New paths into the world of quasiparticles

Jul 09, 2014
The quasiparticles disperse to both sides of the excitation site on a ion-string, thereby, transporting quantum correlations. Credit: IQOQI

Quasiparticles can be used to explain physical phenomena in solid bodies even though they are not actual physical particles. Physicists in Innsbruck have now realized quasiparticles in a quantum system and observed quantum mechanical entanglement propagation in a many-body system. The researchers have published their work in Nature.

Christian Roos' research team at the Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information at the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Innsbruck has established a new experimental platform for investigating phenomena: In a string of trapped ultracold ions they can precisely initialise, control and measure the states and properties of quasiparticle excitations in a many-body quantum system. "Quasiparticles are a well-established concept in physics to describe the of particles in a simplified way," says Christian Roos.

Entanglement propagation

For the experiment the physicists used a one-dimensional ion-string consisting of between seven and fifteen calcium ions trapped in a vacuum chamber. Laser beams then manipulate the quantum state of the ions. "Each particle behaves like a little quantum magnet interacting with each other," explains Petar Jurcevic, first author of this study. "The precise excitation of one of the particles also affects the other particles. The resulting collective behaviour of the system is called quasiparticles." These quasiparticles disperse to both sides of the excitation site on the ion-string, thereby, transporting quantum correlations. Excitation distribution has previously been observed in experiments with neutral atoms, where correlations between particles have also been shown. "In our experiments we have been able to determine that these correlations are ," says Roos. "By measuring multi-particle correlations we have been able to detect and quantify quantum entanglement." The physicists were, thus, the first to show entanglement propagation in a quantum system.

In contrast to previous experiments, the researchers in Innsbruck can tune the ion-ion interaction range in the system from effectively nearest-neighbour to infinite range. In each case, a new set of quasiparticles is created with unique dynamical properties.

New research with quasiparticles

"With this new scheme we can precisely manipulate the quasiparticles," says an excited Philipp Hauke, one of the authors of this study. "It has taken us decades to come up with ways to precisely control and manipulate quantum . With this platform we can now do the same with quasiparticles and investigate phenomena that we haven't been able to study experimentally." For example, it opens up new paths to study how quantum systems reach equilibrium, including the question of when thermalisation occurs, a process that so far has remained elusive. "Another big goal is to utilize quasiparticles for processing," says Hauke. In addition, this platform could also be used to study the role of transport processes in biological systems. At the moment Christian Roos' research team is working on the idea to investigate interaction processes between two quasiparticles.

Explore further: Experimentally testing nonlocality in many-body systems

More information: Quasiparticle engineering and entanglement propagation in a quantum many-body system, DOI: 10.1038/nature13461

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Experimentally testing nonlocality in many-body systems

Jun 20, 2014

In a recent study published in Science, researchers at ICFO construct multipartite Bell inequalities built from the easiest-to-measure quantities, the two-body correlators, which are capable of revealing ...

Long-range tunneling of quantum particles

Jun 12, 2014

The quantum tunnel effect manifests itself in a multitude of well-known phenomena. Experimental physicists in Innsbruck, Austria, have now directly observed quantum particles transmitting through a whole ...

Quantum computation: Fragile yet error-free

Jun 12, 2014

In a close collaborative effort, Spanish and Austrian physicists have experimentally encoded one quantum bit (qubit) in entangled states distributed over several particles and for the first time carried out ...

Detection of single photons via quantum entanglement

Jul 08, 2013

Almost 200 years ago, Bavarian physicist Joseph von Fraunhofer discovered dark lines in the sun's spectrum. It was later discovered that these spectral lines can be used to infer the chemical composition ...

Recommended for you

Physicists discuss quantum pigeonhole principle

Jul 26, 2014

The pigeonhole principle: "If you put three pigeons in two pigeonholes at least two of the pigeons end up in the same hole." So where's the argument? Physicists say there is an important argument. While the ...

Unleashing the power of quantum dot triplets

Jul 24, 2014

Quantum computers have yet to materialise. Yet, scientists are making progress in devising suitable means of making such computers faster. One such approach relies on quantum dots—a kind of artificial atom, ...

Exotic state of matter propels quantum computing theory

Jul 23, 2014

So far it exists mainly in theory, but if invented, the large-scale quantum computer would change computing forever. Rather than the classical data-encoding method using binary digits, a quantum computer would process information ...

Quantum leap in lasers brightens future for quantum computing

Jul 22, 2014

Dartmouth scientists and their colleagues have devised a breakthrough laser that uses a single artificial atom to generate and emit particles of light. The laser may play a crucial role in the development of quantum computers, ...

Boosting the force of empty space

Jul 22, 2014

Vacuum fluctuations may be among the most counter-intuitive phenomena of quantum physics. Theorists from the Weizmann Institute (Rehovot, Israel) and the Vienna University of Technology propose a way to amplify ...

User comments : 5

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

clay_ferguson
not rated yet Jul 09, 2014
I guess the obvious question here is can they create a "quasiwire" such that a quantum event at one end of a long wire can cause a FTL (faster than light) quantum state to appear on the other end that can actually be determined as spin up or spin down, etc. allowing signaling at FTL.
Whydening Gyre
5 / 5 (1) Jul 09, 2014
I dunno, Clay... The 'excitation" mechanism and subsequent measurement translation would still bring the whole process back to "light speed", wouldn't it?
George_Rajna
not rated yet Jul 10, 2014
The Secret of Quantum Entanglement: https://www.acade...nglement
clay_ferguson
not rated yet Jul 10, 2014
@Whydening, since entanglement effects are FTL, that means even a long chain reaction of entanglement events cascading to each other still takes zero time. This would equate to a "wave function collapse" of an entire set of entangled particles happening all at once.
George_Rajna
not rated yet Jul 14, 2014
Quantum_Cognition_and_Entanglement: https://www.acade...nglement