Study on fasting and dieting suggests why diets fail -- and why a weekly fast might work

Mar 26, 2010 By Ted Boscia and Susan S. Lang

(PhysOrg.com) -- A study finds that after fasting or dieting one day, people do not overeat to compensate but gain any lost weight back. The findings have implications for why diets fail and how weekly fasting might work.

Fasting for one day does not lead to overeating the next day, or the following week, or to more than a temporary , reports a new Cornell study. The findings help explain why diets fail.

When people fast or diet and then eat freely, "we found they do not increase their to compensate for a day without eating," said David Levitsky, professor of nutrition and psychology, whose new study was published in the journal Physiology and Behavior March 22.

However, they eventually regain their weight back anyway, he said, because metabolic rate is related to . "Since you weigh less after or dieting, your is slower, and so you regain the weight with normal eating," said Levitsky, a Stephen H. Weiss presidential fellow.

The results defy the notion that fasting or dieting leads to gorging later; they also counter the idea that people have a genetically determined set point weight.

However, the study suggests a new strategy for losing weight. Although chronic lifestyle changes (eating healthier foods and getting more exercise) are preferable ways to lose weight, Levitsky said, a weekly fast might be another way to go.

Since it takes 10 to 14 days to recover the body tissue lost from a one-day fast, "Going without food for one day each week should produce a significant reduction in body weight over time," Levitsky said, now that we know that "fasting does not lead to overeating, and total recovery of body tissue does not occur within the week."

In his study, 22 women, divided into three groups, ate meals Mondays through Fridays at the Cornell Human Metabolic Research Unit for four weeks. During the first week, all groups ate all they wanted. Each of the following three Mondays, one group was chosen to fast, one to consume only 1,200 calories, and one to eat unrestrained. For the rest of the week, all the women were free to eat as they liked. During each session, participants were weighed, and all food consumed was measured.

For those who fasted or ate a restricted diet on Monday, body weight declined significantly the following day, though it did not change for the unrestrained eaters.

By the end of the week, the fasters and dieters had recovered their lost weight (but not all their body tissue) -- without any increase in food consumption beyond normal levels. The fact they were burning fewer calories due to their slowed metabolism accounted for the weight gain; the paper estimates that it would take 10 days for the ratio of fat, bone and muscle to return to pre-fast levels.

"The women regained their weight within a week, because weight is a sloppy measure of body tissue -- weight includes body water, gastrointestinal tract contents, glycogen content and so on," said Levitsky. "Over time, however, the loss of would accumulate and result in significant weight loss," he said.

Explore further: El Nino stunts children's growth in Peru

More information: The article is available online at www.elsevier.com/locate/physbeh .

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Study shows why weight gain is inevitable

May 09, 2006

Denmark's National Exercise and Nutrition Council says it has found people cannot lose more than 5 percent to 10 percent of their weight through dieting.

Calorie density key to losing weight

Jun 08, 2007

Eating smart, not eating less, may be the key to losing weight. A year-long clinical trial by Penn State researchers shows that diets focusing on foods that are low in calorie density can promote healthy weight loss while ...

Alternate-Day Fasting Shows Promise for Obese Dieters

Nov 04, 2009

(PhysOrg.com) -- Restricting daily calorie intake is a common plan to help obese and overweight people slim down to healthier weights. But the regime requires a daily 15 to 40 percent calorie reduction, which makes sticking ...

Recommended for you

ER visits on the rise, study reports

10 hours ago

(HealthDay)—The number of emergency department visits in the United States rose from about 130 million in 2010 to a record 136 million in 2011, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

User comments : 0

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.