Could molecular oxygen be common on comets?

December 10, 2015 by Tomasz Nowakowski report
Could molecular oxygen be common on comets?
An image of Halley's Comet taken in 1986. Credit: NASA

(Phys.org)—A team of researchers, encouraged by the latest discovery of ESA's Rosetta spacecraft of molecular oxygen (O2) on the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, are going over comet 1P/Halley (known as Halley's Comet) with a fine-tooth comb, searching for the traces of this essential molecule. The new study, led by Martin Rubin of the University of Bern, Switzerland, shows that molecular oxygen is also present on 1P/Halley and therefore might be common on other comets.

The scientists used the data from the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) instrument aboard ESA's Giotto probe, which passed 1P/Halley in 1986. They found that O2 is the third most abundant species on this celestial body. The results were published on Dec. 4 in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Giotto approached Halley's nucleus at a distance of 596 kilometers. Despite being hit by the comet's small particles, the spacecraft gathered important scientific data during a flyby lasting only few minutes. This close encounter enabled the chemical characterization of the material being ejected from the comet. The results indicated that Halley releases mainly water and carbon monoxide. The data showed also traces of methane, ammonia, other hydrocarbons, as well as iron and sodium. Now, Rubin and his colleagues report abundant amounts of in the comet's coma.

"Our investigation indicates that a production rate of O2 with respect to water is, indeed, compatible with the obtained Halley data, and therefore that O2 might be a rather common and abundant parent species," the scientist wrote in the paper.

The first comet on which molecular oxygen was detected is 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, representing Jupiter family comets originating from the Kuiper belt. The Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) found this molecule in October 2015, and since then, the scientists have wondered whether the O2 abundance is peculiar to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko or Jupiter family comets in general. The new results hint that the existence of molecular oxygen could also be characteristic for the Oort cloud family of comets that includes Halley.

"We now have an indication for abundant O2 in the comas of two comets, one from the Oort cloud and the other from the Kuiper belt or possibly the scattered disk. This is particularly interesting, as both families of comets are believed to have formed at different locations in our early ," the paper reads.

The authors of the new study also address what caused the abundance of molecular oxygen on Halley. One possible explanation offered by the scientists is that the O2 has already been formed through irradiation of ices in the molecular cloud phase and the oxygen remained trapped before the comet eventually formed. According to the scientists, the close abundance of oxygen on both comets, despite very different dynamical histories and erosion rates, confirms this hypothesis.

Comets are essential to improving our understanding of the origins of life. These icy leftovers from the planet-forming process have been preserved at low temperatures since their formation. Thus, the cometary material could provide invaluable hints on how solar system was created.

Now, when we know that the presence of molecular oxygen is not unique to one , a new chapter opens in the search for the ingredients of life on the icy visitors from the outskirts of the solar system. With that in mind, further studies could reveal a vast number of comets rich in oxygen, water and even organic compounds.

Explore further: Image: Jet activity at the neck of the Rosetta comet

More information: http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2041-8205/815/1/L11/meta;jsessionid=F9A1FE045288EA9414874579F8C6EC06.c3.iopscience.cld.iop.org M. Rubin et al. MOLECULAR OXYGEN IN OORT CLOUD COMET 1P/HALLEY, The Astrophysical Journal (2015). DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/815/1/L11

Abstract
Recently, the ROSINA mass spectrometer suite on board the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft discovered an abundant amount of molecular oxygen, O2, in the coma of Jupiter family comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko of O2/H2O = 3.80 ± 0.85%. It could be shown that O2 is indeed a parent species and that the derived abundances point to a primordial origin. Crucial questions are whether the O2 abundance is peculiar to comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko or Jupiter family comets in general, and also whether Oort cloud comets such as comet 1P/Halley contain similar amounts of molecular oxygen. We investigated mass spectra obtained by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer instrument during the flyby by the European Space Agency's Giotto probe of comet 1P/Halley. Our investigation indicates that a production rate of O2 of 3.7 ± 1.7% with respect to water is indeed compatible with the obtained Halley data and therefore that O2 might be a rather common and abundant parent species.

