25 Jun 2015 11:00:01 EDTnews354444834New study predicts variation in illness severity in a populationMany of us are familiar with bell-shaped curves that describe the distributions of school grades and total annual rainfall, among many other quantities. This ubiquitous distribution results when many points for individual non-correlated quantities are added to produce an outcome.
http://phys.org/news/2015-06-variation-illness-severity-population.html
Mathematics Tue, 23 Jun 2015 15:44:22 EDTnews354293055Mathematicians formulate equations, bend light and figure out how to hide thingsThe idea of cloaking and rendering something invisible hit the small screen in 1966 when a Romulan Bird of Prey made an unseen, surprise attack on the Starship Enterprise on Star Trek. Not only did it make for a good storyline, it likely inspired budding scientists, offering a window of technology's potential.
http://phys.org/news/2015-06-mathematicians-equations-figure.html
Mathematics Mon, 22 Jun 2015 06:48:39 EDTnews354174504Statistics education, evidence-based data analysis practices needed to fight reproducibility crisis in scienceDramatic increases in data science education coupled with robust evidence-based data analysis practices could stop the scientific research reproducibility and replication crisis before the issue permanently damages science's credibility, asserts Roger D. Peng in an article in the newly released issue of Significance magazine.
http://phys.org/news/2015-06-statistics-evidence-based-analysis-crisis-science.html
Mathematics Tue, 16 Jun 2015 17:35:09 EDTnews353694897New study finds battlegound state polling worked until 2012 electionA statistical analysis of poll performance in battleground states over the last three presidential elections shows polling firms produced estimates that were fairly accurate in 2004 and 2008, but underestimated support for President Obama in 2012, a new article reports.
http://phys.org/news/2015-06-battlegound-state-polling-election.html
Mathematics Mon, 15 Jun 2015 14:29:01 EDTnews353597332Mathematical models with complicated dynamics for disease studyA paper to be published this week in the SIAM Journal on Applied Dynamical Systems presents a mathematical model to study the effects of individual movement on infectious disease spread.
http://phys.org/news/2015-06-mathematical-complicated-dynamics-disease.html
Mathematics Thu, 11 Jun 2015 09:30:01 EDTnews353231056How mathematics reveals the nature of the cosmosLet us discuss the very nature of the cosmos. What you may find in this discussion is not what you expect. Going into a conversation about the universe as a whole, you would imagine a story full of wondrous events such as stellar collapse, galactic collisions, strange occurrences with particles, and even cataclysmic eruptions of energy. You may be expecting a story stretching the breadth of time as we understand it, starting from the Big Bang and landing you here, your eyes soaking in the photons being emitted from your screen. Of course, the story is grand. But there is an additional side to this amazing assortment of events that oftentimes is overlooked; that is until you truly attempt to understand what is going on. Behind all of those fantastic realizations, there is a mechanism at work that allows for us to discover all that you enjoy learning about. That mechanism is mathematics, and without it the universe would still be shrouded in darkness. In this article, I will attempt to persuade you that math isn't some arbitrary and sometimes pointless mental task that society makes it out to be, and instead show you that it is a language we use to communicate with the stars.
http://phys.org/news/2015-06-mathematics-reveals-nature-cosmos.html
Mathematics Mon, 08 Jun 2015 09:00:01 EDTnews352970459Mathematician theorizes what happened to MH370The plight of Malaysia Airlines flight 370 (MH370) is one of the biggest mysteries in aviation history, but an interdisciplinary research team led by a Texas A&M University at Qatar math professor has theorized the ill-fated plane plunged vertically into the southern Indian Ocean in March 2014.
http://phys.org/news/2015-06-mathematician-theorizes-mh370.html
Mathematics Mon, 08 Jun 2015 07:30:01 EDTnews352963169A little number theory makes the times table a thing of beautyMost people will probably remember the times tables from primary school quizzes. There might be patterns in some of them (the simple doubling of the 2 times table) but others you just learnt by rote. And it was never quite clear just why it was necessary to know what 7 x 9 is off the top of your head.
