Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics in the news
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en-usLatest news from Society for Industrial and Applied MathematicsThe mathematics of coffee extraction: Searching for the ideal brewComposed of over 1,800 chemical components, coffee is one of the most widely-consumed drinks in the world. The seeds (coffee beans) from the plant of the same name are roasted and ground, allowing a flow of hot water to extract their soluble content. Undissolved solids are filtered from the dissolved particles, and the resulting liquid becomes the concoction that much of the population drinks every day.
http://phys.org/news/2016-11-mathematics-coffee-ideal-brew.html
Mathematics Tue, 15 Nov 2016 10:00:01 ESTnews398407154Equilibrium modeling increases contact lens comfortAccording to the Vision Council of America, roughly 75% of adults in the United States require some form of vision correction. Yet only 10% of Americans wear contact lenses. Studies estimate that one in four initial contact-users finds the lenses uncomfortable and stops wearing them. Thus, increasing the comfort level of contact lenses and expanding the market is a continual objective in the vision industry.
http://phys.org/news/2016-05-equilibrium-contact-lens-comfort.html
Mathematics Wed, 04 May 2016 12:33:48 ESTnews381584018Applying parameter selection and verification techniques to an HIV modelPhysical and biological models often have hundreds of inputs, many of which may have a negligible effect on a model's response. Establishing parameters that can be fixed at nominal values without significantly affecting model outputs is often challenging; sometimes these parameters cannot be simply discerned by the outputs. Thus, verifying that a parameter is noninfluential is both computationally challenging and quite expensive.
http://phys.org/news/2016-03-parameter-verification-techniques-hiv.html
Mathematics Thu, 31 Mar 2016 09:27:14 ESTnews378635224Optimizing flutter shutter to minimize camera blurWhether taking photos recreationally or professionally, photographers understandably want their snapshots to appear sharp and clear. Image clarity is dependent on exposure time, or the amount of time that a camera's sensor is exposed to light while a photograph is being taken. During this period, the shutter opens and the camera counts the number of photons emitted by the subject.
https://techxplore.com/news/2016-03-optimizing-flutter-shutter-minimize-camera.html
Computer Sciences Wed, 23 Mar 2016 09:00:01 ESTnews377926891Dynamical systems theory enhances knowledge of Jupiter's atmosphereJupiter, which has a mass more than twice that of all the planets combined, continues to fascinate researchers. The planet is characterized most often by its powerful jet streams and Great Red Spot (GRS), the biggest and longest-lasting known atmospheric vortex. Although still images provide some insight into the features of Jupiter's atmosphere, the atmosphere itself is unsteady and turbulent, and its features are time-dependent.
http://phys.org/news/2016-02-dynamical-theory-knowledge-jupiter-atmosphere.html
Space Exploration Wed, 17 Feb 2016 12:43:21 ESTnews374935392Adaptive control techniques can help manage pests more effectivelyAs population growth, greater food consumption, competition for land use, and climate change pose challenges to world food production, managing loss of crop due to pests and weeds becomes increasingly important. While chemical pesticides offer effective means for control, potential loss of crop yield is still significant, as is cost. Global potential loss from pests has been estimated to be between 50% and 80% of yield based on crop type.
http://phys.org/news/2016-02-techniques-pests-effectively.html
Mathematics Tue, 09 Feb 2016 13:42:17 ESTnews374247727Improving musical synchronization with mathematical modelingMusic functions as a universal connector that pervades most cultures. More specifically, rhythm and synchronization - both within and beyond the realm of music - are forms of communication that stimulate brain activity.
http://phys.org/news/2016-01-musical-synchronization-mathematical.html
Mathematics Thu, 07 Jan 2016 12:26:40 ESTnews371391992New SIR-Network Model helps predict dengue fever epidemic in urban areasMathematics is often implemented in healthcare and medical research. From health management to the bio-pharmaceutical fields, math modeling can be used to predict the spread of diseases, how to prevent epidemics and so much more. An article 'SIR-Network Model And its Application to Dengue Fever,' authored by Lucas M. Stolerman, Daniel Coombs and Stefanella Boatto, published recently in the SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics introduces a new mathematical model which offers a simplified approach to studying the spread of the infectious virus, Dengue fever, in urban areas, specifically breaking down the epidemic dynamics across a city and its varying neighborhoods and populations.
http://phys.org/news/2015-12-sir-network-dengue-fever-epidemic-urban.html
Mathematics Wed, 23 Dec 2015 15:27:09 ESTnews370106820Improving electric motor efficiency via shape optimizationIn our competitive global society, successful and economical design of automotive and industrial structures is crucial. Optimizing the geometry of individual pieces of complex machines improves performance and efficiency of the entire device.
http://phys.org/news/2015-12-electric-motor-efficiency-optimization.html
Computer Sciences Tue, 22 Dec 2015 09:43:49 ESTnews369999812Mathematical models with complicated dynamics for disease studyA paper to be published this week in the SIAM Journal on Applied Dynamical Systems presents a mathematical model to study the effects of individual movement on infectious disease spread.
