Women attracted to men in red, research shows

Aug 02, 2010
In several experiments, the shirt of the man in the photographs was digitally colored either red or another color. Participants rated the pictured man's status and attractiveness, and reported on their willingness to date, kiss and engage in other sexual activity with the person. Credit: University of Rochester

What could be as alluring as a lady in red? A gentleman in red, finds a multicultural study published Aug. 2 in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.

Simply wearing the color or being bordered by the rosy hue makes a man more attractive and sexually desirable to women, according to a series of studies by researchers at the University of Rochester and other institutions. And women are unaware of this arousing effect.

The cherry color's charm ultimately lies in its ability to make men appear more powerful, says lead author Andrew Elliot, professor of psychology at the University of Rochester. "We found that women view men in red as higher in status, more likely to make money and more likely to climb the social ladder. And it's this high-status judgment that leads to the attraction," Elliot says.

Why does red signal rank? The authors see both culture and biology at work. In human societies across the globe, red traditionally has been part of the regalia of the rich and powerful. Ancient China, Japan and sub-Saharan Africa all used the vibrant tint to convey prosperity and elevated status, and Ancient Rome's most powerful citizens were literally called "the ones who wear red." Even today, the authors note, businessmen wear a red tie to indicate confidence, and celebrities and dignitaries are feted by "rolling out the red carpet."

Along with this learned association between red and status, the authors point to the biological roots of human behavior. In non-human primates, like mandrills and gelada baboons, red is an indicator of male dominance and is expressed most intensely in alpha males. Females of these species mate more often with alpha males, who in turn provide protection and resources.

"When women see red it triggers something deep and probably biologically engrained," explains Elliot. "We say in our culture that men act like animals in the sexual realm. It looks like women may be acting like animals as well in the same sort of way."

To quantify the red effect, the paper analyzed responses from 288 female and 25 male undergraduates to photographs of men in seven different experiments. Participants were all self-identified as heterosexual or bisexual. In one color presentation, participants looked at a man's photo framed by a border of either red or white and answered a series of questions, such as: "How attractive do you think this person is?"

Other experiments contrasted red with gray, green, or blue. Colors were precisely equated in lightness and intensity so that test results could not be attributed to differences other than hue.

In another color presentation, participants looked at a man’s photo framed by a border of either red or white and answered a series of questions, such as: "How attractive do you think this person is?" Credit: University of Rochester

In several experiments, the shirt of the man in the photographs was digitally colored either red or another color. Participants rated the pictured man's status and attractiveness, and reported on their willingness to date, kiss, and engage in other sexual activity with the person. They also rated the man's general likability, kindness, and extraversion.

The researchers found that the red effect was limited to status and romance: red made the man seem more powerful, attractive, and sexually desirable, but did not make the man seem more likable, kind, or sociable. The effect was consistent across cultures: undergraduates in the United States, England, Germany, and China all found men more attractive when wearing or bordered by red.

And the effect was limited to women. When males were asked to rate the attractiveness of a pictured male, color made no difference in their responses.

Across all the studies, the influence of color was totally under the radar. "We typically think of color in terms of beauty and aesthetics," say Elliot. "But color carries meaning as well and affects our perception and behavior in important ways without our awareness."

In earlier work, Elliot documented that men are more attracted to women in red. But the red effect depends on the context. Elliot and others have also shown that seeing red in competitive situations, such as IQ tests or sporting events, leads to worse performance.

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User comments : 9

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h0dges
2.5 / 5 (2) Aug 02, 2010
Perhaps a relic instinct from previous ages whereby a successful mate would spill the rivals' blood and it would be imprinted onto themselves.
Birthmark
not rated yet Aug 02, 2010
That's deep :D

Could be true, but I'd love to hear more theories on why red is so attractive to humans.
tigger
5 / 5 (3) Aug 03, 2010
In sport, teams wearing red win more often too. Better get myself some red clothes, I didn't care much when it was just sport... but girls, well count me in, I can get used to wearing red I guess :-)
MustaI
1.7 / 5 (6) Aug 03, 2010
..I'd love to hear more theories on why red is so attractive to humans.
I've such a theory, but it may not be quite palatable for many people... It explains, why heart symbol is favored by many women, too..

http://superstrun...ass1.jpg
bottomlesssoul
not rated yet Aug 03, 2010
probably related to health detection and wearing or being surrounded exaggerates this.
RobertKarlStonjek
not rated yet Aug 03, 2010
It depends where the red is eg red bloodshot eyes, red spidery protruding veins on the face and thick red lipstick are not hot indicators of a stud's potential performance...(except in livestock)
Jigga
1.7 / 5 (6) Aug 03, 2010
I don't believe, all preferences are of pure sexual origin. It's well known, women are liking pink and red color in general, while males prefer shades of blue. Men can distinguish more shades of blue color, because they're looking often at horizon at distance (being hunters by their nature). Women collected red fruits for food from proximity, so they're more sensible at the red-green part of spectrum.
TheWalrus
not rated yet Aug 03, 2010
Funny, I read something exactly opposite a few years ago. Blue was supposed to make men more attractive. Didn't work for me, but then I'm a hideous freak...
Jigga
1.7 / 5 (6) Aug 03, 2010
Blue was supposed to make men more attractive.
It's true, but for the eyes only.

http://www.bukisa...an-brown

BTW men tend to have more reddish skin and greenish skin is more common for women. Pink color was used for designation of homosexuals in Nazi camps.

http://medicinewo...009.html