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plasmasrevenge
3 / 5 (12) Dec 10, 2015
oxygen in the rocks
+ hydrogen in the solar wind
= OH in the coma

Simple electrochemistry that requires no ice hidden beneath the rock.

From http://blogs.corn...roscopy/

"Remote sensing technology is advancing by leaps and bounds. As such, the data from spacecraft spectrometers are becoming more sensitive and investigators are attempting to obtain accurate mineral identification and abundance values from mixed spectra. It is not uncommon for these analysis to be performed by comparison to spectral libraries created under ambient conditions in terrestrial laboratories. For hydrated minerals, this could pose a problem as the bending and stretching frequencies of O-H bonds, which are used to identify and calculate the abundance of a particular hydrated species, change as a function of temperature."

In other words, OH can easily be confused for H2O.
jonesdave
3.6 / 5 (14) Dec 10, 2015
@plasma,
Bollocks. Quite what an article on hydrated MINERALS has got to do with the unambiguous detection of H2O, CO2 GAS et al, not to mention H2O ice grains around comets, is beyond me. Still believing Wal's BS?
No, they cannot mistake OH for H2O. Try asking a real scientist, instead of relying on the unqualified fantasists at Thunderdolts. Google ro-vibrational lines of water. It has some that OH doesn't, as anybody remotely qualified in this field would know.
Also, how are you getting electrochemistry going at a comet? What is your liquid medium (i.e. the electrolyte)? And don't give me that BS from the idiot Anariba. How are you doing it? And how are you getting the H+ from the solar wind to combine, at 400 km/s, with non-existent O- ions? We only see O+ ions near the nucleus, by the way.
Try reading a few of the papers about the MIRO instrument, and its findings. Then have a look at H2O detection at ~556 GHz.
Then try learning some actual science.
AGreatWhopper
2.9 / 5 (17) Dec 10, 2015
If the trolls on here could apply 1/10 their energy towards getting their lives in order as they do their "cunning theories"...

Well said, JD.
HannesAlfven
3.8 / 5 (10) Dec 10, 2015
Note that the article we are discussing here is an admission that the theorists completely missed the presence of oxygen after detailed observations of comets for quite a number of years now. The textbook theory for comets is honestly a story of surprises, yet at each step of the process, the adherents claim with confidence that they understand these phenomena.
Whydening Gyre
4.2 / 5 (10) Dec 10, 2015
Well, given that oxygen is the third most abundant element in the Universe, I'm not surprised it would found be in comets...
Mark Thomas
3.9 / 5 (11) Dec 10, 2015
"oxygen is the third most abundant element in the Universe"

Exactly. Furthermore, nitrogen is the seventh most abundant element in the universe. Terraformers looking to establish a nitrogen/oxygen atmosphere take note.

https://en.wikipe...elements
my2cts
2.5 / 5 (11) Dec 10, 2015
Note that the article we are discussing here is an admission that the theorists completely missed the presence of oxygen after detailed observations of comets for quite a number of years now. The textbook theory for comets is honestly a story of surprises, yet at each step of the process, the adherents claim with confidence that they understand these phenomena.

It is somewhat narrow minded to frame a discovery as an admission of failure.
Why specifically the theorists should have predicted molecular oxygen a long time ago escapes me.

jsdarkdestruction
4.4 / 5 (7) Dec 10, 2015
Hannes, who is saying it's completely understood? Certainly not scientists. Why are they continuing research and time into the theories to further advance and admitting regularly we don't know it all and more research will reveal the details if they supposedly claim to know it all and that they completely understand it already?

cantdrive85
3.2 / 5 (9) Dec 10, 2015
Also, how are you getting electrochemistry going at a comet? What is your liquid medium (i.e. the electrolyte)?

Hahahaha, moron!
Mark Thomas
3.4 / 5 (10) Dec 10, 2015
"Why specifically the theorists should have predicted molecular oxygen a long time ago escapes me."