http://phys.org/news/2015-06-theory-table-beauty.html
Mathematics Mon, 08 Jun 2015 07:10:01 EDTnews352965429New theory identifies height-to-base ratio that helped humanity master fire and migrate across the globeFrom ancient Egyptians roasting a dripping cut of beef next to the Great Pyramid of Giza to a Boy Scout learning to build a log cabin fire in his backyard, everyone builds fires with the same general shape. And now we know why.
http://phys.org/news/2015-06-theory-height-to-base-ratio-humanity-master.html
Mathematics Mon, 08 Jun 2015 05:00:03 EDTnews352919049The growing influence of statisticiansWith more information than ever at our fingertips, statisticians are vital to innumerable fields and industries. Welcome to the world of the datarati, where humans and machines team up to crunch the numbers.
http://phys.org/news/2015-06-statisticians.html
Mathematics Thu, 04 Jun 2015 06:35:35 EDTnews352618526The legacy of John Nash and his equilibrium theoryThe American mathematician John Nash, who died in a taxi accident at the weekend, is probably best known to the wider public through Russell Crowe's portrayal of him in the 2001 movie A Beautiful Mind.
http://phys.org/news/2015-05-legacy-john-nash-equilibrium-theory.html
Mathematics Tue, 26 May 2015 08:30:02 EDTnews351843808John Nash, wife, 'A Beautiful Mind' inspiration, die in NJJohn Forbes Nash Jr., a mathematical genius whose struggle with schizophrenia was chronicled in the 2001 movie "A Beautiful Mind," has died along with his wife in a car crash on the New Jersey Turnpike. He was 86.
http://phys.org/news/2015-05-john-nash-wife-beautiful-mind.html
Mathematics Sun, 24 May 2015 18:30:00 EDTnews351710990The maths of congestion—springs, strings and traffic jamsIt's not been a good year so far for major transport projects in Australia's capital cities.
http://phys.org/news/2015-05-maths-congestionsprings-traffic.html
Mathematics Thu, 21 May 2015 08:00:03 EDTnews351413235Topology looks for the patterns inside big dataBig data gets much attention from media, industry and government. Companies and labs generate massive amounts of data associated with everything from weather to cell phone usage to medical records, and each data set may involve hundreds of variables.
http://phys.org/news/2015-05-topology-patterns-big.html
Mathematics Mon, 18 May 2015 08:50:03 EDTnews351156134Game intelligence can be learnedNew theories on game intelligence could change the world of team sports forever. Game intelligence is not necessarily something you are born with but something you can learn, according to the authors of the article "Game Intelligence in Team Sports". Co-author and former NHL player Nicklas Lidström embodies the evidence.
http://phys.org/news/2015-05-game-intelligence.html
Mathematics Wed, 13 May 2015 14:42:29 EDTnews350746942Ants' movements hide mathematical patternsWhen ants go exploring in search of food they end up choosing collective routes that fit statistical distributions of probability. This has been demonstrated by a team of mathematicians after analysing the trails of a species of Argentine ant. Studies like this could be applied to coordinate the movement of micro-robots in cleaning contaminated areas for example.
http://phys.org/news/2015-05-ants-movements-mathematical-patterns.html
Mathematics Tue, 12 May 2015 10:32:27 EDTnews350645539New methods for realistic surface rendering in computer gamesOverturning cars, flying missiles, and airplanes speeding across the screen – on modern computers, 3D objects can be calculated in a flash. However, many surfaces still look unnatural. Whether it is skin, stone or wax – on the computer screen, all materials look alike, as if the objects had all been cut out of the same kind of opaque material. This is about to change: TU Wien (Vienna), the University of Zaragoza and the video game company Activision-Blizzard have developed a new mathematical method which makes surfaces appear much more realistic by taking into account light scattering which occurs below the surface.
