'Trapped Wave' Caused Unexpected Dennis Surge

Oct 09, 2006
Hurricanes

When Hurricane Dennis passed North Florida on July 10, 2005, it caused a 10-foot storm surge in some areas along Apalachee Bay — about 3 to 4 feet more than forecasted— that couldn’t be explained only by the local winds that conventionally drive storm surge.

Now, scientists at Florida State University and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration have found that the surge in Apalachee Bay was amplified by a “trapped wave” that originated off the southwest Florida coast. The discovery of this previously undocumented storm surge phenomenon has changed how NOAA’s National Hurricane Center prepares storm surge models for the Gulf of Mexico. New modeling procedures will help improve the accuracy of storm surge forecasts for the entire Gulf coast from Florida to Texas.

Scientists Steven Morey, Mark Bourassa, Dmitry Dukhovskoy and James O’Brien of FSU’s Center for Ocean Atmospheric Prediction Studies and Stephen Baig of NOAA’s Tropical Prediction Center of the National Hurricane Center drew their conclusions after conducting numerical experiments with storm surge models. Their research was published in the Oct. 4 issue of the journal Geophysical Research Letters.

Hurricane Dennis formed from a tropical depression that originated near the southern Windward Islands on July 4, 2005. It strengthened as it traveled northwest through the Caribbean Sea until it made landfall in Cuba as a Category 4 hurricane. It then traveled west of the Florida Shelf, and the storm’s maximum sustained winds weakened to 54 mph before it made landfall on the western Florida Panhandle.

“Winds from Dennis forced water against the southwestern Florida coast creating a bulge of high sea level from Naples to around Tampa,” Morey explained. “Oceanographers know that this ‘bulge’ will form a long wave that, in the Northern Hemisphere, will travel as a wave with the coast to the right. Because Dennis traveled nearly parallel to the Florida Peninsula coast at the same speed as the wave, winds from Dennis amplified the wave as it traveled to Apalachee Bay.”

The trapped wave then piled up on the shore along Apalachee Bay on top of the surge generated by the winds over the bay, according to O’Brien.

“To address these findings, we will use as necessary a larger geographical grid in our operational storm surge model in the Gulf of Mexico,” said Baig, oceanographer and storm surge leader at NOAA’s National Hurricane Center. “This will provide a more comprehensive view of a storm’s potential impact in the Gulf by better accounting for the rare trapped wave effect.”

This type of remotely trapped wave could play a role in future storms that follow a path similar to Hurricane Dennis or travel westward south of the Louisiana coastline toward Texas, the scientists said.

Funding from a NOAA Applied Research Center grant supported the research. Wind fields for the study were developed under funding by NASA and the National Science Foundation.

Citation: Morey, S. L., S. Baig, M. A. Bourassa, D. S Dukhovskoy, and J. J. O'Brien (2006), Remote forcing contribution to storm-induced sea level rise during Hurricane Dennis, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L19603, doi:10.1029/2006GL027021.

Source: Florida State University

Explore further: The unifying framework of symmetry reveals properties of a broad range of physical systems

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Clock Is ticking in West Antarctic

May 26, 2014

Reports that a portion of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet has begun to irretrievably collapse, threatening a 4-foot rise in sea levels over the next couple of centuries, surged through the news media last week. ...

Recommended for you

What time is it in the universe?

14 hours ago

Flavor Flav knows what time it is. At least he does for Flavor Flav. Even with all his moving and accelerating, with the planet, the solar system, getting on planes, taking elevators, and perhaps even some ...

Watching the structure of glass under pressure

Aug 28, 2014

Glass has many applications that call for different properties, such as resistance to thermal shock or to chemically harsh environments. Glassmakers commonly use additives such as boron oxide to tweak these ...

Inter-dependent networks stress test

Aug 28, 2014

Energy production systems are good examples of complex systems. Their infrastructure equipment requires ancillary sub-systems structured like a network—including water for cooling, transport to supply fuel, and ICT systems ...

Explainer: How does our sun shine?

Aug 28, 2014

What makes our sun shine has been a mystery for most of human history. Given our sun is a star and stars are suns, explaining the source of the sun's energy would help us understand why stars shine. ...

User comments : 0