Polish Academy of Sciences

The Polish Academy of Sciences, headquartered in Warsaw, is one of two Polish institutions having the nature of an academy of sciences. The Polish Academy of Sciences (Polish: Polska Akademia Nauk, abbreviated PAN) is a Polish state learned institution, headquartered in Warsaw, that was established in 1952 by the merger of earlier learned societies, including the Polish Academy of Learning (Polska Akademia Umiejętności, abbreviated PAU), with its seat in Kraków, and the Warsaw Society of Friends of Learning, which had been founded in the late 18th century. The Polish Academy of Sciences functions as a learned society acting through an elected corporation of leading scholars and research institutions. The Academy has also, operating through its committees, become a major scientific advisory body. Another aspect of the Academy is its coordination and overseeing of numerous (several dozens) of research institutes. PAN institutes employ over 2,000 people, and are funded by about a third of the Polish government's budget for science. In 1989, the Polish Academy of Learning, in Kraków, resumed its independent existence, separate from the Polish Academy of Sciences, in Warsaw.

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Cold crystallization has a dual nature

In some vitrous substances, when heated, not one, but two physical mechanisms are reponsible for crystallization, as scientists working at the Insitiute of Nuclear Physics in Krakow, Poland, have discovered. The first-time ...

dateJul 22, 2015 in Condensed Matter
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Near-perfect antibacterial materials

Ruthless with bacteria, harmless to human cells. New, durable antibacterial coatings of nanocomposites, developed at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw, will in future help to ...

dateFeb 19, 2015 in Materials Science
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Space travel is a bit safer than expected

Analysis of data from the MATROSHKA experiment, the first comprehensive measurements of long-term exposure of astronauts to cosmic radiation, has now been completed. This experiment, carried out on board and outside of the ...

dateDec 03, 2014 in Space Exploration
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A 'Star Wars' laser bullet

Action-packed science-fiction movies often feature colourful laser bolts. But what would a real laser missile look like during flight, if we could only make it out? How would it illuminate its surroundings? The answers lie ...

dateOct 22, 2014 in Optics & Photonics
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