Fairy circles apparently not created by termites after all

May 20, 2014
This is an aerial view of the mysterious fairy circles of Namibia. The enigmatic, bare patches within the grassland occur in millions at the transition to the Namib Desert. This picture was taken in the Marienfluss Valley, close to one of the study areas for which the scientists have undertaken extensive aerial image analyses. The authors of the study have, for the first time ever, investigated the spatial patterns of the fairy circles in detail. Typical for these patterns are the regularly spaced distances in-between circles at small neighborhood scale while homogeneously spread distribution prevails at large scale level. The scientists conclude from these results to have found strong support for the theory of self-organization, with the remarkable circle patterns emerging as a result of plant competition for water. Credit: Stephan Getzin/UFZ

For several decades scientists have been trying to come up with an explanation for the formation of the enigmatic, vegetation-free circles frequently found in certain African grassland regions. Now researchers have tested different prevailing hypotheses as to their respective plausibility. For the first time they have carried out a detailed analysis of the spatial distribution of these fairy circles – and discovered a remarkably regular and spatially comprehensive homogenous distribution pattern. This may best be explained by way of reference to local resource-competition for water among plants and vegetation, the team now reports in the scientific journal Ecography.

It looks like a landscape covered with freckles. Arid grassland regions in certain parts of southwest Africa are covered with barren circular patches. Some of these measure only a few metres, others reach up to twenty (20) metres in diameter; and most of them display pronounced and lush peripheral growth of grass. These so-called virtually do extend an open invitation for speculation: What has led to the formation of these enigmatic structures?

"Although scientists have been trying to answer this question for decades their mystery remains as yet unresolved", states Dr. Stephan Getzin from the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) in Leipzig – because up to now no one has been able to actually observe, in situ, the genesis of a fairy circle.

There are however several theories, the most popular of which hypothesises that these mysterious patches are the work of termites. The insects allegedly nibble away at the grassroots, thus causing the dieback of vegetation. Other researchers consider hydrocarbons emanating from the depths of the earth being responsible for this phenomenon. Like in a chimney, these gases are presumed to be rising to the surface resulting in the localised loss and disappearance of vegetation.

This is a close-up view of a fairy circle. Total absence of vegetation growth within the almost circular area of a typical fairy circle. The sizes of fairy circles may vary, ranging from two to more than twenty meters in diameter. The average diameter recorded here, in the Marienfluss Valley, was approx. six meters. Credit: Stephan Getzin/UFZ

A third fraction of scientists believes self-regulating grass growth in itself being the cause, under certain circumstances, for this type of spatial patterning since it is remarkable that the occurrence of fairy circles appears to be restricted to particularly arid zones right at the transition from grassland to desert regions. This is where intense localised resource-competition for water exists among existing vegetation. If competition becomes too strong and available soil moisture resources too scarce this could lead to the emergence of bare patches with a lush peripheral grass ring formation.

Together with colleagues from Göttingen (Germany), Italy and Israel, Stephan Getzin has investigated which of these three hypotheses is most likely to be right. "We have adopted an entirely novel approach in this research", reports this member of the UFZ institute, who by now has been studying fairy circles for more than 15 years. This study is based on the review and evaluation of aerial images, covering representative regions with fairy circle occurrences throughout northwest Namibia. With the aid of these images scientists have analysed for the first time the exact spatial location and distribution of these barren patches within the surrounding landscape: Are they arranged and positioned merely by chance – just like coins dropped accidentally and now scattered all over the place? Are there signs or distinguishable patterns of clustering in certain locations? Or do these patches perhaps need to maintain a minimum distance to their respective neighbours?

This can hardly be seen and detected with the naked eye. But statistical methodology is available to illustrate the respective distribution patterns, at different levels of scale. According to this methodology fairy circles are distributed surprisingly regular and homogenous, even across large spatial areas. "The occurrence of such patterning in nature is rather unusual" says Stephan Getzin. "There must be particularly strong regulating forces at work".

However, in his view this rather discredits the generally popular termite theory. In a study published in the scientific journal Science (2013) the sand termite species Psammotermes allocerus was indeed presented as most likely suspect for the creation of the enigmatic barren patches – albeit primarily based on the argument, that the occurrence of this particular species of termites has been common to all fairy circles investigated at the time. No one has so far observed these creatures actually grazing holes into the Namibian grasslands – let alone in such consistent patterns. Stephan Getzin points out: "There is, up to now, not one single piece of evidence demonstrating that social insects are capable of creating homogenously distributed structures, on such a large scale". On the contrary: The entire range of studies covering the distribution of ant and termite populations in arid territories predominantly rather attests to the occurrence of irregular, clustered distribution patterns at large scales. And, according to the research team, underground emission of abiotic gases, as well, is unlikely to result in such evenly dispersed and homogeneous spatial distribution.

