Phys.org: Mathematics News
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en-usPhys.org provides the latest news on mathematics, math, math science, mathematical science and math technology. Christmas cracker pulling: How to send everyone home a winnerAccording to experts' statistical analyses, if you're expecting 10 guests for dinner on Christmas day, 15 crackers—those festive cardboard tubes filled with a one-size-fits-no-one paper hat, a small toy, and a groan-inducing joke—should be enough to send everyone home happy. The experts came to their estimation by simulating 10,000 parties, with guest numbers ranging from 2 to 50. Their results are published in Significance.
http://phys.org/news337883374.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsMon, 15 Dec 2014 16:29:40 ESTnews337883374Mathematicians prove the Umbral Moonshine ConjectureMonstrous moonshine, a quirky pattern of the monster group in theoretical math, has a shadow - umbral moonshine. Mathematicians have now proved this insight, known as the Umbral Moonshine Conjecture, offering a formula with potential applications for everything from number theory to geometry to quantum physics.
http://phys.org/news337863945.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsMon, 15 Dec 2014 11:06:11 ESTnews337863945Home umpires favour their own teams in Test matches, study findsThe introduction of neutral umpires in Test cricket led to a drop in the number of Leg Before Wicket (LBW) decisions going in favour of home teams, a study has revealed.
http://phys.org/news337856978.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsMon, 15 Dec 2014 09:09:53 ESTnews337856978Assessing scientific research by 'citation wake' detects Nobel laureates' papers(Phys.org)—Ranking scientific papers in order of importance is an inherently subjective task, yet that doesn't keep researchers from trying to develop quantitative assessments. In a new paper, scientists have proposed a new measure of assessment that is based on the "citation wake" of a paper, which encompasses the direct citations and weighted indirect citations received by the paper. The new method attempts to focus on the propagation of ideas rather than credit distribution, and succeeds by at least one significant measure: a large fraction (72%) of its top-ranked papers are coauthored by Nobel Prize laureates.
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Other Sciences - MathematicsFri, 12 Dec 2014 09:10:04 ESTnews337586941Uncovering complex network structures in natureThe global spread of Ebola is due to the complex interactions between individuals, societies, and transportation and trade networks. Understanding and building appropriate statistical and mathematical models of these interactions is vital to responding to the challenges of living in a networked world. There are, of course, many other examples of complex networks—from national power grids and airline networks to social networks, neuronal networks and protein-protein interactions.
http://phys.org/news337426009.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsWed, 10 Dec 2014 09:26:55 ESTnews337426009Shifting boundaries and changing surfacesNew research published in the Proceedings of The Royal Society A by members of the Mathematical Soft Matter Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University examines the energies at work in a closed flexible loop spanned by a soap film. While the underlying experiments are simple enough to be replicated in a kitchen sink, the research generates potentially important questions and changes how we think about different disciplines from material science to vertebrate morphogenesis. Aisa Biria and Professor Eliot Fried, who heads the unit, conducted the research.
http://phys.org/news337419206.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsWed, 10 Dec 2014 08:40:01 ESTnews337419206Xinwen Zhu discusses the unifying theory of mathematicsIn 1994, British mathematician Andrew Wiles successfully developed a proof for Fermat's last theorem—a proof that was once partially scribbled in a book margin by 17th-century mathematician Pierre de Fermat but subsequently eluded even the best minds for more than 300 years. Wiles's hard-won success came after digging into a vast web of mathematical conjectures called the Langlands program. The Langlands program, proposed by Canadian mathematician Robert Phelan Langlands in the 1960s, acts as a bridge between seemingly unrelated disciplines in mathematics, such as number theory—the study of prime numbers and other integers—and more visual disciplines such as geometry.
http://phys.org/news337249310.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsMon, 08 Dec 2014 08:50:01 ESTnews337249310Carrot or stick? Game-theory can optimize collaborationWhat motivates people to cooperate in collaborative endeavors? "First carrot, then stick". Tatsuya Sasaki, mathematician from the University of Vienna, has put forth for the first time ever a mathematical proof of this process. The study is recently published online in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface.
http://phys.org/news336827486.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsWed, 03 Dec 2014 11:11:32 ESTnews336827486Finding the simple patterns in a complex worldAn ANU mathematician has developed a new way to uncover simple patterns that might underlie apparently complex systems, such as clouds, cracks in materials or the movement of the stockmarket.
