Water-rich gem points to vast 'oceans' beneath the Earth

Mar 12, 2014
Diamond sample JUc29, from Juina, Brazil, containing the hydrous ringwoodite inclusion reported by Pearson et al., Nature 2014. The rough diamond has been naturally sculptured to its unusual shape by corrosive mantle fluids during transport to the surface. The 40 micron inclusion is not visible at this scale. Credit: Richard Siemens, University of Alberta

A University of Alberta diamond scientist has found the first terrestrial sample of a water-rich gem that yields new evidence about the existence of large volumes of water deep beneath the Earth.

An international team of scientists led by Graham Pearson, Canada Excellence Research Chair in Arctic Resources at the U of A, has discovered the first-ever sample of a mineral called ringwoodite. Analysis of the mineral shows it contains a significant amount of water—1.5 per cent of its weight—a finding that confirms scientific theories about vast volumes of water trapped 410 to 660 kilometres beneath the Earth, between the upper and lower mantle.

"This sample really provides extremely strong confirmation that there are local wet spots deep in the Earth in this area," said Pearson, a professor in the Faculty of Science, whose findings were published March 13 in Nature. "That particular zone in the Earth, the transition zone, might have as much water as all the world's oceans put together."

Ringwoodite is a form of the mineral peridot, believed to exist in large quantities under high pressures in the transition zone. Ringwoodite has been found in meteorites but, until now, no terrestrial sample has ever been unearthed because scientists haven't been able to conduct fieldwork at extreme depths.

Pearson's sample was found in 2008 in the Juina area of Mato Grosso, Brazil, where artisan miners unearthed the host diamond from shallow river gravels. The diamond had been brought to the Earth's surface by a volcanic rock known as kimberlite—the most deeply derived of all volcanic rocks.

The first terrestrial discovery of ringwoodite by University of Alberta scientist Graham Pearson confirms the presence of massive amounts of water 400 to 700 km beneath the Earth's surface. Credit: University of Alberta

The discovery that almost wasn't

Pearson said the discovery was almost accidental in that his team had been looking for another mineral when they purchased a three-millimetre-wide, dirty-looking, commercially worthless brown diamond. The ringwoodite itself is invisible to the naked eye, buried beneath the surface, so it was fortunate that it was found by Pearson's graduate student, John McNeill, in 2009.

"It's so small, this inclusion, it's extremely difficult to find, never mind work on," Pearson said, "so it was a bit of a piece of luck, this discovery, as are many scientific discoveries."

Schematic partial cross section of the Earth showing the location of ringwoodite, which make up approximately 60% by volume of this part of the transition zone. The diamond containing the water-bearing ringwoodite inclusion found by Pearson et al. (Nature, 2014) originated from approximately 500 km beneath the Earth's surface, where a large mass of water may accumulate by the subduction and recycling of oceanic lithosphere, into the transition zone. Credit: Kathy Mather

The sample underwent years of analysis using Raman and infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction before it was officially confirmed as ringwoodite. The critical water measurements were performed at Pearson's Arctic Resources Geochemistry Laboratory at the U of A. The laboratory forms part of the world-renowned Canadian Centre for Isotopic Microanalysis, also home to the world's largest academic diamond research group.

The study is a great example of a modern international collaboration with some of the top leaders from various fields, including the Geoscience Institute at Goethe University, University of Padova, Durham University, University of Vienna, Trigon GeoServices and Ghent University.

For Pearson, one of the world's leading authorities in the study of deep Earth diamond host rocks, the discovery ranks among the most significant of his career, confirming about 50 years of theoretical and experimental work by geophysicists, seismologists and other scientists trying to understand the makeup of the Earth's interior.

Graham Pearson holds a diamond that contains the water-rich mineral "ringwoodite," a new discovery that yields new clues about the presence of large amounts of water deep beneath the Earth. Credit: Richard Siemens/University of Alberta

Scientists have been deeply divided about the composition of the and whether it is full of water or desert-dry. Knowing water exists beneath the crust has implications for the study of volcanism and plate tectonics, affecting how rock melts, cools and shifts below the crust.

