Neuroscientists isolate gene essential to early brain development

Nov 27, 2008

University of Queensland neuroscientists have discovered the crucial role a specific gene plays in forming the neural tube, the earliest identifiable structure in the developing brain and an essential precursor to the entire central nervous system.

While investigating neural tube closure in the clawed toad (Xenopus laevis) and in zebrafish, Associate Professor Helen Cooper at the Queensland Brain Institute (QBI) has, for the first time, described one of the processes that drive this crucial stage of brain development, which is common to all vertebrates.

“Globally, neural tube closure defects occur in about one-in-a-thousand human pregnancies, resulting in malformations of the central nervous system and conditions such as spina bifida or anencephaly,” Dr Cooper said.

In spina bifida, for example, incomplete closure of the embryonic neural tube leads to incorrect development of the spinal cord, often resulting in significant disability.

“Although it has been known for some time that regular intake of folic acid before conception greatly reduces the incidence of neural tube abnormalities, scientists are still trying to understand the complex interplay of genes during this crucial early stage of brain development.”

“Our laboratory has now established that a copy of one particular gene (Neogenin) is essential for proper formation of neural folds, the first stages in the development of neural tubes.

“If the neural folds do not develop then the neural tube cannot close, resulting in neural tube defects,” Dr Cooper said.

“And just as importantly, our lab has also discovered that Neogenin is vital for differentiation of neural stems cells throughout the development of the early central nervous system.”

Neuroscientists studying early brain development often investigate zebrafish because these small freshwater animals produce several hundred embryos, which develop rapidly and are almost totally transparent from fertilisation to hatching (about 48 hours), allowing scientists to view brain development as it happens.

Dr Cooper's research: “Neogenin and RGMa control neural tube closure and neuroepithelial morphology by regulating cell polarity” is published in this week's edition of the Journal of Neuroscience.

Provided by University of Queensland

Explore further: Missing protein restored in patients with muscular dystrophy

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Watching fish swim

Jan 07, 2014

As fish go, the lamprey has to be one of the most repulsive. Its eel-like body culminates in a tooth-encrusted sucker mouth straight out of a sci-fi horror film. Yet it turns out the lamprey, the most primitive ...

Powers of prophesy: Davos looks to the future

Jan 27, 2013

(AP)—Forget the endless debates about the euro or government debts. What does the future hold? The World Economic Forum at Davos is always a showcase for new research, trends and ideas. And those at the ...

Recommended for you

Student seeks to improve pneumonia vaccines

15 hours ago

Almost a million Americans fall ill with pneumonia each year. Nearly half of these cases require hospitalization, and 5-7 percent are fatal. Current vaccines provide protection against some strains of the ...

Seabed solution for cold sores

16 hours ago

The blue blood of abalone, a seabed delicacy could be used to combat common cold sores and related herpes virus following breakthrough research at the University of Sydney.

Better living through mitochondrial derived vesicles

Aug 19, 2014

(Medical Xpress)—As principal transformers of bacteria, organelles, synapses, and cells, vesicles might be said to be the stuff of life. One need look no further than the rapid rise to prominence of The ...

Zebrafish help to unravel Alzheimer's disease

Aug 19, 2014

New fundamental knowledge about the regulation of stem cells in the nerve tissue of zebrafish embryos results in surprising insights into neurodegenerative disease processes in the human brain. A new study by scientists at ...

User comments : 0