Yellowstone's ancient supervolcano: Only lukewarm?

Aug 27, 2008
The Yellowstone volcano's caldera, or sunken floor, covers an immense area. Credit: US Geological Survey

The geysers of Yellowstone National Park owe their eistence to the "Yellowstone hotspot"--a region of molten rock buried deep beneath Yellowstone, geologists have found. But how hot is this "hotspot," and what's causing it?

In an effort to find out, Derek Schutt of Colorado State University and Ken Dueker of the University of Wyoming took the hotspot's temperature.

The scientists published results of their research, funded by the National Science Foundation's division of earth sciences, in the August, 2008, issue of the journal Geology.

"Yellowstone is located atop of one of the few large volcanic hotspots on Earth," said Schutt. "But though the hot material is a volcanic plume, it's cooler than others of its kind, such as one in Hawaii."

When a supervolcano last erupted at this spot more than 600,000 years ago, its plume covered half of today's United States with volcanic ash. Details of the cause of the Yellowstone supervolcano's periodic eruptions through history are still unknown.

Thanks to new seismometers in the Yellowstone area, however, scientists are obtaining new data on the hotspot.

Past research found that in rocks far beneath southern Idaho and northwestern Wyoming, seismic energy from distant earthquakes slows down considerably.

Using the recently deployed seismometers, Schutt and Dueker modeled the effects of temperature and other processes that affect the speed at which seismic energy travels. They then used these models to make an estimate of the Yellowstone hotspot's temperature.

They found that the hotspot is "only" 50 to 200 degrees Celsius hotter than its surroundings.

"Although Yellowstone sits above a plume of hot material coming up from deep with the Earth, it's a remarkably 'lukewarm' plume," said Schutt, comparing Yellowstone to other plumes.

Although the Yellowstone volcano's continued existence is likely due to the upwelling of this hot plume, the plume may have become disconnected from its heat source in Earth's core.

"Disconnected, however, does not mean extinct," said Schutt. "It would be a mistake to write off Yellowstone as a 'dead' volcano. A hot plume, even a slightly cooler one, is still hot."

Source: National Science Foundation

Explore further: New study confirms water vapor as global warming amplifier

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

The Isthmus of Panama: Out of the Deep Earth

Apr 01, 2014

As dates in geologic history go, the formation of the slender land bridge that joins South America and North America is a red-letter one. More than once over the past 100 million years, the two great landmasses ...

Dust-plumes power intercontinental microbial migrations

Dec 17, 2012

Along with pollutants from Asia, transpacific dust plumes deliver vast quantities of microbes to North America, according to a manuscript published online ahead of print in the journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology.

Recommended for you

User comments : 3

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

bobwinners
not rated yet Aug 28, 2008
Given the rise and fall of the Yellowstone landscape, the hot spot is apparently still mobile. Or, possibly the pressure and temperature of the hot spot have become disconnected from each other.
Corvidae
3.3 / 5 (3) Aug 28, 2008
I'd say two possibilities, it's been disconnected and it's cooling, or it's formed a blockage deeper down and it's building pressure. Either way I say we tap it for geothermal power. If it's cooling, we best get the energy while the getting is good. If it's back building that deep, we may as well enjoy the power before we're blown into extinction.
p1ll
not rated yet Aug 28, 2008
build a geothermal power plant in yellowstone? hahha goodluck with that idea.

i'm gonna go burn some coal...