"One of the reasons the Earth is such a dynamic planet is the presence of some in its interior," Pearson said. "Water changes everything about the way a planet works."

Explore further: Is there an ocean beneath our feet?

More information: Nature paper: dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13080

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Scroofinator
4.1 / 5 (14) Mar 12, 2014
It's always cool to me when some lucky discovery has such profound potential. Also good to see people work together to make it happen.

I particularly like the last sentence:
"Water changes everything about the way a planet works."
cabhanlistis
5 / 5 (6) Mar 12, 2014
I have to wonder then how deep life could be found.
bluehigh
3 / 5 (11) Mar 12, 2014
"so it was a bit of a piece of luck, this discovery, as are many scientific discoveries."


No, it can't be.

Only the application of Math and rigorous research with peer reviewed results that can be replicated based on falsifiable hypothesis, lead to scientific discovery.

Luck plays a part too? Who would have guessed!
Sinister1812
3.2 / 5 (6) Mar 12, 2014
This is interesting. Any chance we could send some kind of drilling probe to find out what's really down there? Actually, I don't know about that idea.
alfie_null
5 / 5 (3) Mar 13, 2014
It's an interesting balance, between how much water is on the surface, and how much might be in that transition zone. If all that water were instead on the surface, how much land would remain? Conversely, if that zone were capable of absorbing more water, how dessicated might that leave the surface? What influences how big that zone is? Might it change over geologic time?
antialias_physorg
5 / 5 (6) Mar 13, 2014
Any chance we could send some kind of drilling probe to find out what's really down there?

Probably not in the foreseeable future. The deepest hole we've drilled is just over 12km deep. Here we're talking 410-660km deep.

Unless we actually manage to create some sort of 'drill vehicle' (and not work using surface based energy systems to rotate something underground) we won't get there. Also consider that the hardest drill heads we have wear out over a distance of several hundred meters / several kilometers at the latest.
DeerSpotter
1 / 5 (10) Mar 13, 2014
So who finally is going to say that, Noah's story is now possible? "Was" possible scientifically?

jedsrose
1 / 5 (3) Mar 13, 2014
If it was purchased, how a meteorite origin was excluded?
philw1776
4.9 / 5 (7) Mar 13, 2014
Noah. DNA genomics totally rule out the story that today's animals & humans had just a couple parents "recently". There could have been a locally devastating MidEast flood thousands of years ago that prompted the tale.
Scroofinator
2.7 / 5 (9) Mar 13, 2014
DNA genomics totally rule out the story that today's animals & humans had just a couple parents "recently"


Recently being the key word there. The homo genus has been around for 2 million years, and we know there has been many "bottleneck" events throughout that time span.
http://en.wikiped...iki/Homo
We know that there are over 600 flood "myths" from cultures all over the world. Who knows, maybe its just a surviving account from a time in our distant past. Many of them are very similar, with Noah and Gilgamesh being the first two that come to mind.
http://www.talkor...ths.html
EnricM
5 / 5 (10) Mar 13, 2014
So who finally is going to say that, Noah's story is now possible? "Was" possible scientifically?


Nope.

it took a few hundreds/thousands of millions of years for that water to get down there via de subduction zones due to continental drift.

Weird idea anyway. I bet Bible Wigglers will be very happy... giving us a new opportunity to wack them in their thick heads with some basic-school math ;)

Scroofinator
1 / 5 (9) Mar 13, 2014
it took a few hundreds/thousands of millions of years for that water to get down there via de subduction zones due to continental drift.

This is the current hypothesis, but we don't know for sure yet if the water gets "sucked" down or if it was always there. If we had another ocean's worth of water on the surface, it would literally be Waterworld, sans Kevin Costner. I don't think there's any evidence to support that was ever the case.
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.3 / 5 (6) Mar 13, 2014
Probably not in the foreseeable future. The deepest hole we've drilled is just over 12km deep. Here we're talking 410-660km deep
Refs are preferable to ad libs.

