Discovery in worms points to more targeted cancer treatment

Nov 10, 2009
Research on this microscopic worm (Caenorhabditis elegans) may offer a drug target for cancer treatment. Credit: Ian Chin-Sang and Tony Papanicolaou

Researchers at Queen's University have found a link between two genes involved in cancer formation in humans, by examining the genes in worms. The groundbreaking discovery provides a foundation for how tumor-forming genes interact, and may offer a drug target for cancer treatment.

"When cancer hijacks a healthy system, it can create tumors by causing cells to divide when they shouldn't," says Ian Chin-Sang, a developmental biologist at Queen's and lead researcher on the study. "Certain genes control the normal movement and growth of cells, and by studying how these genes interact, we can understand what is abnormal when cancer is present."

There is an important gene in humans called PTEN that acts as a . When the function is lost, it can lead to cancers. For example, 70-80 per cent of all prostate cancers have lost PTEN function. Another gene family, called Eph receptors, often shows high levels in cancers, but a connection between PTEN and Eph Receptors in cancer formation has never been shown. The Queen's study shows the remarkable relationship between these genes in worms.

When the research team increased Eph receptor levels in worms, the PTEN levels diminished and the worms died prematurely. When they decreased the Eph receptor level in the worm, the PTEN levels went up and the worm lived longer than normal. The team believes the same principals are applicable to humans.

"Obviously humans and look very different," states Professor Chin-Sang, "but at a molecular level, they are very similar. In some instances, like the ones we are studying, the cellular mechanisms are so similar that the human genes can replace the worm's gene."

The next step is to take a closer look at the interaction of these two in humans. The findings could lead to exciting breakthroughs in cancer treatment.

"There is a drug used in the treatment of that some women develop a resistance to," adds Professor Chin-Sang. "Those same women have also lost their PTEN. Perhaps their Eph is overactive, and that has made the PTEN go down. The research on the worm may therefore provide a useful drug target for therapeutic intervention of breast . In fact, this worm is becoming a bit of a scientific celebrity. Studies on this worm have won researchers three Nobel prizes in the last seven years."

The study is published online in the journal Developmental Cell, and was recently highlighted in Science.

Source: Queen's University (news : web)

Explore further: Reading a biological clock in the dark

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Gene helps protect tumor suppressor in breast cancer

Apr 06, 2009

Scientists at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center have discovered a gene that protects PTEN, a major tumor-suppressor that is reduced but rarely mutated in about half of all breast cancers.

Preventing prostate cancer the complex way

Feb 03, 2009

(PhysOrg.com) -- Blocking a specific protein complex prevents the formation of tumors in mice genetically predisposed to develop prostate cancer, researchers at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research ...

Recommended for you

Reading a biological clock in the dark

10 hours ago

Our species' waking and sleeping cycles – shaped in millions of years of evolution – have been turned upside down within a single century with the advent of electric lighting and airplanes. As a result, ...

Scientists see how plants optimize their repair

Oct 20, 2014

Researchers led by a Washington State University biologist have found the optimal mechanism by which plants heal the botanical equivalent of a bad sunburn. Their work, published in the Proceedings of the Na ...

User comments : 0