Cultural history colors thought about bioethics, evolution

Feb 21, 2010

Cultural views of evolution can have important ethical implications, says a Duke University expert on theological and biomedical ethics. Because the popular imagination filters science through cultural assumptions about race, cultural history should be an essential part of biomedical conversations.

Amy Laura Hall, associate professor of Christian ethics at Duke University, argues that many popularized ideas about evolution assume that some human groups are more evolved than other human groups.

"I believe that , as depicted in the popular press, too often uncritically reinforces ideas about race that privilege white, Western bodies and cultures. I see this at work today in new arguments for paternalism in Haiti, for example" says Hall, who appears on a Sunday morning panel at the AAAS annual meeting called "Genetics and Ethics: Different Views on the Human Condition."

The panel of scholars from the fields of genetics and theology will focus on how genetics and its medical applications are communicated to the general public.

Hall's current research looks at ways evolutionary biology is conveyed in the popular media. She cites examples of television documentaries about evolution that portray commencing in Africa, using images of dark-skinned people "almost as living icons" to represent humanity at our genesis. "When evolution is depicted as an upward slope, those representing the origin are also often perceived as the nadir," she says.

Hall is looking at how these popular portrayals are reinforced in recent media coverage of the earthquake disaster in Haiti, coverage that she says depicts Haitians as more primal and less developed, and how this may influence relief efforts that are more paternalistic in nature.

"In order to seek more collaborative, less hierarchical models of international engagement or relief work, we need to discuss head-on the racist ways evolutionary biology has become dispersed," she says.

"In order to collaborate, you have to consider your potential collaborators as adults, rather than as people further down a slope of human development, thus assuming a kind of tacit paternalism," says Hall, whose training is as a moral theologian.

Hall's research in this area will be part of her forthcoming book on "muscular Christianity," a movement that crystallized during the Victorian era to reinforce virile Christianity and social Darwinism.

Hall is also involved in a project on neurobiology, poverty, virtue and vice with a group of researchers from Vanderbilt and Marquette Universities. Her most recent book is "Conceiving Parenthood: American Protestantism and the Spirit of Reproduction" (Eerdmans, 2008).

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frajo
1 / 5 (1) Feb 21, 2010
Sometimes a Christian POV is - for non-believers - far more educated than the POV of certain other non-believers who are boasting about their "white supremacy".
marjon
not rated yet Feb 21, 2010
coverage that she says depicts Haitians as more primal and less developed,


'she says'? I hope she can prove her assertion otherwise she is just playing a race card.

Haitian culture does play a role in the magnitude of the disaster, but it is only tangentially related to race as race was the basis of the slave labor on the island.
bobsully
not rated yet Feb 21, 2010
"assume"? Pigmentation has evolved from both natural environmental selection and as influenced by sexual selection to a lesser extent.
marjon
not rated yet Feb 21, 2010
"The New Colossus

Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame,
With conquering limbs astride from land to land;
Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand
A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame
Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name
Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand
Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command
The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.
"Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she
With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"
—Emma Lazarus, 188"

Has anyone studied how immigrants in the USA compare to those they left behind? How prosperous are the Haitian immigrants in the USA and why or why not?

Also, is there a genetic predisposition to seek out a better way or place?
marjon
1 / 5 (1) Feb 21, 2010
The New Colossus:Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame, With conquering limbs astride from land to land; Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.
"Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she
With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door! —Emma Lazarus

Has anyone studied how immigrants in the USA compare to those they left behind? How prosperous are the Haitian immigrants in the USA and why or why not?

Also, is there a genetic predisposition to seek out a better way or place?
marjon
1 / 5 (1) Feb 21, 2010
(sorry about the copy, I kept getting an error)

Genetic records show that humans spread out from Africa and settled the rest of the planet.
My ancestors emigrated from Norway to the USA in the 1880s.
It seems the most prosperous societies are those that are comprised of a diverse population of immigrants coupled with classical liberal laws. Even these societies eventually stratify and begin to stagnate as is happening in New England and the East Coast of the USA.
Is it a surprise that culturally static and stratified societies are not adept at change?
Caliban
1 / 5 (2) Feb 22, 2010
I dunno, marjon-
I think if you investigate a little further, you'll find that slavery was, is, and always has been based on superior force of arms, rather than Race.
I agree with you though, that this good doctor is overstating the case. At the same time, I think she's right about the Haiti crisis. At this point, it bears all the hallmarks of an imposed, top-down, remake/remodel. But that may well be the only way to manage it. Only time will tell.
marjon
not rated yet Feb 22, 2010
Caliban,
Certainly it requires force to enslave people, but it may make an easier sell if those people are different.
Recall the Star Trek episode with Frank Gorshin painted half black and half white?
Caliban
1 / 5 (2) Feb 22, 2010
Marjon-
Pretty much every culture in the entirety of recorded(and, we assume, pre-) history has practiced slavery. Slaves are taken primarily by force of arms, although there is the time-honoured practice of selling yourself or a family member to satisfy an obligation, earn income, or reduce expenses as well. Barring that one exception, however, slaves had to be subdued and abducted, and were then placed in bondage service to the state or retailed on the slave market. Europeans, Asians, Africans, North and South Amerindians, and Australian Aboriginals- all at one time or another, in greater and lesser numbers: Slaves.
Oreo Star Trek Frank Gorshin was on a tv show.

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