Study finds democracy a matter of location

Dec 05, 2013
Study finds democracy a matter of location

New research suggests understanding the uneven distribution of democracy in Asia may depend more on geography than political theory.

Professor Benjamin Reilly, Dean of the Sir Walter Murdoch Graduate School of Public Policy and International Affairs, said traditional theories of democratic development have proven lacking for the Asian region.

"The vast political and economic advances in Southeast Asia in recent years should be a showcase displaying the positive link between development and ," Professor Reilly said.

"Yet the long-standing belief that democracy is more likely to occur in well-off countries compared to poor ones has been turned on its head.

"Democracy is weak or absent in some of the region's richest states, such as Brunei, Singapore and Malaysia, but present in poorer ones, such as Indonesia, the Philippines and Timor-Leste.

"Political scientists have been at a loss to explain this tendency using traditional analyses, such as the role of domestic elites, state structures or money."

Surprisingly, Professor Reilly came up with an intriguing explanation by simply stepping back from the map.

He found that the distribution of civil liberties and political rights across Southeast Asia followed a striking spatial pattern: states become more democratic the further they are geographically located from mainland China.

To explain this, Professor Reilly considered the region's history prior to European colonisation, during which China permitted trade relations with its neighbours to the south in exchange for a 'tributary' system.

"Near countries on China's border, such as Vietnam, were required to send tribute every three years. More distant countries were required to send tribute only infrequently," Professor Reilly said.

"The tribute itself, usually consisting of local luxury goods, was less important than the symbolism of ritual submission to the Chinese empire. China very much had interest in asserting influence in its backyard."

Professor Reilly said this active-passive engagement could be seen again under Mao, with buffer states such as Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam enjoying Chinese support, and is present in Beijing's continued preference for familiar nondemocratic regimes, particularly if they share China's quasi-communist model of governance.

He noted that his geographical-historical theory is supported by the fact that all maritime states in Southeast Asia, aside from Brunei, are democratic, and that countries such as Indonesia and The Philippines have had no historical kingdom-to-empire legacy with China.

'Southeast Asia: In the Shadow of China' has been published in the Journal of Democracy.

Explore further: Democracy trumps cash as key to Nobel success

More information: Read the paper: www.journalofdemocracy.org/art… st-asia-shadow-china

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Asian gecko threatened by medicine trade

Apr 11, 2013

Activists warned Thursday that wild populations of Southeast Asia's striking Tokay Gecko were in danger of being over-hunted for use in traditional medicine in China and other countries.

More than 800 arrested in fraud blitz: Taiwan

Sep 28, 2011

Taiwan police said Wednesday that a record 827 suspected fraudsters, including nearly 500 Chinese and over 300 Taiwanese nationals, have been arrested in an international crackdown on the crime.

Contented citizens vote against change

Mar 23, 2011

US citizens who have a high quality of life are more engaged in the direct democracy process, according to Ryan Yonk from Utah State University and Professor Shauna Reilly from Northern Kentucky University in the US. Their ...

Democracy trumps cash as key to Nobel success

Oct 07, 2013

For a scientist to win a Nobel Prize, many things have to come together—ample funding, a supportive environment, even luck. But one rarely recognised factor may be more important than any other: democracy.

Recommended for you

Understanding the economics of human trafficking

21 hours ago

Although Europe is one of the strictest regions in the world when it comes to guaranteeing the respect of human rights, the number of people trafficked to or within the EU still amounts to several hundred ...

Affirmative action elicits bias in pro-equality Caucasians

Jul 25, 2014

New research from Simon Fraser University's Beedie School of Business indicates that bias towards the effects of affirmative action exists in not only people opposed to it, but also in those who strongly endorse equality.

Election surprises tend to erode trust in government

Jul 24, 2014

When asked who is going to win an election, people tend to predict their own candidate will come out on top. When that doesn't happen, according to a new study from the University of Georgia, these "surprised losers" often ...

User comments : 0