Oxygen is created as part of the fusion cycles of certain larger stars then blown out into space. Given that oxygen is the third most abundant element and it is sometimes force-ably pushed out in large masses into space via a supernova, it is reasonable to expect that some oxygen did not have the opportunity to fully mix and chemically combine with other elements. It would have been more surprising if every last oxygen atom were combined with a different atom, so it probably should have been predicted to exist at some non-trivial level.
cantdrive85
3.2 / 5 (9) Dec 10, 2015
Also, how are you getting electrochemistry going at a comet? What is your liquid medium (i.e. the electrolyte)? And don't give me that BS from the idiot Anariba. How are you doing it? And how are you getting the H+ from the solar wind to combine, at 400 km/s, with non-existent O- ions?

This is the type of ignorance that pervades the discussion regarding PC/EU. Here you have someone who is completely devoid of any knowledge of even basic properties of plasmas and the physics that describe them, claiming something isn't possible. Plasma electrochemistry is not exactly new science.

http://onlinelibr...abstract

The Abstract gives away the punchline.
HannesAlfven
3 / 5 (8) Dec 10, 2015
Compare the comments here with the more honest admission by scientists ...

--

The research community had previously ruled out the presence of oxygen on comets, because it reacts too well with other atoms, and scientists "never thought that oxygen could 'survive' for billions of years," said Kathrin Altwegg of the University of Bern, who co-authored the study published in the journal Nature on Wednesday.

--

(from https://www.rt.co...rprise/)
Captain Stumpy
4.1 / 5 (9) Dec 11, 2015
an admission that the theorists completely missed the presence of oxygen
@H-A
no, there is a difference between not knowing and calidating past data: the above is just evidence stacking up for a point- this is demonstrated with the following from the abstract
Our investigation indicates that a production rate of O2 of 3.7 ± 1.7% with respect to water is indeed compatible with the obtained Halley data and therefore that O2 might be a rather common and abundant parent species
so, this not only directly debunks your comment, it shows you are ignorant of historical data as well as basic physics and astrophysics
you really CAN get an education for free - http://ocw.mit.edu/index.htm

Compare the comments here with
1- ARTICLE - not study
2- never confuse subjective opinion or sensationalism for factual representation of the evidence
3- there is a reason that original peer reviewed journal sources are considered better evidence than quotes from an article
Captain Stumpy
4 / 5 (8) Dec 11, 2015
Here you have someone who is completely devoid of any knowledge of even basic properties of plasmas and the physics that describe them
@cd
you mean like your ignorance with Diocotron instabilities?
http://phys.org/n...day.html

or are you specifically referring to things like your repeated lies continually proven false, like your insistence that ASTRO's don't know plasma physics?
http://phys.org/n...een.html

http://arxiv.org/...92v1.pdf

http://ocw.mit.ed...ophysics

science is about proof, not about fanatical clinging to a failed or falsified belief system, like the bulk of the eu claims
(do we really need to get into gravity, Moon craters, grand canyon and more AGAIN?)

eu is pseudoscience for a reason
https://en.wikipe...oscience

like your conspiracist ideation - just because you believe it doesn't make it real
Vietvet
4.3 / 5 (11) Dec 11, 2015
@Hannes

Something else that was said:

"The cometary community has always said that comets are some of the least-processed bodies in the solar system," Bieler said. "Now we have evidence that at least a significant part of this comet survived the whole formation of our solar system."

http://www.latime...ory.html
my2cts
2.1 / 5 (7) Dec 11, 2015
"Why specifically the theorists should have predicted molecular oxygen a long time ago escapes me."

Oxygen is created as part of the fusion cycles of certain larger stars then blown out into space. Given that oxygen is the third most abundant element and it is sometimes force-ably pushed out in large masses into space via a supernova, it is reasonable to expect that some oxygen did not have the opportunity to fully mix and chemically combine with other elements. It would have been more surprising if every last oxygen atom were combined with a different atom, so it probably should have been predicted to exist at some non-trivial level.

Since you know so much, explain why theorists should have predicted molecular oxygen to be common and abundant on comets. With the emphasis on _common_ and on _abundant_.
EnricM
3 / 5 (2) Dec 11, 2015
Just a question from a humble Sci-Fi fan:

This would make it possible that planets with oxygen atmosphere but no life exist, right?