http://phys.org/news/2015-05-methods-realistic-surface-games.html
Mathematics Tue, 05 May 2015 09:00:01 EDTnews350034163World's fastest algorithm for recognising regular DNA sequencesA mathematical algorithm jointly developed by EURAC and the University of Bolzano (unibz) now permits exceptionally rapid recognition of regular DNA sequences. The previous time of 20 days is reduced to just 5 hours under the new method. Its efficiency and methodological rigour has now led to the algorithm's incorporation in the world's most widely-used DNA-analysis software. This momentous scientific breakthrough is the work of Daniel Taliun. Today at the faculty of Computer Science of the Free University of Bolzano, he discussed his doctoral thesis in information technology, completed at the EURAC Center for Biomedicine.
http://phys.org/news/2015-05-world-fastest-algorithm-recognising-regular.html
Mathematics Tue, 05 May 2015 07:40:02 EDTnews350029003Mathematics reveals how fluid flow affects bacteriaResearchers from the University of Liverpool have used mathematical equations to shed new light on how flowing fluid hinders the movement of bacteria in their search for food.
http://phys.org/news/2015-04-mathematics-reveals-fluid-affects-bacteria.html
Mathematics Tue, 28 Apr 2015 09:52:27 EDTnews349433541Is the universe a hologram?Describing the universe requires fewer dimensions than we might think. New calculations show that this may not just be a mathematical trick, but a fundamental feature of space itself.
http://phys.org/news/2015-04-universe-hologram.html
Mathematics Mon, 27 Apr 2015 10:42:07 EDTnews349350118Copying behavior in social groups may be governed by optimal control theoryNature has provided herding animals and flocking birds with abilities to react to predator attacks and to sense risky features in their environment— like trees or cliffs—that might impede their defense. But how do these abilities work? What's going on inside individual animals and the group as a whole as they protect themselves with coordinated movements?
http://phys.org/news/2015-04-behavior-social-groups-optimal-theory.html
Mathematics Wed, 22 Apr 2015 08:59:23 EDTnews348911949New statistics methods for dose finding studiesLess than 0.02 per cent of potential active ingredients pass clinical tests and become commercially viable. However, it is possible that some candidates are rejected without good reason, suspects mathematician Prof Dr Holger Dette. Together with his team, he has developed a new calculation method which may facilitate the management of clinical dose finding studies. The report has been published in the Ruhr-Universität's science magazine "RUBIN".
http://phys.org/news/2015-04-statistics-methods-dose.html
Mathematics Tue, 21 Apr 2015 11:00:32 EDTnews348832824Should a political party form a coalition? Voters and math decideMathematical ideas and tools are often used to describe aspects of large macroscopic systems. Examples abound in areas as varied as finance to psychology. In a paper published last month in the SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, author Fabio Bagarello proposes mathematical models to analyze political decision-making. Using a dynamical approach which accounts for interactions between political parties and their constituents, the model tries to deduce whether parties should form coalitions under various circumstances.
http://phys.org/news/2015-04-political-party-coalition-voters-math.html
Mathematics Wed, 15 Apr 2015 16:34:10 EDTnews348334434NJIT mathematician's 2015 Major League Baseball projectionsThe snow is almost gone in the northeast and that means baseball season cannot be far behind. Like most seasons, some teams look like they will continue to dominate their competition while others may spring some surprises. This is the 18th year that NJIT Mathematical Sciences Professor and Associate Dean Bruce Bukiet has published his model's projections of how the standings should look at the end of the regular season. Over the years, Bukiet has applied mathematical analysis to compute the number of regular season games each Major League Baseball team should win. Though his expertise is in mathematical modeling (rather than baseball), his projections have consistently compared well with those of so-called experts.
http://phys.org/news/2015-04-njit-mathematician-major-league-baseball.html
Mathematics Wed, 01 Apr 2015 16:32:11 EDTnews347124722