Some fundamental interactions of matter found to be fundamentally different than thought

Jul 02, 2008

Collisions have consequences. Everyone knows that. Whether it's between trains, planes, automobiles or atoms, there are always repercussions. But while macroscale collisions may have the most obvious effects - mangled steel, bruised flesh - sometimes it is the tiniest collisions that have the most resounding repercussions.

Such may be the case with the results of new experimental research on collisions between a single hydrogen atom and a lone molecule of deuterium -t he smallest atom and one of the smallest molecules, respectively - conducted by a team led by Richard Zare, a professor of chemistry at Stanford University.

When an atom collides with a molecule, traditional wisdom said the atom had to strike one end of the molecule hard to deliver energy to it. People thought a glancing blow from an atom would be useless in terms of energy transfer, but that turns out not to be the case, according to the researchers.

"We have a new understanding of how energy can be transferred in collisions at the molecular scale," said Zare, senior author of a paper presenting the results in the July 3 issue of Nature.

Every atom or molecule, even if it has no charge, has electrostatic forces around it-sort of like the magnetic field of the Earth. Those chemical forces exert a pull on any other atom or molecule within range, trying to form a chemical bond.

What Zare and his team found is that a speeding hydrogen atom does not have to score a direct hit on a deuterium molecule, a form of molecular hydrogen made up of two heavy isotopes of hydrogen, to set the molecule vibrating. It only needs to pass closely enough to exert its tiny chemical force on the molecule. Vibrating molecules matter because they are more energized, making them more reactive. Thus, energy transfer effectively softens them up for future reactions.

"This has changed a very simple idea that we cherished-that to make a molecule highly vibrationally excited, you basically had to crush it, squeeze it, hit it over the head. Compress some bond and the molecule would snap back," Zare said. "We found quite the opposite."

One could compare it to the difference between a punch in the stomach and a caress on the cheek. Both can set the senses tingling, but in very different fashions.

Zare's team discovered that as a hydrogen atom passed close to a deuterium molecule, the chemical forces tugged on the nearest of the deuterium atoms in the molecule, pulling it away from the other deuterium atom. But if the tug was not strong enough to break the two deuterium atoms apart, as the hydrogen atom moved farther away its hold on the deuterium atom would weaken. The deuterium atom would eventually slip from its grip and snap back toward the other deuterium atom, initiating an oscillation, or vibration.

"What we are really seeing is the result of a frustrated chemical reaction," Zare said. "The molecule wants to react. It just didn't get into the right position with the right conditions so that it could react."

Zare went on to picture this process as follows: "The deuterium molecule is in a happily married state until the hydrogen atom flies by and attracts the nearest deuterium atom. This deuterium atom in the middle is in a giant tug of war. It is being fought over by two lovers, two highly similar atoms that are both attracted to the middle deuterium atom. This affair is a love triangle. In energy transfer, the original spouse wins out. The middle deuterium atom decides not to stray and rebounds to the other deuterium atom-its first love-setting both to vibrate rapidly."

The new findings may have ramifications for understanding what happens in any chemical reaction, in addition to interactions between chemicals that do not result in a reaction but instead result in energy transfer. So far, one instance has been discovered, but Zare believes that this behavior is likely to be found in many other collision systems.

"This is very fundamental stuff as to what happens in transformations of matter from one state to another," Zare said. "It's very fundamental chemistry."

Comparing the ramifications of the new findings to a ripple spreading out from a pebble dropped into a pond, Zare said, "Maybe this will be the sound of one hand clapping, if the ripple doesn't go anywhere. Taken together, the only way we advance is making these ripples and following them as they spread outward."

Zare's group did the experiments that revealed the energy transfer occurring during "soft" collisions between the hydrogen atom and the deuterium molecule by using techniques and equipment for measuring the molecular interactions that had previously been developed in his laboratory. The experimental work is a major portion of the doctoral thesis of his graduate student Noah T. Goldberg, who was assisted in these measurements by Jianyang Zhang, a postdoctoral researcher, and graduate student Daniel J. Miller. The theoretical calculations that provided the model used to explain the observations is the result of work done by co-authors Stuart Greaves of the University of Bristol and Eckart Wrede of the University of Durham, both in Britain.

Source: Stanford University

Explore further: Lightweight membrane can significantly reduce in-flight aircraft noise

Related Stories

How water molecules dance to activate proteins

Mar 17, 2015

An international team of researchers has shed light on the molecular mechanism behind the importance of water for functional protein dynamics. The scientists have discovered that water's ability to flow on the ...

New detector sniffs out origins of methane

Mar 05, 2015

Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, second only to carbon dioxide in its capacity to trap heat in Earth's atmosphere for a long time. The gas can originate from lakes and swamps, natural-gas pipelines, deep-sea ...

Chemistry in a trillionth of a second

Jan 30, 2015

Chemists at the University of Bristol, in collaboration with colleagues at the Central Laser Facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) and Heriot-Watt University (HWU), can now follow chemical ...

Recommended for you

Thinner capsules yield faster implosions

5 hours ago

In National Ignition Facility (NIF) inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments, the fusion fuel implodes at a high speed in reaction to the rapid ablation, or blow-off, of the outer layers of the target ...

Direct visualization of magnetoelectric domains

8 hours ago

A novel microscopy technique called magnetoelectric force microscopy (MeFM) was developed to detect the local cross-coupling between magnetic and electric dipoles. Combined experimental observation and theoretical ...

Upside down and inside out

9 hours ago

Researchers have captured the first 3D video of a living algal embryo turning itself inside out, from a sphere to a mushroom shape and back again. The results could help unravel the mechanical processes at ...

Heat makes electrons spin in magnetic superconductors

Apr 24, 2015

Physicists have shown how heat can be exploited for controlling magnetic properties of matter. The finding helps in the development of more efficient mass memories. The result was published yesterday in Physical Review Le ...

User comments : 4

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

wsbriggs
2.3 / 5 (4) Jul 02, 2008
I've got a suspicion that this may play out in the LENR-CANR area as well. Since this soft collision is more likely to occur during D2 moving through a lattice thanks to the other forces at play, this may give a direction for research into how electrodeposition can produce such interesting effects.
SmartK8
1.8 / 5 (6) Jul 02, 2008
Hear, hear, I am the Bender. Come closer to read my comment!!!

That means in plain english -> the caption of this article sucks.. What's next ?

Some fundamental interactions of unspecified matter possible found to be somehow fundamentally different than few thought.. maybe..

qqq
NeilFarbstein
not rated yet Jul 05, 2008
The author of this article is an idiot using too many analogies and references to human emotions such as a caress on the cheek.
Write in hard scientific terms not like an idiot writing a romance novel. It doesn't belong here.
We all know what interactions are and what a resonance it's not necessar to make sciecne a love story.
tkjtkj
not rated yet Mar 30, 2009
Re: " ... hydrogen... the smallest atom ..." etc ..

Wel, this might shock you, but volume-wise, hydrogen is the LARGEST atom.

You'd have been better off saying its the "lightest"

tkjtkj@gmail.com

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.