Of course, the conditions should also be such that the rocks of the planet do not oxyde (or that there were another mechanism to cycle the oxygen back to the atmosphere).

This would mean habitable planets with breathable atmosphere but no life, thus colonizable (just speculating).

jonesdave
3 / 5 (6) Dec 11, 2015
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adma.19950070318/abstract

The Abstract gives away the punchline.


So who's the moron? What has plasma got to do with creating ice on the body of a comet? All the applications of this method use a flame plasma. How dense do you think that is? How is it turning the non-existent rock into H2O ice and gas? Please do explain. Rock isn't a plasma, by the way, so you are NOT going to get an electrochemical reaction. Where is this flame plasma? Why don't we see it? What is its temperature?
What is the density of the solar wind? What is the density of the solar wind within the diamagnetic cavity? Where are the non-existent O- ions that you need to impossibly combine with the SW H+? How many magnitudes less dense is the SW, compared to what you need it to be, just to produce 1 l/s of H2O?
You should try some real science, instead of getting your education from a couple of unqualified charlatans like Talbott and Thornhill.
antialias_physorg
5 / 5 (8) Dec 11, 2015
This would make it possible that planets with oxygen atmosphere but no life exist, right?

Why not? There are anorganic sources of oxygen (there's also life that doesn't require oxygen or to which oxygen is highly toxic, BTW. So an oxygen atmopshere alone is not an indicator for or against life per se)

This would mean habitable planets with breathable atmosphere but no life

Ah, well...'breathable' is a bit more tricky. Oxygen alone isn't enough. You have to have the right amount. And then you have to have the right pressure, too (21% oxygen isn't enough if pressure is slightly too high or slightly too low.).
Oh, and you need the right temperature range.
And, of course, even if all that is correct you need an inert filler for the rest. No good if you have 21% oxygen, but the rest is some acidic substance (or CO2, or other gas at toxic concentration)

So don't be too optimistic about finding human habitable planets out there (without a suit at any rate)
Solon
2.3 / 5 (3) Dec 11, 2015
Hannes, who is saying it's completely understood? Certainly not scientists. Why are they continuing research and time into the theories to further advance and admitting regularly we don't know it all and more research will reveal the details if they supposedly claim to know it all and that they completely understand it already?



I think their theories will have to turn to more electrical explanations. Microwaves, electron beams for example, could be releasing oxygen from silica, and all the electrons being removed eventually leads to just having a silicon aerogel remaining. 67P does look like it is being subject to electron beam etching.
my2cts
2.6 / 5 (10) Dec 11, 2015
Hannes, who is saying it's completely understood? Certainly not scientists. Why are they continuing research and time into the theories to further advance and admitting regularly we don't know it all and more research will reveal the details if they supposedly claim to know it all and that they completely understand it already?



I think their theories will have to turn to more electrical explanations. Microwaves, electron beams for example, could be releasing oxygen from silica, and all the electrons being removed eventually leads to just having a silicon aerogel remaining. 67P does look like it is being subject to electron beam etching.

Ancient aliens !
cantdrive85
3 / 5 (8) Dec 12, 2015
What has plasma got to do with creating ice on the body of a comet?

The Coma is plasma, the IPM is plasma. With the minuscule amounts of ice found, it is likely just condensing on the comet from the coma.
All the applications of this method use a flame plasma.

Plasma has three modes, dark, glow, and arc, "flame" plasma is not one of the terms. "Flame" plasma is glow mode, which the coma is experiencing as it moves closer to the Sun and brightens.
How is it turning the non-existent rock into H2O ice and gas? Please do explain. Rock isn't a plasma, by the way, so you are NOT going to get an electrochemical reaction.

Non-existent? You are obviously blind. The phenomena is called sputtering, and the electrochemical reactions are taking place in the coma.

Where is this flame plasma?

Glow mode, and the coma is glowing.

What is the density of the solar wind?

Where? Easy answer, it's variable depending on where.
cantdrive85
3 / 5 (8) Dec 12, 2015
Where are the non-existent O- ions that you need to impossibly combine with the SW H+?

In the coma.

How many magnitudes less dense is the SW, compared to what you need it to be, just to produce 1 l/s of H2O?