What remains as probable cause is local resource-competition among plants and vegetation – which incidentally seems quite capable of creating homogeneously scattered circles. Whereas, for example, in a young-growth forest plants will grow and develop at comparatively close range, vegetation will thin out and regress, over the years, in a self-organising process. Each mature tree, after all, needs sufficient space and nutrition for its development and will therefore be able to survive only at an appropriate distance to its neighbour. A similar process of resource-competition may consequently also be the real cause for a self-organising formation of the mysterious fairy circle patterns.

Using a computer model Stephan Getzin and his colleagues from Israel, who are specialised in this type of processing techniques, have simulated belowground competition for water and the resulting spatial vegetation distribution patterns – and very similar patterns indeed emerged on the screen, akin to the images recorded in Namibia. And in the course of all statistical review and analysis performed, the characteristics of simulated and real fairy circles turned out to be remarkably congruent and close to identical. For the UFZ researchers this represents compelling evidence, that the enigmatic patches may in fact be the result of spatially self-organising grass growth. "We consider this at present being the most convincing explanation".

Explore further: Kimberley wren distribution requires conservation tactic rethink

More information: Stephan Getzin, Kerstin Wiegand, Thorsten Wiegand, Hezi Yizhaq, Jost von Hardenberg, Ehud Meron (2014): Adopting a spatially explicit perspective to study the mysterious fairy circles of Namibia. Ecography. Early View, 20 MAY 2014. DOI: 10.1111/ecog.00911 . http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ecog.00911/abstract

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Recommended for you

Team defines new biodiversity metric

Aug 29, 2014

To understand how the repeated climatic shifts over the last 120,000 years may have influenced today's patterns of genetic diversity, a team of researchers led by City College of New York biologist Dr. Ana ...

Changes in farming and climate hurting British moths

Aug 29, 2014

Britain's moths are feeling the pinch – threatened on one side by climate change and on the other by habitat loss and harmful farming methods. A new study gives the most comprehensive picture yet of trends ...

User comments : 8

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

Whydening Gyre
3.7 / 5 (3) May 20, 2014
Have any radiative sources been investigated?
Returners
3 / 5 (2) May 20, 2014
What remains as probable cause is local resource-competition among plants and vegetation


Do the circles "migrate" or do they appear in a given location, "max out", and then disappear, only to re-appear in the same location?

If they migrate slightly then it would suggest more or less resource competition.

If they keep re-appearing in the same location, it might suggest something peculiar in the environment: a radioactive/poisonous trace metal from a meteor fallout for example, though I'm sure something quite that obvious has been tested already....

Perhaps not what is there, but what is not there. Maybe it's not water, but some other element or molecule of life, such as sulfur or phosphorous.

If it's a lack of resources, then why should the boundary be over-grown? you would expect the boundary to sort of thin and fizzle out in conditions of decreasing resources (water, phosphorous, etc).

Plants on the boundary may have less competition of sunlight though, aiding growth...
Returners
1 / 5 (2) May 20, 2014
Another possibility is TOO MUCH phosphorous or Sulphur.

If you are a hunter and you've ever dressed a big game, such as a deer, you know that when blood falls on grass, it can cause the grass to grow a much darker, more vivid green, presumably from the Iron, but I would only be guessing. However, if you spill a lot, like all of the mess from a deer, it can kill the grass instead of accelerating it's growth.

If you look at the circles, you see accelerated growth on the edges, and no growth on the inside, it POTENTIALLY suggests "something" helps the growth up to a certain extent, and then kills the plant after a certain level is obtained....much like over-fertilizing a crop...

Is there evidence of animal droppings or urine?!?
Whydening Gyre
not rated yet May 20, 2014

If you look at the circles, you see accelerated growth on the edges, and no growth on the inside, it POTENTIALLY suggests "something" helps the growth up to a certain extent, and then kills the plant after a certain level is obtained....much like over-fertilizing a crop...

Is there evidence of animal droppings or urine?!?

The article says the largest can be up to 20 metres. That's a LOT of pee. And I doubt it would come out in a perfect circle...
I might look at the nutrient saturation thought, tho. It's plausible from a cursory thought exam...:-)
It occurs a specific geo boundary locations. Have they taken temperature readings in the circles? Atmospheric lensing of some sort? Or a symptom of desert sand heat transfer? Questions abound...
Z99
not rated yet May 20, 2014
Lets not forget all them buggies below ground. I do like the idea of blaming it on "swamp gas", LOL! Hydrocarbon plumes? Of course! Why not? Its not like they could have any nutritive value to life! I will be surprized if it turns out to have only one explanation.
daqddyo
not rated yet May 21, 2014
In northern climes, similar phenomena are seen in the wilderness, on some people's lawns and on golf courses. They are caused by fungal colonies. They appear as rings of lighter pigmentation on the ground. These colonies do not kill everything in their midst but they do effectively compete for resources.
alfie_null
not rated yet May 25, 2014
Doesn't answer the question: what's unique about these regions in Africa? There are plenty of places in the rest of the world where plants compete for severely constrained resources. But no fairy circles.
Pejico
May 25, 2014
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
orti
not rated yet May 25, 2014
The fairies themselves do that. They like to dance on bare ground.