http://phys.org/news/2015-06-mathematical-complicated-dynamics-disease.html
Mathematics Thu, 11 Jun 2015 09:30:01 ESTnews353231056Modeling storm surge to better protect TexasThe recent floods in Texas have caused some of the worst flooding since Hurricane Ike in 2008, causing the rainiest month in the state's history.
http://phys.org/news/2015-05-storm-surge-texas.html
Earth Sciences Fri, 29 May 2015 15:04:40 ESTnews352130674Should a political party form a coalition? Voters and math decideMathematical ideas and tools are often used to describe aspects of large macroscopic systems. Examples abound in areas as varied as finance to psychology. In a paper published last month in the SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, author Fabio Bagarello proposes mathematical models to analyze political decision-making. Using a dynamical approach which accounts for interactions between political parties and their constituents, the model tries to deduce whether parties should form coalitions under various circumstances.
http://phys.org/news/2015-04-political-party-coalition-voters-math.html
Mathematics Wed, 15 Apr 2015 16:34:10 ESTnews348334434Decision cascades in social networksHow do people in a social network behave? How are opinions, decisions and behaviors of individuals influenced by their online networks? Can the application of math help answer these questions?
http://phys.org/news/2014-12-decision-cascades-social-networks.html
Mathematics Mon, 22 Dec 2014 12:52:42 ESTnews338475147When vaccines are imperfect: What math can tell us about their effects on disease propagationThe control of certain childhood diseases is difficult, despite high vaccination coverage in many countries. One of the possible reasons for this is "imperfect vaccines," that is, vaccines that fail either due to "leakiness," lack of effectiveness on certain individuals in a population, or shorter duration of potency.
http://phys.org/news/2014-11-vaccines-imperfect-math-effects-disease.html
Mathematics Thu, 20 Nov 2014 16:00:01 ESTnews335714306Insightful mathematics for an optimal run: Mathematical equations can help improve athletic performanceSure, we can become better runners by hydrating well, eating right, cross training, and practice. But getting to an optimal running strategy with equations? That's exactly what a pair of mathematicians from France propose in a paper published this month in the SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics.
http://phys.org/news/2014-10-insightful-mathematics-optimal-mathematical-equations.html
Mathematics Mon, 27 Oct 2014 10:01:43 ESTnews333622896Where is that spacecraft? Statistically measuring uncertainty for space surveillanceSpace surveillance is inherently challenging when compared to other tracking environments due to various reasons, not least of which is the long time gap between surveillance updates. "Unlike the air and missile defense environments where objects are frequently observed, the space surveillance environment data is starved, with many objects going several orbital periods between observations," according to researcher Joshua Horwood. "Thus, it is more challenging to predict the future location of these sparsely-seen objects and they have a tendency to get lost using traditional methods. A new way of tracking them, the Gauss von Mises (GVM) distribution, has improved predictive capabilities that permit one to more effectively maintain custody of infrequently-observed space objects."
http://phys.org/news/2014-09-spacecraft-statistically-uncertainty-space-surveillance.html
Mathematics Mon, 22 Sep 2014 08:45:58 ESTnews330594351A model for Bluetongue disease dynamics in cattleIn a paper recently published in the SIAM Journal on Mathematical Analysis, authors Stephen Gourley, Gergely Röst, and Horst Thieme model disease persistence of a virus called Bluetongue using a system of several delay differential equations. The disease affects sheep and cattle, and is spread by biting midges. In sheep, the bluetongue virus can cause abortion, congenital abnormalities and death, though mild cases completely recover. In cattle, bluetongue does not generally cause death.
http://phys.org/news/2014-07-bluetongue-disease-dynamics-cattle.html
Mathematics Thu, 03 Jul 2014 05:20:01 ESTnews323582005Mathematically modeling species dispersalDispersal is an ecological process involving the movement of an organism or multiple organisms away from their birth site to another location or population where they settle and reproduce. An important topic in ecology and evolutionary biology, dispersal can either be random or directed. Random movement, as the name indicates, describes dispersal patterns that are unbiased and random, whereas directed or biased movement occurs when organisms sense and respond to local environmental cues by moving directionally. Dispersal is dependent on a variety of factors such as climate, food, and predators, and is often biased.
http://phys.org/news/2014-07-mathematically-species-dispersal.html
Mathematics Thu, 03 Jul 2014 05:10:02 ESTnews323581912Exploring human nature through the social webThe web grows larger and more social every day, allowing ordinary people to express themselves more publicly and permanently than ever before through blogs and social media such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, and Foursquare.
http://phys.org/news/2014-07-exploring-human-nature-social-web.html
Mathematics Tue, 01 Jul 2014 14:54:08 ESTnews323445198Traveling waves model tumor invasionCell migration, which is involved in wound healing, cancer and tumor growth, and embryonic growth and development, has been a topic of interest to mathematicians and biologists for decades.