http://phys.org/news336818882.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsWed, 03 Dec 2014 08:48:15 ESTnews336818882A numbers game: Math helps to predict how the body fights diseaseWalter and Eliza Hall Institute researchers have defined for the first time how the size of the immune response is controlled, using mathematical models to predict how powerfully immune cells respond to infection and disease.
http://phys.org/news336315378.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsThu, 27 Nov 2014 14:00:01 ESTnews336315378Golden Ratio offers unity of scienceIt is said to represent a "cosmic constant" found in the curvature of elephant tusks, the shape of a kudu's horn, the destructive beauty of Hurricane Katrina, and in the astronomical grandeur of how planets, moons, asteroids and rings are distributed in the solar system, to name but a few.
http://phys.org/news336297930.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsThu, 27 Nov 2014 08:30:01 ESTnews336297930Passengers boarding airplanes—we're doing it wrong'Tis the season for airplane travel. We may be looking forward to getting where we're going, but most aspects of the travel itself are merely endured. There's stressful security, the madding crowd and the scrum at boarding, where people and their myriad belongings clog the gate area, standing between you and your departure.
http://phys.org/news336206599.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsWed, 26 Nov 2014 08:20:02 ESTnews336206599When vaccines are imperfect: What math can tell us about their effects on disease propagationThe control of certain childhood diseases is difficult, despite high vaccination coverage in many countries. One of the possible reasons for this is "imperfect vaccines," that is, vaccines that fail either due to "leakiness," lack of effectiveness on certain individuals in a population, or shorter duration of potency.
http://phys.org/news335714306.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsThu, 20 Nov 2014 16:00:01 ESTnews335714306Risk analysis for a complex worldDeveloping adaptable systems for finance and international relations could help reduce the risk of major systemic collapses such as the 2008 financial crisis, according to a new analysis.
http://phys.org/news335528081.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsTue, 18 Nov 2014 10:14:51 ESTnews335528081Solving the future with abstract algebraAsk people what they know about the frontiers of mathematics research, and the response is usually some variation on: "What is there to research about math?"
http://phys.org/news335436014.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsMon, 17 Nov 2014 08:40:22 ESTnews335436014Grothendieck, eccentric maths genius, dies in France (Update)Alexander Grothendieck, one of the great eccentric geniuses of 20th century mathematics, has died in France at the age of 86.
http://phys.org/news335173132.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsFri, 14 Nov 2014 07:39:01 ESTnews335173132Football ratings study: The bandwagon is your second-favorite teamWhen it comes to watching NFL games in Utah on television, the most popular teams are the Broncos, Cowboys or 49ers.
http://phys.org/news334596878.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsFri, 07 Nov 2014 15:34:57 ESTnews334596878Researchers develop new model to study epidemicsFor decades, scientists have been perfecting models of how contagions spread, but newly published research takes the first steps into building a model that includes the loop linking individual human behavior and the behavior of the epidemic itself.
http://phys.org/news334498069.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsThu, 06 Nov 2014 12:07:59 ESTnews334498069Mathematicians settle 30-year-old resonance controversyIn the early '80s, several researchers were working to determine the location of atomic and molecular resonances, which are the frequencies at which atoms and molecules prefer to oscillate. Two groups of researchers (Rittby, et al., and Korsch, et al.), each using a different method, came up with different locations for these resonances. Settling the dispute proved to be extremely difficult due to the fact that neither method could predict the actual resonances, but instead simply gave approximations. In fact, at the time there was no way to locate resonances with absolute certainty.
http://phys.org/news334209065.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsMon, 03 Nov 2014 09:20:02 ESTnews334209065Insightful mathematics for an optimal run: Mathematical equations can help improve athletic performanceSure, we can become better runners by hydrating well, eating right, cross training, and practice. But getting to an optimal running strategy with equations? That's exactly what a pair of mathematicians from France propose in a paper published this month in the SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics.
http://phys.org/news333622896.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsMon, 27 Oct 2014 10:01:43 ESTnews333622896Maths brilliance in systems engineering"I was trained as an applied mathematician with a strong emphasis on statistics as a student at Dhaka University, Bangladesh. It transpired that this is not a common combination and I then went on to do my PhD at Loughborough University in Leicestershire in the United Kingdom on mathematical application solving engineering problems. Both these choices proved fruitful in my career, which brought me to Wits University in 1997," says Professor Montaz Ali.
http://phys.org/news331977351.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsWed, 08 Oct 2014 09:40:01 ESTnews331977351Study using OpenStreetMap and mathematics reveals there are only four unique city topologies(Phys.org) —A pair of researchers, a physicist and a mathematician, has used data from OpenStreetMap and mathematical analysis to come up with the idea that there are only four main types of city topologies. In their paper published in Journal of the Royal Society Interface, Rémi Louf and Marc Barthelemy describe how they used publicly available data to compare the topologies of 131 cities around the world and what their study has revealed.