"The Kola Superdeep Borehole... attempted to drill as deep as possible into the Earth's crust. Drilling began on 24 May 1970... reached 12,262 metres (40,230 ft) in 1989 and still is the deepest artificial point on Earth."

So who finally is going to say that, Noah's story is now possible? "Was" possible scientifically?
it took a few hundreds/thousands of millions of years for that water to get down there via de subduction zones due to continental drift
Yeah it would actually have been easier if god had transported all that water from off-planet in the form of ice and then sucked it all up again. Far less energy expenditure.
Scroofinator
1.5 / 5 (8) Mar 13, 2014
Well my main question is which force is greater? The pressure on the water from 400km of mantle sitting on it, or the earths gravitational pull?
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (3) Mar 13, 2014
Well my main question is which force is greater? The pressure on the water from 400km of mantle sitting on it, or the earths gravitational pull?


https://www.wolframalpha.com/

TheGhostofOtto1923
4.3 / 5 (6) Mar 13, 2014
We know that there are over 600 flood "myths" from cultures all over the world. Who knows, maybe its just a surviving account
The flood didnt happen. Science tells us this conclusively. Here is an interesting effort by a bible apologist who is bending over backwards to prove that his book says the 'flood' was really local after all.
http://www.godand...ood.html

-Why is gods book so malleable? Why is it so easy for believers to ignore parts of it which become unfashionable (slavery, stoning women and children, rapine)? Why is it so easy to simply retranslate it to change the meaning of entire books ('all is vanity' becomes 'all is meaningless')? Why has it been so easy to adulterate it in massive ways (the last 11 verses of Mark, the differing canons among the faiths, the petrine and pauline forgeries)?

And why in contrast is the WORLD that he created so fathomable? Why are the physical laws he wrote to govern this world so dependable?
Scroofinator
2 / 5 (9) Mar 13, 2014
Wow stump, always got an answer huh. Try putting in any combination of those questions into your "calculator" and see what happens. I did, and it puked all over.

@Otto
So now you're bringing in a pseudoscience site as a reference? Never thought I'd see the day. I simply stated that flood myths aren't confined to the Bible, they're on every continent (obviously not Antarctica) with many different cultures. Hard to pin that on any one religion, not to mention the Epic of Gilgamesh is older than the story of Noah. So let's leave religion out of this one, shall we?

Science tells us this conclusively.

If there was a global flood 2 million years ago, that lasted only a month or so, what does science tell us we should expect to see?

Why is gods book so malleable?

Because it is written by men, and all men are liars.
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (5) Mar 13, 2014
flood myths aren't confined to the Bible, they're on every continent (obviously not Antarctica) with many different cultures

given that
In early times, humans usually settled near to water and other natural resources.
[sic]

https://simple.wi...lization

then it seems logical that most would be exposed, at one time or another, for various reasons, to varying levels of flooding, from minor to extreme
so this means that your comment
We know that there are over 600 flood "myths" from cultures all over the world. Who knows, maybe its just a surviving account from a time in our distant past

has all the credibility of the creationist argument
IOW- zero (no global flood)

by the way: plug in the numbers you want (est. weight of 400km mantle VS est. force of gravitational pull) and you WILL get results
it is a "computational knowledge engine"

I'm not going to do all your work for you
you wanted to know something, I gave you the means to answer
Scroofinator
1 / 5 (4) Mar 13, 2014
In early times, humans usually settled near to water and other natural resources.

Uh, yea, not surprising. Are you suggesting that nearly every culture "dreamed up" a world ending flood story? Realize though it says "water" and not "coast". None of these flood stories are "minor to extreme", they're catastrophic, and the duration of said flood is well beyond any extreme flood known of(with the 1931 China floods being the worst recorded).

has all the credibility of the creationist argument

Your words and inference. I made no such claim. Just stated the facts, and made a guess.

it is a "computational knowledge engine"

I see what you mean now. Thanks BTW, it's a pretty cool tool.
marklade
Mar 13, 2014
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
bluehigh
1 / 5 (4) Mar 13, 2014
Accidental. Fortunate. Luck.

