Scientists reproduce evolutionary changes by manipulating embryonic development of mice

Jul 30, 2014

A group of researchers from the University of Helsinki and the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona have been able experimentally to reproduce in mice morphological changes which have taken millions of years to occur. Through small and gradual modifications in the embryonic development of mice teeth, induced in the laboratory, scientists have obtained teeth which morphologically are very similar to those observed in the fossil registry of rodent species which separated from mice millions of years ago.

To modify the development of their , the team from the Institute of Biotechnology of the University of Helsinki worked with embryonic teeth cultures from mice not coded by the ectodysplasin A (EDA) protein, which regulates the formation of structures and differentiation of organs in the embryo throughout its development. The teeth obtained with these cultures which present this mutation develop into very basic forms, with very uniform crowns. Scientists gradually added different amounts of the EDA protein to the and let them develop.

The researchers observed that the teeth formed with different degrees of complexity in their crown. The more primitive changes observed coincide with those which took place in animals of the Triassic period, some two hundred million years ago. The development of more posterior patterns coincides with the different stages of evolution found in rodents which became extinct already in the Palaeocene Epoch, some 60 million years ago. Researchers have thus achieved experimentally to reproduce the transitions observed in the fossil registry of mammal teeth.

The team of scientists were able to contrast the shape of these teeth with a computer-generated prediction model created by Isaac Salazar-Ciudad, researcher at the UAB and at the University of Helsinki, which reproduces how the tooth changes from a group of equal cells to a complex three-dimensional structure, with the full shape of a molar tooth, calculating the position of space of each cell. The model is capable of predicting the changes in the morphology of the tooth when a gene is modified, and therefore offers an explanation of the mechanisms that cause these specific changes to occur in the shape of teeth throughout evolution.

"Evolution has been explained as the ability of individuals to adapt to their environment in different ways" Isaac Salazar-Ciudad states, "but we do not know why or how individuals differ morphologically. The research helps to understand evolution, in each generation, as a game between the possible variations in form and natural selection".

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verkle
1 / 5 (8) Jul 30, 2014
This is not evolution. Neither does it mimic what some scientists think may have happended in their evolutionary hypotheses.

The last paragraph contain a lame definition of evolution: "Evolution has been explained as the ability of individuals to adapt to their environment in different ways." This is not science. It is an atheist's worldview.

Evolution as explained by atheists scientists is not only a random change in genes, but a creation of millions and billions of new genes over billions of years which somehow magically impart new functionality. This is what cannot be explained by mathematics or science.

JVK
1 / 5 (6) Jul 30, 2014
Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model.
http://www.ncbi.n...24693353

Re: "...a nutrient-dependent variant allele that arose in central China approximately 30,000 years ago. The effect of the allele is adaptive and it is manifested in the context of an effect on sweat, skin, hair, and teeth. In other mammals, like the mouse, the effect on sweat, skin, hair, and teeth is due to an epigenetic effect of nutrients on hormones responsible for the tweaking of immense gene networks that metabolize nutrients to pheromones. The pheromones control the nutrient-dependent hormone-dependent organization and activation of reproductive sexual behavior in mammals such as mice and humans, but also in invertebrates as previously indicated."

In the mouse to human model it is also the expression of a selected ectodysplasin A protein that links ecological variation to ecological adaptations without the pseudoscience of mutation-initiated natural selection.
anonymous_9001
5 / 5 (6) Jul 30, 2014
"nutrient-dependent variant allele" and "due to an epigenetic effect" are mutually exclusive phrases, James, so pick one. Either it's a genetic change (allele variant) or an epigenetic change. Epigenetics has no capacity to alter alleles themselves. It only has the ability to alter their expression.
JVK
1 / 5 (5) Jul 31, 2014
Despite all attempts to get the anonymous fool to look at the experimental evidence of biologically-based cell type differentiation, he continues to ignore anything that challenges the pseudoscientific nonsense of mutation-initiated natural selection in the context of the evolution of biodiversity. Long after everyone else has realized how the epigenetic landscape is linked to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man, Andrew Jones will claim that mutations MUST somehow cause something important or species could not evolve, when no evidence suggests they do.

"The genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that regulate the expression of these microRNAs as well as the role of the recently described natural RNA circles which act as natural microRNA sponges regulating post-transcriptional microRNA expression and function during the early stages of neurogenesis is also discussed."
http://journal.fr...abstract
Vietvet
5 / 5 (4) Jul 31, 2014
This is not evolution. Neither does it mimic what some scientists think may have happended in their evolutionary hypotheses.

The last paragraph contain a lame definition of evolution: "Evolution has been explained as the ability of individuals to adapt to their environment in different ways." This is not science. It is an atheist's worldview.

Evolution as explained by atheists scientists is not only a random change in genes, but a creation of millions and billions of new genes over billions of years which somehow magically impart new functionality. This is what cannot be explained by mathematics or science.



WE'VE GOT A WINNER! Most ignorant post of the day.
rockwolf1000
5 / 5 (3) Aug 01, 2014
"Evolution has been explained as the ability of individuals to adapt to their environment in different ways." This is not science. It is an atheist's worldview.


An atheist's worldview IS science in that they reject all notion of superstitious nonsense and exclusively base their worldview on empirical evidence or theories based on known science and mathematics.

An atheist is perfectly content saying "I don't know" as opposed to "Gawd done it"

Your worldview has been permanently altered by the brainwashing you endured as a child at the hands of your parents and/or church.

If no one had ever told you about "Gawd" you would never know about it because there is not one iota of evidence for any "Gawd".

The bible (old or new or any other religious "scripture") does not count as evidence BTW. Hearsay at best, outright lies and fabrications at worst.

On the one hand I feel sorry for you. On the other..... Who gives a shit?
supamark23
not rated yet Aug 01, 2014
The last paragraph contain a lame definition of evolution: "Evolution has been explained as the ability of individuals to adapt to their environment in different ways." This is not science. It is an atheist's worldview.

Evolution as explained by atheists scientists is not only a random change in genes, but a creation of millions and billions of new genes over billions of years which somehow magically impart new functionality. This is what cannot be explained by mathematics or science.


I'll agree it's a bad definition, but not "an athiest's" explaination, it's an ignorant one. You got it wrong too. Evolution is the (generally) slow change over time of an organism, directed by competition (those better suited to a given environment will have more reproductive success). Those changes are due to (generally) minor mutations that confer a slight advantage, and those changes/mutations add up over time, leading to new species. It has been seen in real time in D. melanogaster.