Researcher discover two highly complex organic molecules detected in space

Apr 21, 2009
Two new highly complex organic molecules detected in space. Left: Ethyl formate, Right: n-Propyl cyanide. Colour code of the atomic constituents of both molecules: hydogen (H): white, carbon (C): grey, oxygen (O): red and nitrogen (N): blue. Image: Oliver Baum, University of Cologne

(PhysOrg.com) -- Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR) in Bonn, Germany, Cornell University, USA, and the University of Cologne, Germany, have detected two of the most complex molecules yet discovered in interstellar space: ethyl formate and n-propyl cyanide.

Their computational models of interstellar chemistry also indicate that even larger organic may be present - including the so-far elusive , which are essential for organic life. The results will be presented at the European Week of Astronomy and Space Science at the University of Hertfordshire on Tuesday 21st April.

The IRAM 30 metre telescope in Spain was used to detect emissions from molecules in the star-forming region Sagittarius B2, close to the centre of our galaxy. The two new molecules were detected in a hot, dense cloud of gas known as the "Large Molecule Heimat", which contains a luminous newly-formed star. Large organic molecules of many different sorts have been detected in this cloud in the past, including alcohols, aldehydes, and acids. The new molecules, ethyl formate (C2H5OCHO) and n-propyl cyanide (C3H7CN), represent two different classes of molecule - esters and alkyl cyanides - and they are the most complex of their kind yet detected in interstellar space.

and molecules emit radiation at very specific frequencies, which appear as characteristic "lines" in the electromagnetic spectrum of an astronomical source. Recognizing the signature of a molecule in that spectrum is rather like identifying a human fingerprint. "The difficulty in searching for complex molecules is that the best astronomical sources contain so many different molecules that their "fingerprints" overlap, and are difficult to disentangle" says Arnaud Belloche, scientist at the Max Planck Institute and first author of the research paper. "Larger molecules are even more difficult to identify because their ‘fingerprints’ are barely visible: their radiation is distributed over many more lines that are much weaker" adds Holger Müller, researcher at the University of Cologne. Out of 3700 spectral lines detected with the IRAM telescope, the team identified 36 lines belonging to the two new molecules.

The researchers then used a computational model to understand the chemical processes that allow these and other molecules to form in space. Chemical reactions can take place as the result of collisions between gaseous particles; but there are also small grains of dust suspended in the interstellar gas, and these grains can be used as landing sites for atoms to meet and react, producing molecules. As a result, the grains build up thick layers of ice, composed mainly of water, but also containing a number of basic organic molecules like methanol, the simplest alcohol.

"But," says Robin Garrod, a researcher in astrochemistry at Cornell University, "the really large molecules don't seem to build up this way, atom by atom." Rather, the computational models suggest that the more complex molecules form section by section, using pre-formed building blocks that are provided by molecules, such as methanol, that are already present on the dust grains. The computational models show that these sections, or "functional groups", can add together efficiently, building up a molecular "chain" in a series of short steps. The two newly-discovered molecules seem to have been produced in this way.

Garrod adds, "There is no apparent limit to the size of molecules that can be formed by this process - so there's good reason to expect even more complex to be there, if we can detect them." Senior MPIfR team member Karl Menten thinks that this will happen in the near future: "What we are doing now is like searching for a needle in a haystack. Future instruments like the Atacama Large Millimeter Array will allow much more efficient studies to discover organic interstellar molecules." These may even include amino acids, which are required for the production of proteins, and are therefore essential to life on Earth.

The simplest amino acid, glycine (NH2CH2COOH), has been searched for in the past, but has as yet not been successfully detected. However, the size and complexity of this molecule is matched by the two new molecules discovered by the team (Astronomy & Astrophysics, in press).

More information: A. Belloche, R. T. Garrod, H. S. P. Müller, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, and P. Schilke
Increased complexity in interstellar chemistry: detection and chemical modeling of ethyl formate and n-propyl cyanide in Sgr B2(N)
Astronomy & Astrophysics (in press), [DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200811550]

Provided by Max Planck Institute

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User comments : 10

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thales
3.3 / 5 (3) Apr 21, 2009
Makes you wonder if life requires a planet at all.
Bob_Kob
not rated yet Apr 22, 2009
Life is like a box of chocolates...
brant
4.5 / 5 (2) Apr 22, 2009
If there is intelligent life in this universe and they got into wars, then blew their planet up, then I would expect to find all molecules in space [that dont break down or degrade].
Thecis
not rated yet Apr 22, 2009
pity that almost every organic molecule will break down if there is enough radiation...

Btw, if complex molecules can be formed and life is possible, isnt it very likely that we will find a box of chocolates floating around somewhere in space instead of some kind of lifeform?
Yulia_Rudy
not rated yet Apr 22, 2009
You say: "The simplest amino acid, glycine, has been searched for in the past, but has as yet not been successfully detected."

But what can you say about this article: "Amino acid found in deep space" ( http://www.newsci...e/dn2558 )?

Of course not you wrote this phrase (it was in MPI' press-release) But anyway I would like to know if that research was confirmed somehow?

Thank you.
Velanarris
not rated yet Apr 22, 2009
Btw, if complex molecules can be formed and life is possible, isnt it very likely that we will find a box of chocolates floating around somewhere in space instead of some kind of lifeform?
If the universe is of sufficient size, by probability, there is a chance, although infinitely slight, that you could find your own corpse in space.
thales
not rated yet Apr 22, 2009
If the universe is of sufficient size, by probability, there is a chance, although infinitely slight, that you could find your own corpse in space.

What a relief! Ever since I found my corpse, I've been afraid I'm going crazy.
jselin
not rated yet Apr 22, 2009
I think we're all overlooking the obvious source of deep space formates... space ants!!! :)
h0dges
not rated yet Apr 22, 2009
Exogenesis people. That's probably how it happened; complex organic molecules self-assembling in space then captured by a comet and delivered to our fertile planet to further evolve to actual life via more abundant activation methods.
jeffsaunders
not rated yet Jun 08, 2009
If I had an improbability drive I think I would have a greater chance of finding a self-formed chocolate floating in space. I am not too confident that an improbability drive would be powerful enough to find those same chocolates already in a box though.

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