They acquire one brown diamond and after years of research discover it contains ringwoodite. From many possible samples they acquire just one that confirms a preconceived idea.

Would you not go back to the source and gather more samples for confirmation?
It beggars belief that this was the only sample in the area that contained ringwoodite.

How can this be accepted without replication by another team of researchers?

BS
dedereu
5 / 5 (3) Mar 13, 2014
This extraordinary diamond has conserved inside it under high pressure the ringwoodite as an internal inclusion. Diamond is extremely hard and allows to keep the very high pressure necessary for the ringwoodite.
For this reason, it is an extremely difficult proof, finding the diamond and then the study.
This water can have been pushed deep inside earth, by the biggest collision at the formation of the moon 4.4 billions years ago.
Sinister1812
5 / 5 (5) Mar 13, 2014
Any chance we could send some kind of drilling probe to find out what's really down there?

Probably not in the foreseeable future. The deepest hole we've drilled is just over 12km deep. Here we're talking 410-660km deep.

Unless we actually manage to create some sort of 'drill vehicle' (and not work using surface based energy systems to rotate something underground) we won't get there. Also consider that the hardest drill heads we have wear out over a distance of several hundred meters / several kilometers at the latest.


Very interesting. Thanks for the info. Antialias, I had no idea about the distance you mentioned, I probably should've Googled that. Answers my question nicely. And when you mention the strength of today's drills, I guess that sums up why it won't happen for a while.
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (4) Mar 14, 2014
Are you suggesting that nearly every culture "dreamed up" a world ending flood story?

@Scroof
IMHO–yes
Cultures tended to live near important resources, and water was important. it is not a far fetched leap to see that water is important, and would figure highly in many stories
cultures also tended to use myth/legends to teach their young. We know the badlands high ridge is not actually Unktehi the (Lakota) water monster, but the use of myth and legend was a strong teaching tool to cultures passing on knowledge as it created powerful imagery in the mind of the receiver that allowed the story to stick in their head
which would be more memorable: a 33' high water mark that destroyed a town or a story of a flood that destroyed the world (that they knew and understood - which is the key IMHO)
everywhere I have travelled (so far) has a flood story of their own
Thanks BTW, it's a pretty cool tool

you're welcome. It is pretty cool
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (3) Mar 14, 2014
they're catastrophic, and the duration of said flood is well beyond any extreme flood known of(with the 1931 China floods being the worst recorded)

@Scroof
oh, yeah... forgot to add something
time is subjective to the observer, and can be stretched to what seems interminably long lengths given catastrophic circumstances
the dumping of adrenaline alters your perceptions and can make short periods seem much longer or vice-versa in an effect called Tachypsychia (see: https://en.wikipe...ypsychia )
so if cultures are exposed to catastrophic circumstances that would, over time, be viewed as short duration flooding, the actual participant may produce a story that gives a different slant due to the effects of Tachypsychia which would alter the story.
This is pretty much my way of saying eye-witness testimony sucks and cannot be taken literally (which is how most cultural stories/legends etc evolved, from initial testimony to embellished final product)
TheGhostofOtto1923
3.8 / 5 (5) Mar 14, 2014
So now you're bringing in a pseudoscience site as a reference? Never thought I'd see the day. I simply stated that flood myths aren't confined to the Bible
All sites using holy books as sources for science, are pseudoscience sites.
Bible, they're on every continent (obviously not Antarctica) with many different cultures
Floods are a common occurrence. But science tells us that there never was a global deluge which covered Everest, and came and went in under a year.
there was a global flood 2 million years ago, that lasted only a month or so, what does science tell us we should expect to see?
Or, let's assume that the world was covered in cotton candy for a month or 2. What would science have to say about that? It would want to see the evidence.