http://phys.org/news331972198.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsWed, 08 Oct 2014 08:50:01 ESTnews331972198Mathematical model tackles 'Game of Thrones' predictionsTake events from the past, build a statistical model, and tell the future. Why not apply the formula to novels? Can contents in future books be predicted based only on data from existing ones? Richard Vale at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand, said The Physics arXiv Blog, has taken on the challenge in predicting content of as yet unpublished novels in the "A Song of Ice and Fire" series by George R R Martin. The novels are the basis of the television series, "Game of Thrones." The series has five books and two more are awaited. Before proceeding, it should be emphasized that the paper comes with a spoiler alert, so avoid linking to Vale's study if you have not read the first five books.
http://phys.org/news331300193.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsTue, 30 Sep 2014 12:50:12 ESTnews331300193Adding uncertainty to improve mathematical modelsMathematicians from Brown University have introduced a new element of uncertainty into an equation used to describe the behavior of fluid flows. While being as certain as possible is generally the stock and trade of mathematics, the researchers hope this new formulation might ultimately lead to mathematical models that better reflect the inherent uncertainties of the natural world.
http://phys.org/news331227369.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsMon, 29 Sep 2014 16:36:51 ESTnews331227369At the interface of math and scienceIn popular culture, mathematics is often deemed inaccessible or esoteric. Yet in the modern world, it plays an ever more important role in our daily lives and a decisive role in the discovery and development of new ideas—often behind the scenes.
http://phys.org/news331226355.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsMon, 29 Sep 2014 16:23:37 ESTnews331226355Science graduates are not that hot at maths – but why?Research suggests science graduates are struggling with essential quantitative skills and science degree programs are to blame.
http://phys.org/news331192915.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsMon, 29 Sep 2014 07:40:01 ESTnews331192915Where is that spacecraft? Statistically measuring uncertainty for space surveillanceSpace surveillance is inherently challenging when compared to other tracking environments due to various reasons, not least of which is the long time gap between surveillance updates. "Unlike the air and missile defense environments where objects are frequently observed, the space surveillance environment data is starved, with many objects going several orbital periods between observations," according to researcher Joshua Horwood. "Thus, it is more challenging to predict the future location of these sparsely-seen objects and they have a tendency to get lost using traditional methods. A new way of tracking them, the Gauss von Mises (GVM) distribution, has improved predictive capabilities that permit one to more effectively maintain custody of infrequently-observed space objects."
http://phys.org/news330594351.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsMon, 22 Sep 2014 08:45:58 ESTnews330594351Researcher figures out how sharks manage to act like math geniuses(Phys.org) —Bioresearcher Andy Reynolds with Rothamsted Research in the U.K., believes he has solved the mystery of how sharks act like math geniuses—they simply turn away from turbulence, he reports in his paper published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. His research effort and paper came in response to prior research that showed sharks trap prey using what's known as Lévy flight—a mathematical description of an optimal way of moving from one position to another using both long and short hops.
http://phys.org/news330165297.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsWed, 17 Sep 2014 10:00:01 ESTnews330165297Math journal puts Rauzy fractcal image on the coverAn image created by geometer Edmund Harriss made the cover of the mathematics journal Notices, published by the American Mathematical Society. The image, created in collaboration with Bill Casselman, appeared on the August 2014 edition (Volume 61 Number 7). It shows a stepped path winding through space with the corners of the path projected onto a plane. On the plane each type of corner lives in its own region. The collection of these regions is the Rauzy Fractal.
http://phys.org/news329730161.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsFri, 12 Sep 2014 08:42:49 ESTnews329730161Heat distributions help researchers to understand curved spaceThe heat equation is one of the most important partial differential equations. The behavior of the solution to the equation reflects the geometry of the underlying space very well. Therefore, this equation has been investigated very extensively in both analysis and geometry. The solution evolves over time so that the Dirichlet's energy functional decreases most efficiently. Recently, F. Otto introduced another characterization: the solution evolves so that the Boltzmann entropy increases most efficiently from the viewpoint of optimal transportation. Both of these characterizations enable us to study the heat equation on spaces admitting singularities, where usual differential calculus does not work. However, their identification in such spaces is unknown.
http://phys.org/news328255083.html
Other Sciences - MathematicsTue, 26 Aug 2014 07:50:06 ESTnews328255083