Ancestral diets determine vulnerability to type 2 diabetes

July 10, 2015 by Sally Sitou
Credit: Peter Häger/Public Domain

The middle classes from developing countries are more susceptible than western Caucasians to obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in today's changing environment. New research published today in Cell Metabolism from the University of Sydney's NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre, the National Centre for Cell Science, KEM Hospital and the DYP Medical College, Pune, India reveals this may be a result of the nutrition endured by their ancestors.

The findings in the paper titled Multigenerational Undernutrition and Diabetes could explain projections that more than 70 per cent of the global burden of will fall on individuals from by 2030.

Several studies have reported that a high-fat diet causes obesity. This latest research demonstrates that eating a 'normal' diet can make animals obese, if their ancestors had been undernourished for several generations.

Unsurprisingly, increasing prosperity in developing countries has been accompanied by a sudden increase in caloric intake. However their populations' epigenetic makeup, whereby changing environmental factors alter how people's genes are expressed, has not compensated for these dietary changes. This means their bodies are still designed to cope with undernourishment; so they store fat in a manner that makes them more prone to obesity and its resulting diseases than populations accustomed to several generations of a 'normal' diet.

This scenario was recreated in a 12-year study of two groups of rats by Associate Professor Anandwardhan A. Hardikar's team at the University of Sydney with colleagues overseas. The first group was undernourished for 50 generations and then put on a normal diet for two generations. The second (control) group maintained a normal diet for 52 generations. At the end of the study it was found that when the descendants of the first group were exposed to a normal diet, this did not reverse the epigenetic modifications made by their undernourished forebears. These rats were eight times more likely to develop diabetes and multiple metabolic defects when compared to the control group.

"Their adverse metabolic state was not reversed by two generations of nutrient recuperation through a normal diet," said Associate Professor Hardikar. "Instead this newly prosperous population favoured storage of the excess nutrients as fat leading to increased obesity, and metabolic risk for diabetes when compared to their 'developed world' counterparts."

Associate Professor Hardikar said lower Vitamin B12 levels in the undernourished rats could also be an indicator of this trend.

"Human studies from Ranjan Yajnik's group at KEM Hospital in Pune, India have demonstrated that low circulating B12 and high folate levels are associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes."

With increasing migration of populations from developing to affluent countries, there is a need to identify factors that minimise their risk of diabetes and obesity - one of Australia's national health priorities.

"Hopefully further research in understanding their gut microbes, which are major producers of Vitamin B12 in our body, and/or dietary supplementation with Vitamin B12 and other micronutrients, could reduce the risk of metabolic diseases in the coming generations," says Associate Professor Hardikar.

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JVK
1 / 5 (4) Jul 11, 2015
See: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model.
http://www.ncbi.n...24693353

The link from the gut microbes to brain development and behavior has since been established in the context of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation and chromosomal rearrangements linked to morphological and behavioral diversity in vertebrates via single amino acid substitutions.
JVK
1.8 / 5 (5) Jul 11, 2015
Excerpt: "... further research in understanding their gut microbes, which are major producers of Vitamin B12 in our body..."

The ever more obvious link from fermented grains and milk products to gut microbes that produce vitamin D as an ecological adaptation to malarial parasites, and the link from frugivory in bats to Vitamin C and the protection from Ebola viruses, have already been placed into the context of RNA-mediated events that link nutrient-dependent metabolic networks and genetic networks to the organized genomes of all genera via their physiology of reproduction.

See for example: Gut Microbiota Elicits a Protective Immune Response against Malaria Transmission http://www.scienc...14014251

When will evolutionary theorists learn the difference between amino acid substitutions and mutations?