A flood 2M years ago could not be a source of legend.
should've Googled that
aa should have googled that, or if he did, provided an excerpt which could be googled to the source. This is the most helpful way to share info.
TheGhostofOtto1923
2.3 / 5 (3) Mar 14, 2014
Are you suggesting that nearly every culture "dreamed up" a world ending flood story? Realize though it says "water" and not "coast". None of these flood stories are "minor to extreme", they're catastrophic
Did you not visit that link of mine scroof? God made a covenant and so the flood HAD to be local.

But then he made a covenant with Moses never to destroy the world again, but in revelations he says it's inevitable. So gods word is obviously shit.

The books say what we want them to say. This is similar to the way someone through the ages changed 'sea of reeds' to 'red sea', to make god seem more powerful I guess. Endless redaction.
Scroofinator
1 / 5 (3) Mar 14, 2014
IMHO–yes

To each their own. I don't discount the fact that it could be coincidence, I just have a hard time believing it is.

@Otto
But science tells us that there never was a global deluge which covered Everest

Obviously, there isn't enough water in the world to reach that high, even with the new theorized oceans below us. This is where "literal interpretation" fails you, sometimes a bit of logic is in order. The flood would only need to be a few hundred meters globally to devastate the world. There would still be people and animals that would have made it to the high grounds to ride out the storm. It would just have been another bottleneck event for life on earth, but as we know, life is pretty resilient.

I did look at the link, but like I said, I'm keeping religion out of this discussion. It is unnecessary to the discussion since we have many other accounts from elsewhere.
Scroofinator
1 / 5 (3) Mar 14, 2014
@Capn
I forgot to add something. I agree that early man typically lived near water, but that doesn't mean they are in a flood zone. Take for instance the Ojibwe tribe, who lived in the Great Lakes region, which typically is pretty immune to intense flooding. Their culture and myths are very interesting.
http://www.tc.umn...bwa.html
Gawad
5 / 5 (4) Mar 14, 2014
@Capn
I forgot to add something. I agree that early man typically lived near water, but that doesn't mean they are in a flood zone. Take for instance the Ojibwe tribe, who lived in the Great Lakes region, which typically is pretty immune to intense flooding. Their culture and myths are very interesting.
http://www.tc.umn...bwa.html

That may be so now and in the recent past, but go back a few thousand years to the period of Lake Algonquin and catastrophic "local" flooding becomes almost inevitable as glacial lakes that have been forming for hundreds of years burst from the ice sheet and climate rapidly warms. "Local" here would still be still large scale enough that the "locals" of the time would get the impression that the world was ending, in all likelihood. The rise in sea levels at the time would also have led to other such events across various regions of the world, such as the (probable) Bosphorus flood for example.
katesisco
1 / 5 (2) Mar 14, 2014
I was wondering if magnetricity is going to be discovered to be connected to water and pressure.
There is the puzzle of the Bahama bank, 2 miles of limestone (remember animals died to create this limestone 2 miles deep) so the surface was above the water constantly sinking but slow enough to allow coral deposition. Now where did the 2 miles of water come from? Not from melting ice, ( I have seen nothing claiming the ice age melt produced 2 miles of water) so did the water come from the interior of the Earth? That's lottsa H2O.
My theory is that the water came from the collapse of the water veil existing above the Earth and off the surface. Consider Venus whose scorched surface carries no water but 30 miles above are cloud decks with water, livable Earth-like conditions.
Scroofinator
1 / 5 (1) Mar 14, 2014
but go back a few thousand years to the period of Lake Algonquin

You've gone back to far, the Ojibwe didn't inhabit the area until well after the ice age.
Gawad
5 / 5 (4) Mar 14, 2014
but go back a few thousand years to the period of Lake Algonquin

You've gone back to far, the Ojibwe didn't inhabit the area until well after the ice age.

