Analysis of bones found in Romania offer evidence of human and Neanderthal interbreeding in Europe

May 14, 2015 by Bob Yirka report
A Neanderthal skeleton, left, compared with a modern human skeleton. Credit: American Museum of Natural History

(—DNA testing of a human mandible fossil found in Romania has revealed a genome with 4.8 to 11.3 percent Neanderthal DNA—its original owner died approximately 40,000 years ago, Palaeogenomicist Qiaomei Fu reported to audience members at a Biology of Genomes meeting in New York last week. She noted also that she and her research team found long Neanderthal sequences. The high percentage suggests, she added, that the human had a Neanderthal in its family tree going back just four to six generations. The finding by the team provides strong evidence that humans and Neanderthals continued breeding in Europe, long after their initial co-mingling in the Middle East (after humans began migrating out of Africa.)

Last year, Fu and her team published a paper describing DNA analysis of a human bone fragment found in an unknown place in Siberia. Dated at 45,000 years old, the team found evidence of Neanderthal DNA, but more importantly, because it was remarkably well preserved, the relic served to strengthen a slower mutation rate than many in the field were embracing. In this new effort, Fu and her team also found that the jawbone (which still had some teeth in it) had visible Neanderthal traits, such as enlarged wisdom teeth. The jawbone was found in a cave accessible only by diving through a watery corridor back in 2002, and has been an object of study ever since. The high percentage of Neanderthal DNA is in sharp contrast to modern out-of-Africa humans, which typically have approximately one to four percent Neanderthal genes.

This latest finding, along with the bone found in Siberia and others in Europe has eroded the belief that human interbreeding with Neanderthals occurred only in the Middle East. It now seems possible that humans and Neanderthals were living in the same geographic areas over the course of five thousand years, which would of course explain why their DNA appears in every person not directly descended from people in Africa, on the planet. What is still a mystery, though, is what happened to the Neanderthal? Why did they disappear even as humans continued on? Eerily, this new evidence suggests that the two were interbreeding very nearly right up to the time when the Neanderthals ceased to exist.

Explore further: Genetic testing shows Neanderthals less diverse than modern humans

More information: Fu, Q., An early modern human with a recent Neandertal ancestor, talk:

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not rated yet May 14, 2015
What is still a mystery, though, is what happened to the Neanderthal? Why did they disappear even as humans continued on? Eerily, this new evidence suggests that the two were interbreeding very nearly right up to the time when the Neanderthals ceased to exist.

My thoughts on this is that they would have considered themselves different animals and lived segregated existences. The occasional mingling and breeding (from whatever causes including slavery, rape, spoils of raids etc... and the shunning of half-breeds would have limited the amount of purposeful interbreeding.

Warring between them, climate change, and Darwinian "survival of the fittest" took care of the extinction.
not rated yet May 14, 2015
What is still a mystery, though, is what happened to the Neanderthal? Why did they disappear even as humans continued on?

Do add to your list, denisovans, floresiensis, heidelbergensis, rhodesiensis, idaltu and a yet unnamed member of genus Homo, species Sapien.
1 / 5 (11) May 14, 2015
I sincerely amusе when read such articles. Why just do not take to explain how have arisen
the functionality for womb wear of offspring, breastfeeding in mather and neonatal sucking instinct in baby simultaniously? This functionality must emerge at the same time but requires hundreds of genes and their synchronisation mechanisms in the DNA, and if is not completed do no work and better to not exist. We know that even small derogations in the genes result to serious genetic diseases. I wonder how they do not get tired of this mythology? Who deceive? Themselfs or others?
1 / 5 (1) May 14, 2015
The excitingly close familial relationship of this individual to his or her own neanderthal great, or great-great grandparent(s) raises sociological questions of import. They may never be scientifically answerable, but should at least be pondered. Also, gender DNA and mitochondrial DNA studies could tease out more information.
1 / 5 (1) May 15, 2015
Neanderthal did not become quite extinct, they were assimilated by miscegenation. There is not Neanderthal individual alive; but at the same time worldwide there are very few individuals, with no Neanderthal genes. We can only find people with no Neanderthal genes, south of the Sahara; it is the only place on earth.
In Latin America, among the mestizo population (half breed), there are very few individuals with paternal indigeneous genes; most indigeneous genes are from the maternal side. Among the mestizo population in Latin America, most paternal genes are European. European men mixed with indigeneous women, and something similar may happen with Neanderthals. We carry, Neanderthal genes, coming from the women, that were the daughters of Neanderthal men and Homo Sapiens women.
Neanderthals are part of our genetic composition, we are not full Homo Sapiens, except people south of the Sahara.
1 / 5 (1) May 16, 2015
I wonder if the cross-breeding couple thought nobody would know.

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