See also: http://www.the-sc...ibodies/
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (2) Jul 12, 2015
See: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model.
MODEL DEBUNKED
http://www.socioa...ew/24367

jvk ALSO debunked- proven to be a pseudoscientist pushing creationist dogma
and worse...
See also: http://freethough...s-place/

also note: that blog from Myers also shows the bigotry of the religious kohl... see post 317 by Myers
Mere stupidity I will tolerate, but I really don't need to give a platform to homophobes. Kohl has been banned.
See also his bigotry as it evolved into hatred in the comments
http://freethough...s-place/comment-page-2/#comment-739228
JVK
1 / 5 (4) Jul 12, 2015
"Glucagon Couples Hepatic Amino Acid Catabolism to mTOR-Dependent Regulation of α-Cell Mass was reported as Regulation of Pancreatic Cell Mass" https://www.faceb.../?type=1

A few minutes later "Epigenetic silencing of Oct4 by a complex containing SUV39H1 and Oct4 pseudogene lncRNA" was reported as Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) control epigenetic gene regulation

The nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated gene duplication that enables the de novo creation of receptors that allow nutrients to enter cells has just been linked via RNA-directed DNA methylation to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types of all individuals of all genera via the conserved molecular mechanisms of biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry, which is perturbed by mutations.

The question arises: What aspect of my model or of chromosomal rearrangements was debunked?
JVK
1 / 5 (4) Jul 12, 2015
See also: Wild sparrow study traces social behaviors in the field to specific gene
http://phys.org/n...eld.html

-- and the author's copy of my award-winning book chapter on the development of sexual orientation.

"The Mind's Eyes: Human Pheromones, Neuroscience, and Male Sexual Preferences" http://www.sexarc...kohl.htm

If it is not clear why the atheist blogger PZ Myers and his idiot minions attacked my accurate representations of biologically-based cause and effect, or why AF SSgt (ret) James Stumpy and other biologically uninformed science idiots, like Andrew Jones, have continued their unbridled harassment, you need only read anything published by serious scientists during the past 15 years, which links microRNAs to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and cell type differentiation in all genera, without the pseudoscientific nonsense about mutations and evolution.
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (2) Jul 12, 2015
If it is not clear why the atheist blogger PZ Myers and his idiot minions attacked my accurate representations of biologically-based cause and effect
it is very clear, as most of your comments are still there... including some highly homophobic remarks as well as pseudoscience. just because you built your personal page to promote pseudoscience doesn't mean others who actually value empirical evidence over religious dogma have to allow you to use their sites for your hate, vitriol and crackpot religion
have continued their unbridled harassment
how can it be harassment when we use your own words, prove you to be wrong, or show your pseudoscience is bunk?
see also: http://freethough...s-place/

you are TROLLING with pseudoscience and narcissistic egotistical BS. see: https://www.psych...-sadists
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (2) Jul 12, 2015
you need only read anything published by serious scientists during the past 15 years
this is the only thing you've said to be correct, but i had to edit it out of the rest of your pseudoscience dogma!

to date, AGAIN, you have a 100% fail rate interpreting science, as shown above and in so many other threads, like these: http://phys.org/n...ife.html

http://phys.org/n...eal.html

this includes your attempts to *intentionally* mislead with the TITLE of a study which, when read, actually refutes your claims: http://www.scienc...088.full

please note that the harassment is coming from YOU... not those refuting your pseudoscience

THIS IS A SCIENCE SITE, not a religious forum
ryggesogn2
2 / 5 (4) Jul 12, 2015
"In the 1930's Dr. Western Price travelled the world to study foods eaten by isolated traditional cultures and tribes after documenting an increase in degenerative diseases in his patients in the USA. He discovered that, despite a huge variation in the types of diets, as long as people stayed with their traditional ancestral diet they would be free from degenerative diseases like heart disease, diabetes and cancer."
http://www.metabo...history/
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (3) Jul 12, 2015
lastly, @jkTROLL
the pseudoscientific nonsense about mutations and evolution
to date, you've made this claim so many times it isn't even funny... especially as it is refuted by Lenski and many others...

Lenski's first hundred thousand generations are all in the SAME media as well as under the exact same conditions, yet they all didn't evolve. only a couple did. this is direct experimental refutation of your claims that mutations are "pseudoscientific nonsense" as well as proof that there were no "nutrient-dependent pheromone controlled" BS pseudoscience.

your "model" cannot account for those earliest mutations or evolution, only your personal dogma and religious convictions, which don't belong in science

until you can promote actual biology over religion, you will always be a crackpot looking for egotistical recognition for a belief that isn't even yours

epic fail, mensa boy, or should i start calling you "doc" with all that diagnostic experience?
JVK
1 / 5 (4) Jul 12, 2015
Thanks "ryggesogyn2."