Too far for the Ojibwe, of course, and I certainly didn't mean to imply that the Ojibwa are 10 000 yrs old. But somebody did inhabit the area at the time and others the various melt areas of the end of the ice age 11000 to 6000 years ago. (See for example http://www.gedc.c...oper.pdf and the more general http://www.thecan...istory/)

I just though that this area you pointed out made one very good and very interesting example. The point being that there's nonetheless more evidence for common "global" flood myths originating from catastrophic but "normal" flooding than from oceans bursting forth from the mantle.
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (2) Mar 14, 2014
I agree that early man typically lived near water, but that doesn't mean they are in a flood zone

@Scroof
that is why I added Sioux
The Teton are the Western branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic group (http://www.infopl...oux.html ), but the migrated over time into the plains FROM somewhere else. Even with the predominantly hunter/gather group, it is known to have a flood myth as well as water creatures in their lore that can figure prominently
The Ojibwe were not always stationary in the Great Lakes region, although it might figure more prominently in current lore, much like current Lakota legend centers around more recent living conditions
shared stories grow and spread. 2 examples of modern innovation that spread quickly with the indigenous US tribes are: Horses and Pipestone (within the last 500 yrs [Plains Indians – Thomas E. Mails] )

a thought: they may be remembering the Ice age& thinking:how'd it get there & frozen?
a myth is then born
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (2) Mar 14, 2014
Ojibwe didn't inhabit the area until well after the ice age.

@scroof
complete speculation, mind you, but here is something to think about:
how would a primitive human explain a wall of ice over the world (during the ice age)?
Would they speculate that it was flooded and then iced?
They would likely know that water and ice are related, as well as the cold freezes it, and extrapolate it from there that it must have been flooded before it iced...
just a thought, and there is no way to prove it either way...
but it sounds like a logical way to spread a flood myth
Rachel
4 / 5 (1) Mar 15, 2014
Love that his grad student, John McNeill, actually discovered it.
TheGhostofOtto1923
4 / 5 (4) Mar 15, 2014
The flood would only need to be a few hundred meters globally to devastate the world... 600 flood "myths" from cultures all over the world. Who knows, maybe its just a surviving account from a time in our distant past.
WHAT are you babbling about? The flood myth IS religious, and you are the one who keeps bringing it up.

And your notion about a worldwide event that somehow rose the sea level (I assume that's what you meant?) by a few hundred meters within the span of a year and then magically made it disappear, is just as absurd.
Obviously, there isn't enough water in the world to reach that high
Nor is there enough accessible water in the world to raise the oceans by a few hundred meters, and no where to go afterward if there was. Equally impossible, equally absurd.
Torbjorn_Larsson_OM
5 / 5 (5) Mar 15, 2014
The blue synthetic ringwoodite is now the 2nd most beautiful stone on Earth! (After the 4.4 Ga old zircon who conclusively showed an early cool Earth.)
Torbjorn_Larsson_OM
5 / 5 (3) Mar 15, 2014
@dedereu: "This water can have been pushed deep inside earth, by the biggest collision at the formation of the moon 4.4 billions years ago."

Depends on what you mean.

- The water is now recirculated (pulled) by plate tectonics, nut pushed there. Incidentally its drive force is gravitational potential from Earth not yet perfectly gravitationally sorted, a residue from the planetoid collisions.

- The cool early Earth water (see above) must have been supplied by the planetoids. I read that people that have preliminary looked at this new pathway for the first time can already see that volatiles (atmosphere and water) survive the collisions to resettle later, on sufficiently large planetoids. E.g. the Earth-Moon kept the water (still present in the Moon mantle) in the initial gravity well with the Moon deep inside, but the Moon was too small to later retain its non-bounded volatiles.
Torbjorn_Larsson_OM
5 / 5 (3) Mar 15, 2014
@cabhanlistis: "how deep life could be found."

Apparently not as deep as the temperature the extremophiles can procreate in (~ 120 degC at many atmospheres pressure, i.e. still non-boiling water). The limit is now believed to be set by the available chemotroph energy available, the found life drops off faster than initially predicted.

So far they have found life down to ~ 1 km in rocks (vs ~ 10 km in ocean).

@Sinister: "Any chance we could send some kind of drilling probe to find out what's really down there?"