The density inside the coma is what is important. The coma can be quite large, millions of Km across, as such the is a large area from with which to draw the H.

You should try some real science


Oh, you mean like the very sciency terminology like "flame" plasma?
TechnoCreed
5 / 5 (9) Dec 12, 2015
@WG
Well, given that oxygen is the third most abundant element in the Universe, I'm not surprised it would found be in comets...

That 67P contains compounded oxygen like H2O, CO, CO2... is no surprise. What is a surprise is to find MOLECULAR oxygen: O2. Molecular oxygen in so darn reactive that there would not be any on earth, if it would not be from some bacterial life and photosynthesis. This means that this O2 was already captured in cometary building blocks in the pre-solar nebula.
cantdrive85
3.2 / 5 (9) Dec 12, 2015
This means that this O2 was already captured in cometary building blocks in the pre-solar nebula.

Or it is being created by electrochemical reactions in the coma, as explained.

BTW, why and how would there be O2 in the "pre-solar nebula"? Wouldn't it also be "so darn reactive" then as well? What makes the "pre-solar nebula" era different that the O2 would behave differently then?

Occam's Razor and all....
TechnoCreed
5 / 5 (5) Dec 12, 2015
Or...
No. The O2 observed do not stay in this form for very long after it has been released. As soon as it meets something to react with, it forms a new, more stable compound. And this, exactly because there is plenty of material in the vicinity of a comet and plenty of energy in the solar system.
cantdrive85
3.3 / 5 (7) Dec 12, 2015
No. The O2 observed do not stay in this form for very long after it has been released. As soon as it meets something to react with, it forms a new, more stable compound.
Yep, and what is readily available? H, hence water in the coma.

Mark Thomas
3.5 / 5 (8) Dec 13, 2015
"Since you know so much, explain why theorists should have predicted molecular oxygen to be common and abundant on comets."

It isn't so much genius as just connecting the dots. The Big Bang produced mostly hydrogen, helium and a little lithium. Most of the elements heavier than that were produced by fusion inside stars and widely dispersed into the galaxy by those stars, often through supernova. Just thinking logically, we know the solar system has plenty of oxygen atoms. The most common atom on Earth is oxygen (look it up). Before the sun started generating heat, oxygen was probably well distributed throughout the solar system. As the sun warmed the oxygen that wasn't held in place would have been pushed outwards, further enriching the oxygen content further out. It seems unlikely that all the oxygen out there in the cold depths of the solar system would have had an opportunity to combine chemically. This is how you start to think about the problem, not a final answer.
my2cts
1.9 / 5 (9) Dec 13, 2015
@ MT
You are not anywhere near an explanation at all.
The suggestion that I, not you, should "look it up" must be a joke.
Look up molecular oxygen. Read TC's posts.
my2cts
1.9 / 5 (9) Dec 13, 2015
No. The O2 observed do not stay in this form for very long after it has been released. As soon as it meets something to react with, it forms a new, more stable compound.
Yep, and what is readily available? H, hence water in the coma.

So there is H2O on the comet. Interesting diversion.
To come back to the subject, you have not given a viable alternative explanation for the molecular oxygen.
cantdrive85
3.2 / 5 (9) Dec 13, 2015
No. The O2 observed do not stay in this form for very long after it has been released. As soon as it meets something to react with, it forms a new, more stable compound.
Yep, and what is readily available? H, hence water in the coma.

So there is H2O on the comet. Interesting diversion.
To come back to the subject, you have not given a viable alternative explanation for the molecular oxygen.


https://tugsandnu...ing.jpeg

Science by willful ignorance my2cts? Electrochemistry in the glow mode coma is perfectly viable, contrary to your hand waving denial.
f77hacker
1.8 / 5 (5) Dec 13, 2015
so then what does the distribution curve of elements? since the sun's all convert H to other elements, wouldn't the distribution be based on a radial gradient? ergo alot more lighter elements less than some threshold and the heavier elements only created near the core where the gravitational force is high.
my2cts
1.9 / 5 (9) Dec 14, 2015
so then what does the distribution curve of elements? since the sun's all convert H to other elements, wouldn't the distribution be based on a radial gradient? ergo alot more lighter elements less than some threshold and the heavier elements only created near the core where the gravitational force is high.

https://en.wikipe...nces.png
my2cts
2.2 / 5 (10) Dec 14, 2015
No. The O2 observed do not stay in this form for very long after it has been released. As soon as it meets something to react with, it forms a new, more stable compound.
Yep, and what is readily available? H, hence water in the coma.