His works, and the works of many others, can be placed into the context of Darwin's 'conditions of life' and everything currently known about nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated gene duplication and fixation of the RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that determine the cell types of all cells in all individuals of all living genera.

Alternatively, theorists (i.e., biologically uninformed science idiots) can continue to believe that Lenski's results are proof that species "evolve".

http://phys.org/n...ary.html
JVK
1 / 5 (4) Jul 12, 2015
This 2015 publication helps put an end to the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by theorists.

Environmental Epigenetics and a Unified Theory of the Molecular Aspects of Evolution: A Neo-Lamarckian Concept that Facilitates Neo-Darwinian Evolution
http://gbe.oxford...abstract

Excerpt: "Although the causal role of epimutations was not established in the Darwin's finch adaptive radiation (Skinner, et al. 2014b) or other models (Brennecke, et al. 2008; Gokhman, et al. 2014; Zeh, et al. 2009), the causal role of genome-wide genetic mutations has also not been established (Laland, et al. 2011)."

Anyone who claims Lenski's works established cause and effect via mutations, will remain -- as always -- a biologically uninformed science idiot. Stumpy is preparing to sell T-shirts so they can be identified by the slogans they display.

Skinner's desperate attempt to change Larmarckism to neo-Larmarckism is fatally flawed.
ryggesogn2
1 / 5 (3) Jul 12, 2015
Other factors may contribute to ethnic diets that do not promote diabetes.
South east Asian diets incorporate bitter melon, and there are many other foods, that aid in blood sugar control.
JVK
1 / 5 (4) Jul 12, 2015
Thanks again. The differences in diet contribute to population-wide difference in organized genomes via fixation of amino acid substitutions in the context of the physiology of reproduction.

Biologically uninformed science idiots want the differences to be caused by mutations so they can link the differences to evolution instead of the single amino acid substitutions that differentiate our cell types from those of other primates.

"...the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla" (p. 127).
http://www.jstor..../4444260
Vietvet
4 / 5 (4) Jul 12, 2015
JVK is a young earth creationist. Keep that in mind when reading his comments.
JVK
1 / 5 (4) Jul 13, 2015
Dobzhansky was the creationist who wrote "...the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla" (p. 127).

Keep that in mind when you read Combating Evolution to Fight Disease http://www.scienc...88.short

and my comments on that article, too.

If Dobzhansky was not still dead and learned that "re-evolution" of the bacterial flagellum occurred over-the-weekend, he might become a young earth creationist -- even though 2 amino acid substitutions were required to "re-evolve" the bacterial flagellum.

It's complexity is greater than the complexity of differences in primates. For comparison, primates would need to evolve wings and then have the genes for wing development knocked out but "re-evolve" the wings within 4 days so they could find something to eat.

In theory, that may be possible. Start with a mutation, and then....
jsdarkdestruction
5 / 5 (2) Jul 13, 2015
" However, these domains are beginning to converge in laboratories addressing molecular mechanisms that explain how evolutionary processes work, and bring these processes to bear on medical problems such as cancer and infectious disease"
That's in the abstract of your link. Stop pretending you understand or read anything past "combating evolution"in the title in the paper. You've misrepresented it over and over. They are using evolution to help fight and understand the medical problems.
Vietvet
3 / 5 (2) Jul 13, 2015
"If the living world has not arisen from common ancestors by means of an evolutionary process, then the fundamental unity of living things is a hoax and their diversity is a joke."

"It is a blunder to mistake the Holy Scriptures for elementary textbooks of astronomy, geology, biology, and anthropology."

"I am a creationist and an evolutionist. Evolution is God's, or Nature's method of creation. Creation is not an event that happened in 4004 BC; it is a process that began some 10 billion years ago and is still under way"
https://en.wikipe...volution

I think it's best for Dobzhansky to speak for himself.
Vietvet
3.7 / 5 (3) Jul 13, 2015
"Why are you still discussing theories? See, instead: http://phys.org/n...ion.html

See also: A quantum theory for the irreplaceable role of docosahexaenoic acid in neural cell signalling throughout evolution http://www.ncbi.n...23206328
Full text pdf: http://www.ars.us...2012.pdf

Excerpt: "While amino acids could be synthesised over 4 billion years ago, only oxidative metabolism...."

