Plant growth enhanced through promotion of pore opening

Mar 27, 2014 by Ayako Miyazaki
Plant growth enhanced through promotion of pore opening
Light induces stomatal opening. Abscisic acid (a phytohormone synthesis respond to drought stress), high carbon dioxide, dark may induce stomatal closure. Stomata pore is the essential pathway of carbon dioxide uptake for photosynthesis. Credit: ITbM, Nagoya University

By determining the key factor in regulating photosynthesis and plant growth, Professor Toshinori Kinoshita, Dr. Yin Wang and co-workers at Nagoya University's Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules (WPI-ITbM) have succeeded in developing a method to increase photosynthesis (carbon dioxide uptake) and plant growth through the promotion of stomatal opening. The study, published on the online Early Edition in the week of December 23, 2013 of Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS), is expected to contribute to the promotion of plant production and towards the development of a sustainable low-carbon society.

Stomata are small pores located on the surface of leaves that control gas exchange with the external environment, and are the primary inlet for the uptake of carbon dioxide (Figure 1). "Stomatal resistance, which suppresses gas exchange through the stomata, is considered to be the major limiting factor for carbon dioxide uptake by plants during photosynthesis," explains Professor Kinoshita, "very few reports have existed focusing on the induction of stomatal opening. Therefore, we decided to develop a method to manipulate stomatal opening in view of increasing photosynthesis (carbon dioxide uptake) and ."

Kinoshita's group has already revealed some of the key factors that mediate stomatal opening (Figure 2). The plasma membrane proton (H+)-ATPase or proton pump, an enzyme creating electrochemical gradients in the cell membranes of plants, has been identified as one of the key components. "An increase in photosynthesis (carbon dioxide uptake) by approximately 15% and a 1.4~1.6 times increase in of Arabidopsis plants was observed by enhanced stomatal opening achieved through overexpression of the proton pump in guard cells that surround the stomata pore," elaborates Professor Kinoshita (Figure 3).

Professor Kinoshita and his co-workers envisage that application of this method will contribute to the increase in the production of crops and fuel plants as well as towards the reduction of in the atmosphere. Professor Kinoshita states, "Identifying that the manipulation of stomatal opening is the key limiting factor in and plant growth enables us to consider strategies to solve current issues in food production and carbon emissions."

Explore further: Plant hormone strigolactone plays key role in response to drought stress

More information: Yin Wang, Ko Noguchi, Natsuko Ono, Shin-ichiro Inoue, Ichiro Terashima, and Toshinori Kinoshita. "Overexpression of plasma membrane H+-ATPase in guard cells promotes light-induced stomatal opening and enhances plant growth." PNAS 2013 ; published ahead of print December 23, 2013, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1305438111

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Steroids control gas exchange in plants

Feb 05, 2012

Plants leaves are sealed with a gas-tight wax layer to prevent water loss. Plants breathe through microscopic pores called stomata (Greek for mouths) on the surfaces of leaves. Over 40% of the carbon dioxide, CO2, in the ...

Adjustable valves gave ancient plants the edge

Jun 09, 2011

Controlling water loss is an important ability for modern land plants as it helps them thrive in changing environments. New research from the University of Bristol, published today in the journal Current Biology, shows ...

Team models photosynthesis and finds room for improvement

Mar 04, 2014

(Phys.org) —Teaching crop plants to concentrate carbon dioxide in their leaves could increase photosynthetic efficiency by 60 percent and yields by as much as 40 percent, researchers report in a new study.

On guard against drought

Oct 28, 2011

Identification of a gene that helps plants to conserve water under drought conditions will bring biologists closer to understanding how plants tolerate drought. Researchers, led by Takashi Kuromori at Japan's ...

Recommended for you

Parasitic worm genomes: largest-ever dataset released

3 hours ago

The largest collection of helminth genomic data ever assembled has been published in the new, open-access WormBase-ParaSite. Developed jointly by EMBL-EBI and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, this new ...

Bitter food but good medicine from cucumber genetics

23 hours ago

High-tech genomics and traditional Chinese medicine come together as researchers identify the genes responsible for the intense bitter taste of wild cucumbers. Taming this bitterness made cucumber, pumpkin ...

New button mushroom varieties need better protection

Nov 27, 2014

A working group has recently been formed to work on a better protection of button mushroom varieties. It's activities are firstly directed to generate consensus among the spawn/breeding companies to consider ...

Cataloguing 10 million human gut microbial genes

Nov 25, 2014

Over the past several years, research on bacteria in the digestive tract (gut microbiome) has confirmed the major role they play in our health. An international consortium, in which INRA participates, has developed the most ...

User comments : 0

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.