So there is H2O on the comet. Interesting diversion.
To come back to the subject, you have not given a viable alternative explanation for the molecular oxygen.


https://tugsandnu...ing.jpeg

Science by willful ignorance my2cts? Electrochemistry in the glow mode coma is perfectly viable, contrary to your hand waving denial.

The outcome of abundant O2 however is unlikely as has been argued time and time and time again. Your opposition is groundless, but I respect your emotions.
FredJose
2.5 / 5 (8) Dec 14, 2015
The abuse of science in this article and even the so-called research is unbelievable.
the Oort cloud family of comets that includes Halley.

There has been no actual observation of this mythical Oort cloud, in spite of the most sophisticated tools being used to observe deep solar space. Hence any analysis that includes a reference to this fairy tale is build on sand. It's time to get real and remove this abomination from the community. It doesn't exist. period.
These icy leftovers from the planet-forming process have been preserved at low temperatures since their formation. Thus, the cometary material could provide invaluable hints on how solar system was created.

....big contradiction here. How did the extremely high temp planet forming process leave icy remnants? Plus, since we know that comets can not survive 4 billion years in orbit [100k max] and that there is no Oort cloud to replenish them, the whole planet forming story is hollow as well.
FredJose
2 / 5 (8) Dec 14, 2015
The abuse of science in this article and even the so-called research is unbelievable.
the Oort cloud family of comets that includes Halley.

There has been no actual observation of this mythical Oort cloud, in spite of the most sophisticated tools being used to observe deep solar space. Hence any analysis that includes a reference to this fairy tale is build on sand. It's time to get real and remove this abomination from the community. It doesn't exist. period.
These icy leftovers from the planet-forming process have been preserved at low temperatures since their formation. Thus, the cometary material could provide invaluable hints on how solar system was created.

....big contradiction here. How did the extremely high temp planet forming process leave icy remnants? Plus, since we know that comets can not survive 4 billion years in orbit [100k max] and that there is no Oort cloud to replenish them, the whole planet forming story is hollow as well.
Vietvet
4.2 / 5 (10) Dec 14, 2015
@FreddyJ

As much as you would like to think the bible is a science text book it is not and only religious fundamentalists idiots such as yourself believe it is.
Mark Thomas
2.1 / 5 (7) Dec 14, 2015
I described how to start thinking about the problem, but my2cts didn't like it. Nobody is interesting in your pathetic whining 2cts. So far you have added nothing but whining.

The relative abundance of oxygen, in combination with limited opportunities for chemical combination with other elements in portions of the outer solar system, made the existence of molecular oxygen ice likely and therefore predictable. Whining about it doesn't change the fact that it exists. The better question at this point is just how much oxygen ice is out there?
f77hacker
2 / 5 (4) Dec 14, 2015
thanks but links to wikipedia don't suffice for my answer. i'm not you're usual moron who believes everything on wikipedia are true and for future reference, keep your youtube links to yourself.

that graph says only about abundancy in the universe, i make specific reference to a sun/star mutating H into heavy elements. i'm looking for the correlation from the a sun creating elements either during it's lifetime or in its death throws to the observed distribution. i'm hypothesizing a radial gradient based on gravitational forces would affect the distribution based on mass of the sun. if suns are the only causation of heavier elements then logically there must be correlation, otherwise there is another process by which elements are created.

thanks
my2cts
2.3 / 5 (9) Dec 14, 2015
The abuse of science in this article and even the so-called research is unbelievable.
the Oort cloud family of comets that includes Halley.

There has been no actual observation of this mythical Oort cloud, in spite of the most sophisticated tools being used to observe deep solar space.