A probe perhaps. There is the old "hot iron melt" idea, a couple of hundred (thousands?) tons of liquid iron would melt its way to the core, and take any probe with. The problem is obvious...
Whydening Gyre
4 / 5 (4) Mar 15, 2014
600 flood myths from around the world...
probably from 600 different time periods, 600 different peoples, in 600 different locations...
TheGhostofOtto1923
3.7 / 5 (3) Mar 15, 2014
600 flood myths from around the world...
probably from 600 different time periods, 600 different peoples, in 600 different locations...
And how many floods have happened in the last 12 months? 600? If someone told you that prayer would prevent the next one would you want to try it out?

The flood scam meme. A pretty obvious one eh? Related to the live-forever in paradise meme. Who knows when clever old men thought them up in order to get a free meal of savory burnt offering barbecue?
Whydening Gyre
5 / 5 (3) Mar 15, 2014
The flood scam meme. A pretty obvious one eh? Related to the live-forever in paradise meme. Who knows when clever old men thought them up in order to get a free meal of savory burnt offering barbecue?

Forget food... I want the virgins....
Sinister1812
5 / 5 (3) Mar 15, 2014
@Sinister: "Any chance we could send some kind of drilling probe to find out what's really down there?"

A probe perhaps. There is the old "hot iron melt" idea, a couple of hundred (thousands?) tons of liquid iron would melt its way to the core, and take any probe with. The problem is obvious...


Thanks Torbjorn. You're right, the iron would probably melt after a distance, and machine parts would start shutting down. I doubt it would even get anywhere near close, actually. The pressures would be high too.
TheGhostofOtto1923
3 / 5 (4) Mar 16, 2014
The flood scam meme. A pretty obvious one eh? Related to the live-forever in paradise meme. Who knows when clever old men thought them up in order to get a free meal of savory burnt offering barbecue?

Forget food... I want the virgins....
Old men only want virgins for sacrificing. Because they know that this is a very good way of curbing pop growth, if they are enthusiastic enough about the practice.

What, this leaves a surplus of frustrated young men you say? Well, if you are friends with the old men in the next tribe, you can send your young men against theirs in Creative and Constructive Ways.

And so we might begin to understand how the world was saved from those tropical animals who could not help but destroy it.

"For god so loved the WORLD..." that he would promise the people upon it just about anything, up to and including eternal life in a paradise full of compliant young virgins, in order to save IT from THEM.

Tropical hotheads are so gullible thank god.
TheGhostofOtto1923
3 / 5 (4) Mar 16, 2014
Thanks Torbjorn. You're right, the iron would probably melt after a distance, and machine parts would start shutting down. I doubt it would even get anywhere near close, actually. The pressures would be high too.
You might be able to accomplish the same thing with a lot smaller lump of fissile material. Or a lump of hot neutronium which can be smaller still.
marklade
Mar 16, 2014
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
taka
1 / 5 (4) Mar 17, 2014
That give credit to old expanding earth hypotheses. Initially all this water was on the surface and earth was water world, solid crust covered by single continent. But then water found way inside and solid crust expands significantly, continents were ripped apart and continental drift started. The water level on surface is balanced, when water pressure increases more go down and when it decreases more come to surface (slow process of course).
Whydening Gyre
not rated yet Mar 17, 2014
Old men only want virgins for sacrificing.
What?!?! I have a lot more fun imaginings than that...

What, this leaves a surplus of frustrated young men you say?

What if the old man is gay?

"For god so loved the WORLD..." that he would promise the people upon it just about anything, up to and including eternal life in a paradise full of compliant young virgins, in order to save IT from THEM.

What if I shared with you the thought that GOD is just an acronym - Globally Ordinated Data?
And we are just packets?

Sinister1812
not rated yet Mar 19, 2014
Thanks Torbjorn. You're right, the iron would probably melt after a distance, and machine parts would start shutting down. I doubt it would even get anywhere near close, actually. The pressures would be high too.
You might be able to accomplish the same thing with a lot smaller lump of fissile material. Or a lump of hot neutronium which can be smaller still.


That's not a bad idea, Otto. They need stronger material. I wonder if they would look into that. That would be worth a try, I would think..