Cane toads demonstrating impressive adaptive abilities in Western Australia

Feb 26, 2014 by Bob Yirka report
Cane toads demonstrating impressive adaptive abilities in Western Australia

Cane toads have over the past 85 years become a problem in Australia. Originally native to South America, some of the toads were captured and turned loose in the 1930's in Australian sugar cane fields with the hope of helping to reduce cane beetles. Since that time, they have reproduced to the point of becoming a nuisance (and in some cases endangering the survival of other species) and have spread to other parts of the country, most recently, into the west. As the problem has grown, scientists have looked to curb toad populations and in so doing have recently learned of some of the impressive ways the toads have adapted for survival in their adopted homeland.

One study, for example, carried out by researchers from several universities in Australia, has found that the have developed a diurnal pattern of rehydration to prevent dehydration during high temperature days. They've published their findings in the journal Biology Letters.

In their study, the researchers wondered how it was possible that the toads were surviving in parts of Australia that should be too hot for them. Toads keep cool by expiring water (which they normally replenish at nigh), but the excessive temperatures in western parts of Australia would dehydrate and kill the toads, or so it would seem, before they could rehydrate.

To find out what was going on, the researchers attached acoustic tags to several specimens and installed an underwater listening station in a section of lake formed by a dam that the toads were known to use as a watering place. Analysis of the data showed that the toads had changed their normal hydration patterns—they were climbing out of their shelters and drinking twice a day—once at night and once in broad daylight—instead of the normal once a night. This, the researchers note is a rare example of extreme plasticity in a behavioral trait of an animal—one that allows them to survive in an extremely hostile environment.

On another front, amateur researchers who have formed a group (Kimberley Toad Busters) with the aim of curbing the spread of the toads have found that the amphibians widen their territory by taking advantage of floods. Several examples of toads riding flood debris downstream have been observed (and photographed) offering an explanation of how the toads are able to make their way into areas that have been protected by screening devices—yet another example of the toads' impressive survival skills.

Explore further: A new toad from the 'warm valleys' of Peruvian Andes

More information: Biol. Lett. February 2014 vol. 10 no. 2 20131014 DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2013.1014

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Sinister1812
5 / 5 (3) Feb 26, 2014
They are adaptable. That's why we don't want these poisonous animals in WA, they'll begin wiping out the wildlife here next.
bluehigh
4 / 5 (4) Feb 27, 2014
Not only a destructive invasive pest but they had no effect on the original problem.

The decision to introduce cane toads to Australia was based on inadequate data and invalid experimental results, likely just to stoke the egos and line the pockets of the scientists involved.

1935:
This great toad, immune from enemies, omnivorous in its habits, and breeding all the year round, may become as great a pest as the rabbit or cactus.

Against a minority of scientists who urged caution and outlined the serious risks involved, the consensus was that the science was settled. Cane toads would solve the problem and be easily managed.

An historical example perhaps to be cautious in rushed application of solutions based on insufficient data and lack of broad consultation.

Sinister1812
5 / 5 (2) Feb 27, 2014
That's right, it had no effect on the cane beetles. In fact, they eat everything else.

1935:
This great toad, immune from enemies, omnivorous in its habits, and breeding all the year round, may become as great a pest as the rabbit or cactus.


Imo, the cane toad is worse than the rabbit or the prickly pear cactus.
antialias_physorg
5 / 5 (2) Feb 27, 2014
We might learn from this: Humans suck bad at large scale geo- (or in this case bio-) engineering. We shouldn't try these stunts where we don't have a plan B (and a plan C!)
Sinister1812
4 / 5 (1) Feb 27, 2014
Well, some have been successful, like the moths to control prickly pear, maybe we just haven't got the hang of it yet. lol
alfie_null
not rated yet Feb 27, 2014
We might learn from this: Humans suck bad at large scale geo- (or in this case bio-) engineering. We shouldn't try these stunts where we don't have a plan B (and a plan C!)

Unfortunately, "we" don't act in a united manner. All it takes is one idiot, absolutely certain that his idea is right. Or that it will solve his micro-problem and the heck with everything else.
jahbless
not rated yet Mar 02, 2014
Cull the stinking humans. Let the toads rule in perpetuity.