Cuphea Does Wonders for Wheat and Corn in Rotations

Jan 11, 2010 By Don Comis
Cuphea Does Wonders for Wheat and Corn in Rotations
Cuphea being harvested. Photo courtesy of Russ Gesch, ARS.

(PhysOrg.com) -- Growing the oilseed plant called cuphea the year before growing wheat results in better wheat seedling survival and grain that is 8 percent higher in protein, according to an Agricultural Research Service (ARS) study.

ARS plant physiologist Russ Gesch and colleagues discovered this in a four-year experiment in which they rotated cuphea with corn, soybean, and wheat on fields in Morris, Minn. Gesch is at the ARS North Central Soil Conservation Research Lab at Morris.

Based on these results, Gesch recommends the following rotation order: soybean, cuphea, and then wheat or corn. This planting regimen increases the profitability of both wheat and corn. The research was recently published in the .

Crop rotations are known to be good for soil and reduce the need for pesticides and fertilizers. Insect, disease and weed pests become well adapted to surviving in fields where little to no is practiced. Perhaps the best example of this is the emergence of the highly adaptable , which accounts for more pesticide use on U.S. than any other insect.

Cuphea is a new oilseed crop Gesch and other ARS scientists are developing for farmers in the northern Corn Belt. It can be used for a variety of industrial products, including jet fuel and other biofuels. It is a domestic alternative to palm kernel and coconut oils that supply the needed to make thousands of products, from soap to motor oil.

Some 260 undomesticated species of Cuphea are native to Central America, South America and North America.

Gesch wanted to know how Cuphea might interact when rotated with corn, soybean and wheat. He found only beneficial effects. Cuphea did not harm yields of the other crops, nor did those crops harm cuphea yields.

Since 1999, Gesch and other ARS colleagues have worked closely with researchers at the ARS National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research in Peoria, Ill., as well as researchers at various industries and universities. This team is developing guidelines for growing cuphea, as well as commercial varieties and new markets for the crop.

Explore further: Efforts to save rare northern white rhino continue

More information: agron.scijournals.org/

Provided by USDA Agricultural Research Service

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