Researchers developing unique molecular probes for the study of metals in the brain

Aug 18, 2014 by Lynn Yarris
IPI is a fluorescent probe that can visualize changes in exchangeable iron stores in living cells upon iron supplementation or depletion.

You don't have to listen to heavy-metal music to be a metal head. The human brain harbors far more copper, iron and zinc than anywhere else in the body. Abnormally high levels of these metals can lead to disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Chris Chang, a faculty chemist with Berkeley Lab's Chemical Sciences Division, has spent the past several years developing new probes and techniques for imaging the molecular activity of these metals in the brain. Speaking at the national meeting of the American Chemical Society (ACS) in San Francisco, he discussed challenges and recent achievements in this area of research.

"Brain physiology relies on unique inorganic chemistry not found elsewhere in the body," Chang said. "Although it accounts for only two-percent of total body mass, it is the body's most oxidatively active organ, consuming more than 20 percent of the oxygen we breathe. This high oxygen intake combined with the brain's high content of copper and can lead to oxidative damage and subsequent neuronal death when levels of these redox-active metals rise and become misregulated."

Chang, who also holds faculty appointments with the University of California (UC) Berkeley's Chemistry Department and is an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), described a series of small-molecule fluorescent probes he and his group developed to safely image copper levels in living cells. Their first success was Coppersensor-3 (CS3), a probe that can be used to image labile copper pools in living cells at endogenous basal levels.

"We used CS3 in conjunction with synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XRFM) to establish the first link between mobile copper and major cell signaling pathways," Chang said. "Neuronal cells move significant pools of copper upon activation and these copper movements are dependent on calcium signaling."

The most recent copper probe from Chang's group is Coppersensor 790 (CS790), a fluorescent sensor that features near-infrared excitation and emission capabilities, ideal for penetrating thicker biological specimens.

"CS790 can be used to monitor fluctuations in exchangeable copper stores under basal conditions, as well as under copper overload or deficiency conditions," he said.

Chris Chang is a faculty chemist with Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley, and an HHMI investigator. Credit: Roy Kaltschmidt

For monitoring iron in the brain, Chang and his group have developed Iron Probe 1 (IP1), which enables researchers to monitor changes in natural cellular iron stores.

"IP1 is a new type of reaction-based turn-on fluorescent probe for monitoring exchangeable iron ion pools in aqueous solution and ," he said. "It is sensitive enough to detect endogenous, basal labile iron pools and can identify and visualize expansions in these iron pools upon stimulation with either the hormone hepcidin or vitamin C."

These and other probes being developed by Chang and his group will help provide a better understanding of the contributions by metals such as and iron to the functioning of the brain in various stages of health and disease.

"The brain offers a grand challenge for a molecular understanding of memory and senses such as sight, smell, and taste, as well as for developing new therapeutics for stroke, aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's," Chang said.

Explore further: Major step forward in understanding of viruses as scientists unlock exact structure of Hep A virus

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Copper on the brain

May 27, 2013

(Medical Xpress)—The value of copper has risen dramatically in the 21st century as many a thief can tell you, but in addition to the thermal and electrical properties that make it such a hot commodity metal, ...

High iron, copper levels block brain-cell DNA repair

May 20, 2011

No one knows the cause of most cases of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative disorders. But researchers have found that certain factors are consistently associated with these debilitating conditions. One is ...

Iron and copper relationship is studied

Jul 24, 2007

U.S. scientists studying the relationship of iron and copper in the body have found when iron absorption by cells decreases, copper absorption increases.

Recommended for you

World's fastest manufacture of battery electrodes

42 minutes ago

New world record: Scientists at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) increased the manufacturing speed of electrode foils coated batch-wise by a factor of three – to 100 meters per minute. This was ...

Waste, an alternative source of energy to petroleum

43 minutes ago

The group led by Martín Olazar, researcher in the UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country's Department of Chemical Engineering, is studying the development of sustainable refineries where it is possible ...

Researchers developing new thermal interface materials

1 hour ago

In the microelectronics world, the military and private sectors alike need solutions to technologic challenges. Dr. Mustafa Akbulut, assistant professor of chemical engineering, and two students lead a project ...

New insights on carbonic acid in water

15 hours ago

Though it garners few public headlines, carbonic acid, the hydrated form of carbon dioxide, is critical to both the health of the atmosphere and the human body. However, because it exists for only a fraction ...

User comments : 0