http://phys.org/news/2014-06-tumor-invasion.html
Cell & Microbiology Wed, 25 Jun 2014 13:12:53 ESTnews322920764Putting a number on opinion dynamics in a populationOpinion formation in a large population is influenced by both endogenous factors, such as interaction with one's peers—in-person and via social media—as well as exogenous factors, such as the media, of which mainstream media is one of the most influential factors. For example, according to a study conducted by the National Bureau of Economic Research in 2006, after the introduction and expansion of Fox News in the United States between 1996 and 2000, an estimated 3-28% of the audience was persuaded to vote Republican.
http://phys.org/news/2014-05-opinion-dynamics-population.html
Mathematics Thu, 22 May 2014 13:15:18 ESTnews319983271Math modeling handbook now availableMath comes in handy for answering questions about a variety of topics, from calculating the cost-effectiveness of fuel sources and determining the best regions to build high-speed rail to predicting the spread of disease and assessing roller coasters on the basis of their "thrill" factor. How does math do all that?
http://phys.org/news/2014-04-math-handbook.html
Mathematics Wed, 23 Apr 2014 13:51:50 ESTnews317479899Overcoming structural uncertainty in computer modelsA computer model is a representation of the functional relationship between one set of parameters, which forms the model input, and a corresponding set of target parameters, which forms the model output. A true model for a particular problem can rarely be defined with certainty. The most we can do to mitigate error is to quantify the uncertainty in the model.
http://phys.org/news/2014-04-uncertainty.html
Mathematics Tue, 01 Apr 2014 11:49:05 ESTnews315571732Math models analyze long-term criminal activity patterns in a populationIn a paper published last November in Multiscale Modeling and Simulation: A SIAM Interdisciplinary Journal, authors Henri Berestycki, Nancy Rodríguez, and Lenya Ryzhik show that the assumption of a population's natural tendency towards crime significantly changes long-term criminal activity patterns. The authors use a reaction-diffusion system to study criminal activity.
http://phys.org/news/2014-03-math-long-term-criminal-patterns-population.html
Mathematics Wed, 19 Mar 2014 08:40:01 ESTnews314431164Mathematically correcting over- and underexposure in photographsAlmost anyone with a camera or smartphone is sure to have noticed that taking pictures in bright conditions, such as a sunny day, can cause a loss of highlight details (or overexposure) in bright regions and a loss of shadow details (or underexposure) in dark regions. A paper published last November in the SIAM Journal on Imaging Science attempts to overcome these photography woes.
http://phys.org/news/2014-03-mathematically-over-underexposure.html
Mathematics Wed, 19 Mar 2014 07:40:03 ESTnews314431032Improving radiation therapies for cancer mathematicallyIn a paper published in December in the SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, authors Li-Tien Cheng, Bin Dong, Chunhua Men, Xun Jia, and Steve Jiang propose a method to optimize radiation therapy treatments in cancer patients.
http://phys.org/news/2014-03-therapies-cancer-mathematically.html
Mathematics Wed, 05 Mar 2014 16:21:44 ESTnews313258893Statistics research could build consensus around climate predictionsVast amounts of data related to climate change are being compiled by research groups all over the world. Data from these many and various sources results in diﬀerent climate projections; hence, the need arises to combine information across data sets to arrive at a consensus regarding future climate estimates.
http://phys.org/news/2014-02-statistics-consensus-climate.html
Mathematics Wed, 19 Feb 2014 15:33:30 ESTnews312046399A mathematical perspective of seasonal variations in Lyme disease transmissionLyme disease is a common tick-borne illness caused by a bacterium, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ticks. The transmission dynamics of Lyme disease is dependent on a variety of factors, including the length of the tick's life cycle, availability of hosts, climatic conditions and seasonal influences, which are important to understand for control strategies.
http://phys.org/news/2013-12-mathematical-perspective-seasonal-variations-lyme.html
Mathematics Thu, 19 Dec 2013 13:02:43 ESTnews306680533Math models enhance current therapies for coronary heart diseaseCoronary heart disease accounts for 18% of deaths in the United States every year. The disease results from a blockage of one or more arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. This occurs as a result of a complex inflammatory condition called artherosclerosis, which leads to progressive buildup of fatty plaque near the surface of the arterial wall.
http://phys.org/news/2013-12-math-current-therapies-coronary-heart.html
Mathematics Mon, 09 Dec 2013 12:32:48 ESTnews305814742An intersection of math and biology: Clams and snails inspire robotic diggers and crawlers (w/ Video)Engineering has always taken cues from biology. Natural organisms and systems have done well at evolving to perform tasks and achieve objectives within the limits set by nature and physics.
http://phys.org/news/2013-11-intersection-math-biology-clams-snails.html
Engineering Mon, 11 Nov 2013 16:57:52 ESTnews303411461