# Probing Question: Do sisters share a closer genetic proximity than other siblings?

##### Sep 06, 2007

If '70s pop star Marie Osmond had a sister, would she have been closer to her than her six singing brothers are to each other? While Osmond may have had more in common with a fictional sister in the makeup and hairstyle department, their genetic proximity would be the same as the bond the famous brothers share with each other.

Sisters, said Ken Weiss, Evan Pugh professor of anthropology and genetics at Penn State, are no more genetically similar than brothers, although same-sex sibling sets are closer than brother and sister sets.

Weiss offered a lesson in basic biology: Get a piece of paper and a pen. Draw a circle for the mother and a square for the father. Populate the circle with "XX" for the female sex chromosome and the square with "XY" for the male chromosome. Draw two more circles under the symbols for the parents to represent two sisters.

"The two daughters below them are going to inherit an X from their mother, one or the other. Each one gets an independent choice," said Weiss. "But if they're daughters, they have to be XX, which means they must both inherit the same X from their father, since he only has one to give them. Everything else is scrambled equally between the two sisters from the two parents. They have one X that they share, and one X that they may or may not share, depending on the luck of the draw from the mother."

Now, if you were to draw two squares for brothers under the parents, you would pull one or the other X from the mother and the Y from the father, because to be a son you must be XY and the Y can only come from Dad.

Humans have 46 chromosomes, inheriting 22 non-sex chromosomes, and one sex chromosome, from each parent. What they inherit from the other chromosomes is similar regardless of sex, which overall makes the child 50 percent related to each other and to each parent. In this sense, Weiss said, "Two brothers are as equally close to each other as two sisters. A brother and a sister are not as closely related as two brothers or two sisters. They're a bit more distantly related." This is because one will have an X and the other a Y from their father, whereas two brothers must share the same Y, and two sisters the same X, from him.

Fraternal twins bear the same genetic similarity to each other as do a regular brother and sister, although Weiss said the fact that they gestated together may provide further commonalities. Identical twins, of course, swim in exactly the same gene pool and are the most closely related people on the planet, unless, said Weiss, we one day are able to clone ourselves. Clones, also, would carry carbon-copy genes.

Source: By Gigi Marino, Research Penn State

## Related Stories

#### Fish found in suspected tsunami debris boat quarantined

36 minutes ago

The wreckage of a fishing boat that appears to be debris from the 2011 Japanese tsunami was carrying some unexpected passengers—fish from Japanese waters—when it was spotted off the Oregon coast.

#### Gulf health 5 years after BP spill: Resilient yet scarred

53 minutes ago

From above, five years after the BP well explosion, the Gulf of Mexico looks clean, green and whole again, teeming with life—a testament to the resilience of nature.

#### ARM set to improve battery life for Internet of Things devices

1 hour ago

Wearables and IoT gadgets, featuring smart functions in much smaller form factors, pose battery challenges and headaches by their small size. ARM has made moves that might change the story of battery life ...

#### Devices or divisive: Mobile technology in the classroom

1 hour ago

Little is known about how new mobile technologies affect students' development of non-cognitive skills such as empathy, self-control, problem solving, and teamwork. Two Boston College researchers say it's ...

#### Cybercrime now 'number one' threat: Europol chief

1 hour ago

Cybercrime has become as big a threat to Europe's security as terrorism, the head of the continent's policing agency warned Friday.

#### Sunken aircraft carrier rediscovered off California coast

1 hour ago

Scientists have rediscovered a mostly intact World War II aircraft carrier used in atomic bomb tests and then sunk off the Northern California coast decades ago.

## Recommended for you

#### Smoking may affect some women's likelihood of giving birth to twins

10 hours ago

A new study provides a possible explanation of reports that mothers of twins are more likely to have smoked, despite evidence that nicotine reduces fertility.

#### Changes in cancer epigenome implicated in chemotherapy resistance and lymphoma relapse

10 hours ago

Genomic studies have illuminated the ways in which malfunctioning genes can drive cancer growth while stunting the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy and other treatments. But new findings from Weill Cornell Medical College ...

#### Childhood syndrome combining lung disease, arthritis is identified

14 hours ago

Using the latest genome sequencing techniques, a research team led by scientists from UC San Francisco (UCSF), Baylor College of Medicine, and Texas Children's Hospital has identified a new autoimmune syndrome characterized ...

#### Big data opens up vast frontiers in genetic research

18 hours ago

Professor Ryan Lister from University of Western Australia is using big data to examine DNA in new ways that could greatly increase the understanding of the human body and improve agricultural techniques.

#### New function of obesity gene revealed

Apr 17, 2015

Scientists have discovered a previously unknown mechanism behind how the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene promotes obesity. Their findings may have important implications for future therapeutic ...

#### Novel neurodegenerative disease and gene identified with the help of man's best friend

Apr 16, 2015

A breakthrough study performed in an international collaboration led by Professor Tosso Leeb from the University of Bern and Professor Hannes Lohi from the University of Helsinki together with the veterinary ...