The 4 billion years is an error."

Read more at: http://phys.org/n...html#jCp

@JVK

You still haven't stated why "4 billion years is an error".

I'm going to keep asking until I get an answer.
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jul 13, 2015
No experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect suggests it takes four billion years for a change to occur in the nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation of any cell type in any individual of any species. Everything known about single amino acid substitutions in viruses and living genera links rapid changes in their morphological and behavioral phenotypes to biodiversity outside the context of evolution.

Viral Genome Junk Is Bunk http://www.icr.or...cle/8661
Excerpt: "Perhaps the evolutionists have placed the cart before the horse on this issue, as proposed by several creationist scientists.4,6 In fact, in an ironic twist, the evidence mentioned above indicates that viruses likely arose from their hosts and not the other way around. As molecular biologist and biochemist Peter Borger notes, "The most parsimonious answer is: the RNA viruses got their genes from their hosts."6"

If not, where did viruses come from?
Vietvet
2.3 / 5 (3) Jul 13, 2015
@JVK

It makes sense a young earth creationist would use a creationist blog as a source

I have a better one.

https://www.ncbi....3870916/
Vietvet
3 / 5 (2) Jul 13, 2015
@JVK

Are you a young earth creationist?

Yes or no?
ryggesogn2
1 / 5 (1) Jul 13, 2015
"These findings do not surprise me in the least, for I have seen many other studies demonstrating exactly the same thing. The lower your cholesterol level, the shorter your life expectancy. Just to take one example. An Austrian study twice this size of this Norwegian one came to the following conclusions:

'In men, across the entire age range, although of borderline significance under the age of 50, and in women from the age of 50 onward only, low cholesterol was significantly associated with all-cause mortality, showing significant associations with death through cancer, liver diseases, and mental diseases.' http://www.ncbi.n...austria"

http://drmalcolmk...n-reply/
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jul 13, 2015
A group member just posted this to my FB group: https://www.faceb...activity

Replicative senescence is associated with nuclear reorganization and with DNA methylation at specific transcription factor binding sites http://www.ncbi.n...4356053/

It links an earlier work by Wagner to our award-winning award-winning 2001 Neuroendocrinology Letters review:

See: Examining the Modularity Concept in Evolutionary Psychology: The Level of Genes, Mind, and Culture http://www.akadem...efd4π=2

Excerpt: "Several studies (reviewed in Kohl, Atzmueller, Fink & Grammer, 2001) show pheromone perception to influence general social and sexual cognition and associated social interactions, where the hormonal status of men and women provides the link between olfactory-cognition and the visual cognitive analysers."
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jul 13, 2015
Examining the Modularity Concept in Evolutionary Psychology: The Level of Genes, Mind, and Culture

The preprint is linked here: http://www.swp.jk...003x.pdf
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jul 13, 2015
Excerpt: "Chromosomes are not randomly organized within the nucleus, but have a preferred position in relation to specific neighboring chromosomes [9,10]. Reorganization of chromosomal territories has been associated with changes in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression [11]..." http://www.clinic...t/7/1/19

For contrast, see what the biologically uninformed science idiot and his idiot minions said when they attacked me for touting the role of chromosomal rearrangements in biodiversity, instead of regurgitating ridiculous claims about mutations and evolution.

One crank dies, another rises to take his place
http://freethough...s-place/
JVK
1 / 5 (1) Jul 17, 2015
http://www.huffin...216.html

Riding the Evolution Paradigm Shift With Eugene Koonin

Excerpt: "[T]he entire ideology of personalized medicine should be taken with many grains of salt."

My comment: Personalized medicine links RNA-mediated gene duplication and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to virus-driven pathology or to nutrient-dependent health and longevity via the biophysically constrained chemistry of protein folding in all genera. Nutrient-dependent fixation of the RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions occurs in the context of the physiology of reproduction.

Excerpt: "The entire evolution of the microbial world and the virus world, and the interaction between microbes and viruses and other life forms have been left out of the Modern Synthesis..."

Neo-Darwinian theory is taught as if it was based on scientific facts to those who may never learn the difference.
Vietvet
not rated yet Jul 17, 2015
Young earth creationist like JVK rant against evolutionary biology, that what young earth creationists do.

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