You are way too stupid to judge Oort's hypothesis. You should leave that to knowledgeable people.
my2cts
2 / 5 (8) Dec 14, 2015
@MT
You are just another Dunning-Kruger case.
Even if you lived a thousand years you could not advance scientific knowledge.
cantdrive85
3.3 / 5 (7) Dec 14, 2015
The outcome of abundant O2 however is unlikely as has been argued time and time and time again.

Oh, you mean by the guy who says electrochemistry is impossible in plasma? The very same guy who claims that which we know is happening on the Moon is impossible to happen on a comet? You know the same JA flamer plasma guy who is conveniently absent now that he has been shown to be a moron. I would include you as well, but the best you could conjure up is, "Ancient Aliens!" and "Nuh uh!", and as such devoid of any content whatsoever.

my2cts
2.3 / 5 (9) Dec 14, 2015
The outcome of abundant O2 however is unlikely as has been argued time and time and time again.

Oh, you mean by the guy who says electrochemistry is impossible in plasma?

Not impossible. You are distorting again. The abundance of O2 can not be explained in this way.
If that hurts your feelings, I sympathise.
SuperThunder
3.2 / 5 (11) Dec 14, 2015
Oort cloud deniers, a new low. Charles Forte himself would be dismayed by that level of willful blind dumbocity. Dumbagnitude. Seriously, there needs to be a stronger word for it. Stupicogination.
my2cts
2.8 / 5 (11) Dec 14, 2015
@ST It is amazing isn't it. They deny even the most compelling hypotheses from the most brilliant scientists but have only incoherent rubbish to offer. Why do such people exist ? Because they can.
SuperThunder
2.1 / 5 (7) Dec 14, 2015
Seriously, I want to kidnap some of the howlers and take them on a time travel vacation.
"Hello, Mister Forte, we're time travelers from 2015. Go on, tell Charles Forte rocks don't come from the sky, he made a career of people like you."
Maybe that's why time travelers don't visit, they can only ruin the future for you. Imagine if people showed up from 6890 just so some time traveler could show us all that in their time people think the sun is made of cheesecake and teaching entropy leads to honor killings. We'd all call it quits right there.

Because they can.

The age old philosophy question : if something can happen, must it, or does causality contain potentials not taken? The past only contains the possible, but does only the impossible fail to manifest? Dumbness seems to never miss an opportunity.
cantdrive85
3.3 / 5 (7) Dec 14, 2015

Not impossible. You are distorting again. The abundance of O2 can not be explained in this way.
If that hurts your feelings, I sympathise.

And you have as yet to suggest why "the abundance of O2 can not be explained in this way" other than the typical hand waving. As a matter of fact, there is far more evidence for coma electrochemistry than the existence of a supposed Oort Cloud. And there is no "distortion" whatsoever, JD really believed what he said. And what you up-voted.
It would seem obvious by the tone of the posts that you are the one that needs sympathy. It's okay, its not your fault. You should blame your parents/family for failing miserably.
Mark Thomas
3.5 / 5 (8) Dec 15, 2015
my2cts, YOU are just another Dunning-Kruger case, take a good look in the mirror.
my2cts
1.6 / 5 (7) Dec 15, 2015
@ MT
No I am not.
my2cts
2 / 5 (8) Dec 15, 2015

Not impossible. You are distorting again. The abundance of O2 can not be explained in this way.
If that hurts your feelings, I sympathise.

And you have as yet to suggest why "the abundance of O2 can not be explained in this way" other than the typical hand waving. As a matter of fact, there is far more evidence for coma electrochemistry than the existence of a supposed Oort Cloud. And there is no "distortion" whatsoever, JD really believed what he said. And what you up-voted.
It would seem obvious by the tone of the posts that you are the one that needs sympathy. It's okay, its not your fault. You should blame your parents/family for failing miserably.

Who said that there is no chemistry happening in the coma?
pongobongo
3.3 / 5 (7) Dec 15, 2015
@ MT
No I am not.


Yes you are.
cantdrive85
3 / 5 (6) Dec 15, 2015
Who said that there is no chemistry happening

Did someone say diversion? Re-read the thread. The claim was about electrochemistry in the coma, in which the comet is immersed.

Change the subject again?

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